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Managing Quality
 

Managing Quality

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Tools of Total Quality Management

Tools of Total Quality Management

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    Managing Quality Managing Quality Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 6: Managing Quality ÖZGE ÇELİK 8th April 2011
    • Learning Objectives
      • Explain quality robust products and Taguchi concepts
      • Use the seven tools of TQM
      • 1. Check Sheets
      • 2. Scatter Diagrams
      • 3. Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
      • 4. Pareto Charts
      • 5. Flowcharts
      • 6. Histograms
      • 7. Statistical Process Control Charts
    • Taguchi Concepts
      • Engineering and experimental design methods to improve product and process design
        • - Identify key component and process variables affecting product variation
      • Taguchi Concepts
        • - Quality robustness
        • - Quality loss function
        • - Target-oriented quality
    • Quality Robustness
      • Ability to produce products uniformly in adverse manufacturing and environmental conditions
        • - Remove the effects of adverse conditions
        • - Small variations in materials and process do not destroy product quality
    • Quality Loss Function
      • Shows that costs increase as the product moves away from what the customer wants
      • Costs include customer
      • dissatisfaction, warranty and service, internal scrap and repair, and costs to society
      • Traditional conformance specifications are too simplistic
      Target-oriented quality
    • Quality Loss Function Unacceptable Poor Good Best Fair High loss Loss (to producing organization, customer, and society) Low loss Frequency Lower Target Upper Specification Target-oriented quality yields more product in the “best” category Target-oriented quality brings product toward the target value Conformance-oriented quality keeps products within 3 standard deviations L = D 2 C where L = loss to society D = distance from target value C = cost of deviation
    • Tools of TQM
      • Tools for Generating Ideas
        • Check sheets
        • Scatter diagrams
        • Cause-and-effect diagrams
      • Tools to Organize the Data
        • Pareto charts
        • Flowcharts
      • Tools for Identifying Problems
        • Histogram
        • Statistical process control chart
    • Seven Tools of TQM / / / / /// / // /// // //// /// // / Hour Defect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A B C / / // / 1. Check Sheet: An organized method of recording data
    • Seven Tools of TQM 2. Scatter Diagram: A graph of the value of one variable vs. another variable Absenteeism Productivity
    • Seven Tools of TQM 3. Cause-and-Effect Diagram: A tool that identifies process elements (causes) that might effect an outcome Cause Materials Methods Manpower Machinery Effect
    • Cause-and-Effect Diagrams Material (ball) Method (shooting process) Machine (hoop & backboard) Manpower (shooter) Missed free-throws Rim alignment Rim size Backboard stability Rim height Follow-through Hand position Aiming point Bend knees Balance Size of ball Lopsidedness Grain/Feel (grip) Air pressure Training Conditioning Motivation Concentration Consistency
    • Seven Tools of TQM 4. Pareto Chart: A graph to identify and plot problems or defects in descending order of frequency Frequency Percent A B C D E
    • Pareto Charts Number of occurrences Room svc Check-in Pool hours Minibar Misc. 72% 16% 5% 4% 3% 12 4 3 2 54 – 100 – 93 – 88 – 72 70 – 60 – 50 – 40 – 30 – 20 – 10 – 0 – Frequency (number) Causes and percent of the total Cumulative percent Data for October
    • Seven Tools of TQM 5. Flowchart (Process Diagram): A chart that describes the steps in a process
    • Flow Charts MRI Flowchart
      • Physician schedules MRI
      • Patient taken to MRI
      • Patient signs in
      • Patient is prepped
      • Technician carries out MRI
      • Technician inspects film
      • If unsatisfactory, repeat
      • Patient taken back to room
      • MRI read by radiologist
      • MRI report transferred to physician
      • Patient and physician discuss
      11 10 20% 9 8 80% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    • Seven Tools of TQM 6. Histogram: A distribution showing the frequency of occurrences of a variable Distribution Repair time (minutes) Frequency
    • Seven Tools of TQM 7. Statistical Process Control Chart: A chart with time on the horizontal axis to plot values of a statistic Upper control limit Target value Lower control limit Time
    • Statistical Process Control (SPC)
      • Uses statistics and control charts to tell when to take corrective action
      • Drives process improvement
      • Four key steps
        • - Measure the process
        • - When a change is indicated, find the assignable cause
        • - Eliminate or incorporate the cause
        • - Restart the revised process
    • An SPC Chart Upper control limit Coach’s target value Lower control limit Game number | | | | | | | | | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20% 10% 0% Plots the percent of free throws missed
    • Inspection
      • Involves examining items to see if an item is good or defective
      • Detect a defective product
        • Does not correct deficiencies in process or product
        • It is expensive
      • Issues
        • When to inspect
        • Where in process to inspect
    • When and Where to Inspect
      • At the supplier’s plant while the supplier is producing
      • At your facility upon receipt of goods from the supplier
      • Before costly or irreversible processes
      • During the step-by-step production process
      • When production or service is complete
      • Before delivery to your customer
      • At the point of customer contact
    • Inspection
      • Many problems
        • Worker fatigue
        • Measurement error
        • Process variability
      • Cannot inspect quality into a product
      • Robust design, empowered employees, and sound processes are better solutions
    • Source Inspection
      • Also known as source control
      • The next step in the process is your customer
      • Ensure perfect product to your customer
      Poka-yoke is the concept of foolproof devices or techniques designed to pass only acceptable product
    • Service Industry Inspection Attractive, well-organized, stocked, good lighting Rotation of goods, organized, clean Neat, courteous, very knowledgeable Display areas Stockrooms Salesclerks Nordstrom Department Store Standard What is Inspected Organization
    • Attributes Versus Variables
      • Attributes
        • Items are either good or bad, acceptable or unacceptable
        • Does not address degree of failure
      • Variables
        • Measures dimensions such as weight, speed, height, or strength
        • Falls within an acceptable range
      • Use different statistical techniques
    • TQM In Services
      • Service quality is more difficult to measure than the quality of goods
      • Service quality perceptions depend on
        • Intangible differences between products
        • Intangible expectations customers have of those products
    • Service Quality The o perations m anager must recognize:
      • The tangible component of services is important
      • The service process is important
      • The service is judged against the customer’s expectations
      • Exceptions will occur
    • Determinants of Service Quality
      • Reliability
      • Responsiveness
      • Competence
      • Access
      • Courtesy
      • Communication
      • Credibility
      • Security
      • Understanding/ knowing the customer
      • Tangibles
    • Service Recovery Strategy
      • Managers should have a plan for when services fail
      • Marriott’s LEARN routine
        • L isten
        • E mpathize
        • A pologize
        • R eact
        • N otify
    • Managerial Implications
      • We will have plan for when services fail.
      • We will recognize that the service is judged against the customer’s expentations.