Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Graduation Thesis TU Delft
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Graduation Thesis TU Delft

2,712
views

Published on


0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,712
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
129
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. C A P E T O W N - S O U T H A F R I C AREINFORCING THE EASTERN EDGE OF THE CITY CREATING A NEW POWERFUL CENTRALITY
  • 2. C A P E T O W N - S O U T H A F R I C AREINFORCING THE EASTERN EDGE OF THE CITY CREATING A NEW POWERFUL CENTRALITYGraduation thesis for the MSc Urbanism CONTACT:By Annemarie Brinksma Annemarie Brinksma - anbrinksma@hotmail.comFebruary 2009 Studio SPACELAB Research laboratory for the contemporary city MENTOR TEAM: Dr. Ir. S.A. Read Urban Renewal & Management Ir. A.G. Vollebregt Urban Renewal & Management Ir. W.G.A. Hermans Urban Design Ir. R.G.P. van den Berg Metropolitan and Regional Design EXTERNAL COMMITTEE: Dr. Ir. M.C. StellingwerffTo be submitted to the Department of Urbanism, Urban Transformation laboratory, Spacelab studio at the Delft University ofTechnology, as one of the requirements for the fullfillment of the degree of Master of Science in Architecture, Urbanism, and Department of UrbanismBuilding Sciences, specialized in the field of Urbanism. Delft University of Technology
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis forms the end result of my graduation project ‘Cape Town - Reinforcing the Eastern edge of the city, cre- ating a new powerful centrality’. I am very grateful that the Spacelab studio offered me (and my Spacelab colleagues) to work on the beautiful city of Cape Town. The working process would not become towards a succesful completion without my mentors Stephen Read, Willem Her- mans, Rogier van den Berg and Alexander Vollebregt. Thank Stella you for all the criticism, support and advise during my work- Alex Anthony ing process! Martijn Stellingwerf, thank you to be the exter-Annemarie nal committee for our Cape Town group at the P2, P4 and the P5 presentations. The people who made it possible for us to go on the field trip to Cape Town and also the people from Cape Town who helped us during our field trip in Cape Town, Liliane thank you! Shu Duo Wei I would also like to thank my Spacelab collegueas (Duo, Lil- Sigit iane, Santi, Shu, Sigit, Stella, Wei and Winonah) for all the mo-Santi Winonah ments we worked, discussed and spent together. We worked together on the first parts of the city analyses and research, we went together to Cape Town, we worked on the African Perspectives Exhibition and we went out for dinner after the hard working periods. Further more I would like to thank my parents that they made it possible for me to do this Urbanism master at the TU Delft after completing my bachelor study at the Hanzehoge- school Groningen, and for their mental support during this complete process. Andries, last but not least I would like to thank you for your support and patience during this whole process. I know it was not easy to live with me, I was always busy with this proj- ect!
  • 4. CONTENTACKNOWLEDGEMENTSCONTENTPREFACE 9INTRODUCTION 13PROBLEM DEFINITION 35CAPE TOWN 2050 43STRATEGY 51DESIGN 79REFLECTION 147BIBLIOGRAPHY 161APPENDIXTheory Paper - Cities: movement and connection
  • 5. PREFACE The infrastructure network and urban development are two factors which can not be seen separately if it comes to the development of cities . City development always start along important rivers, harbour, railway lines and roads and these first patterns are mostly still visible within these cities. Cape Town is not an exception within this, the development of the city started with a settlement around the harbour and the later expansion of the urban areas are located along impor- tant roads. Later on during the Apartheid period (1948-1994), the government forced the coloured and black people to live separately from the white people within townships. The rail- way network was very important for these people as a main mode of transport. After the downfall of this Apartheid gov- ernment, the railway line is still important for the inhabitants of the townships to move within the city and the station lo- cations became also very important to locate activities. An infrastructure network within a city also identifies how attractive a location, or even the city itself, can be to settle for companies and residents. A good connection with the higher and lower scale infrastructure network is essential to make a location attractive, not only for the surrounding neighbour- hood but also for the bigger region. A location without these good connections are not attractive and will stay behind. The effect of the current infrastructure network within Cape Town is that there are powerful attractive areas along im- portant infrastructure lines and nodes, but also unattractive, almost empty areas with a bad connection towards the rest of the city. How to deal to make these empty unattractive ar- eas attractive? Will a change within the infrastructure system help to get such an area within the picture to locate activi- ties? The development process of such a project will take decades, and the development of Cape Town is very unpredictable. This thesis will give a handout towards the people who will be involved with the realisation of this project, with the most important ingredients included to make this a succesful in- tervention.10 11
  • 6. INTRODUCTION12 13
  • 7. CAPE TOWN LOCATED Africa Continent 30.221.532 km2 922 million inhabitants South Africa Country 1.221.037 km2 44,8 million inhabitants Western Cape Province 129.370 km2 4,8 million inhabitants Cape Town City 2.499 km2 2,9 million inhabitants14 15
  • 8. PICTURING CAPE TOWN: IMPRESSION OF THE TOURISTIC SIDE16 17
  • 9. PICTURING CAPE TOWN: IMPRESSION OF THE ‘OTHER’ SIDE18 19
  • 10. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CAPE TOWN N1 N7 1800-1850 1650-1683 Great Trek and the Gold rush create first Arrival of the Dutch 1652 National roads to the east 1683-1700 French men arrived 1688 1850-1900 Wine industry flourished First railway 1862 The urbanisation development of East London Cape Town started in 1652 with the Port Elizabeth arrival of the Dutchman Jan van Rie- beeck and his men at the port. It is clear from the historical maps that Cape Town developed through the N2 centuries, towards the Southern and Eastern direction along important infrastructure lines. During the Apartheid period (1948- 1994), the government forced the 1700-1750 1900-1948 black and coloured people to live separate from the white people, and moved these people towards new townships in the Cape Flats. Cape Flats After the downfall of the Apartheid government in 1994 everybody is al- lowed again to live where they want, but the effects of the Apartheid peri- od are still very visible in Cape Town. 2000 1750-1800 1948-199420 British take over the Cape in 1788 Apartheid period 21
  • 11. DEMOGRAPHIC FIGURES ETHNICITY AND MOBILITY Total: 2,9 million inhabitants Ethnicity distribution White Car White Black Train Coloured Black Coloured Bus and minibus Source: South African National Census, 2001 population number population density From the demographic figures it is clear that there is still a big distinction in where people The latest demographic statistics, which from different races live, which is still an ef- are known at this moment, are from 2001. fect from the apartheid period. The white Cape Town had 2,9 million inhabitants, but ‘banana’ is the area where government and the number of inhabitants grow very fast companies want to invest in. The black zone and the assumption is that this number has is still a zone of poverty without many invest- already grown. ment of government and companies (David Schmidt during his lecture in Cape Town) Around half of the population in Cape STATISTICS : Town has a coloured ethnicity (48,1%). The MODE OF TRANSPORTATION TO WORK/ SCHOOL BY ETHNICITY This is also visible in the circumstances where highest population number lives in the people live in and the mode of transport Cape Flats, where also the highest popula- White Coloured Black they use to go to work and school. From the tion density can be found. statistics and our trip to Cape Town, we see By car as a driver 183562 104411 16545 that white people use the car as their main The highest unemployment can be found By car as a passenger 90625 113759 29614 mode of transport. The coloured people back within the black townships. This is an By minibus/taxi 6300 118462 57668 use the bus and minibus/ taxi as their main effect of that the most of the people have By bus 6745 60989 49882 mode of transport. The black people use the a low education degree, or even don’t have train as their main mode of transport, which By train 10616 87983 96351 an education degree. is also the cheapest mode of transport in ethnicity employment rate Cape Town. source: http://web.capetown.gov.za/eDocuments/Mode_of_Transport_(City_-_2001_Census)_2272003115321_364.htm22 23
  • 12. N1 MOVEMENT PATTERNS - BY CAR As we already saw from the numbers, the white people use the car as their main mode of transport to move within the city. The car gives them freedom to go where they want, and to avoid places where they don’t want to go. Their main destinations are shown in the map on the left page, and contain the locations of the offices where they work, the shopping mall for their goods and the golf course or other sport facilities where the white Source: www.safarinow.com/destinations/south-africa/ people in participate. map.spx?a=3002&skin=49 TOWARDS: The main roads used by car drivers, are the highways and the metropolitan roads to go fast from A to B. The N1 highway is also an important connection towards Johannesburg, and the N2 goes along the coast to the North-East of South Af- rica. The N2 is also an important migra- tion route towards Cape Town from other parts of South Africa and other countries M4 in Africa. The metropolitan road M4 is an important route from the city centre to- wards the Southern suburbs. N224 25
  • 13. MOVEMENT PATTERNS - BY TRAIN The black people are the main users of the trainsystem in Cape Town. They go to their work with the train, and choose this mode of transportation because it is the cheapest public transport mode. It is also the most unsafe mode of public transport, because there is a relative high number of crime within the trains. The train is a very rigid system and can bring the passengers only from station to sta- tion, from where the passengers have to walk or take another kind of public trans- Source: www.sa-transport.co.za/trains/maps/SA-Railmap3. pdf port to reach their destination. TOWARDS: Most of the trainusers come from Khayelitsha and Mitchells Plain and travel to Epping Industria, Bellville and the City Centre where they work. These people work mostly in a factory or have an infor- mal market stall at important infrastruc- ture nodes. Claremont and Wynberg are important station locations to do shop- ping at the informal market. Montague Gardens is also a township where black people live, and these peo- ple also use the train towards their work or shopping location. Epping Industria26 27
  • 14. MOVEMENT PATTERNS - BY BUS AND MINIBUS TOWARDS: The coloured people are the main users of the bus and minibus/taxi system. The system is more flexible than the trainsys- tem, although every bus and minibus has its own route scheme. The scheme covers many areas from the city and the system is faster in comparison with the train, if you have to you somewhere without a trainstation. Travelling with the bus and minibus is more expensive than travel- ling with the train. The bus and minibus uses all scales of the road system, and allow people to move quite flexible through the city to go to their work, to family and friends, to do shopping and go to places where they can recreate.28 29
  • 15. FORMAL AND INFORMAL ACTIVITIES The infrastructure network is an important factor for the location of activities. From our research, before going to Cape Town and during the trip in Cape Town, we can see that activities are lo- cated along important infrastructure lines and infrastructure nodes like streets and train sta- tions. These lines and nodes are connected with the higher and lower scale infrastructure net- work, which makes these locations interesting for people from the neighborhood and people from other parts of the city. There are different scales of activities within the city, from neighborhood scale to city scale and even regional scale. The location of the activities and the connection with the different scales of the infrastructure network are important factors for people to visit the activity location. Activities along a middle scale road with good connections to smaller scale roads and higher scale roads will be visited sooner by people from other parts of the city, than when an activity is located along a local road or square with less connections to the higher scale infrastructure network.30 31
  • 16. CENTRALITIES A cluster of different activities has the possibility to grow out as a centrality. The location along the ‘right’ infrastructure lines is very important for a successful centrality, also the con- nectivity throughout the different scales of networks and the movement process from the visitors within the area. The most important centralities recognised during the trip in Cape Town are: BELLVILLE - City Centre - Claremont and Wynberg - Voortrekker Road - Bellville - Athlone VOORTREKKER ROAD - Gugulethu, Philippi, Nyanga - Mitchells Plain - Khayelitsha CITY CENTRE These centralities are all different from each other in scales and with different kind of activities, but they are all very im- ATHLONE portant for their visitors. GUGULETHU, PHILIPPI, NYANGA CLAREMONT & WYNBERG KHAYELITSHA MITCHELLS PLAIN32 33
  • 17. PROBLEM DEFINITION34 35
  • 18. MONOCENTRAL -> POLYCENTRAL Cape Town is a very monocentral city at this moment, with the city centre as the most powerful centrality. Other centralities are already there, but to speak about a shift to- wards a polycentral city is too early. Most of the centralities are local orientated, and it is hard to turn them into larger scale centralities within the current system. To make Cape Town a polycentral city, it is necessary that centralities be- come attractive to visit for people from other areas and larger scale orientated. Monocentral with other centralities not very visible Polycentral with equal centralities36 37
  • 19. INFRASTRUCTURE ORIENTATION As already concluded before, activities and cen- N1 tralities are located along important infrastruc- ture lines and nodes. The metropolitan road and railway structure in Cape Town has now a very radial orientation towards the city centre, visible in the small pictures. The city centre is from his- torical reasons the most important location in the city and many people work there. The most important road lines, the N1, N2 and M4 N2 M4 are all orientated towards the city centre. Centralities and activities along Many car users go there to work and to do their important infrastructure lines shoppings. The railway line also has a radial orientation at this moment. Passengers from Khayelitsha and Car Mitchells Plain always have to go first in the di- rection of Epping Industria to go somewhere else in Cape Town, this causes a long traveltime and travel distance. The trains from the direction of Claremont and Wynberg go in the direction of the city centre, which is also the case with trains from te direction of Bellville. There is no real orientation visible within the bus and minibus scheme,, because these systems use the medium and small scale roads between and in neighborhoods. Train38 Bus & minibus 39
  • 20. DEVELOPMENT OF CENTRALITIES BELLVILLE KHAYELITSHA No good infrastructure connection between Bellville and Khayelitsha An effect of the radial infrastructure system in Cape Town is that there are holes in the urban development, the development of activities and the development of centrali- ties. The most important hole in the infrastructure system can be found back within the Eastern edge of Cape Town. The middle scale road system is not strong enough and don’t have good connections with smaller scale roads, which is a reason for compa- nies to not locate there. Another factor is that there is not a good North- South infrastructure line beween Bellville and Khayelitsha. A strong infrastructure node like a station, is missing in the area and stations are also important locations for companies.40 41
  • 21. CAPE TOWN 205042 43
  • 22. CAPE TOWN 2050 Cape Town will make in the period between now and 2050 a definitive shift from a monocentral city orientated on the city centre, towards a polycentral city with more strong centralities. These centralities will become visible within the city and more equal to the city centre, and possibilities needs to be created for the development of new centrali- ties.44 45
  • 23. CAPE TOWN 2050 The polycentral city of Cape Town in 2050 will give many pos- sibilities for the development of new centralities. There is a gap at this moment in the urban development and the de- velopment of centralities at the Eastern edge of Cape Town. The development of Cape Town towards a polycentral city will give the area at the Eastern Edge of Cape Town a chance, with possibilities for the development of new activities there around a new inportant North-South infrastructure corridor and urban development around these activities, to grow out as a new powerful centrality.46 47
  • 24. CAPE TOWN 2050 To reach the goal of a polycentral Cape Town in The road network at the Eastern Edge has 2050, there need to become a shift in the infrastruc- some important gaps, and there is also ture orientation. Nowadays, the orientation of the a North-South railway line missing. With infrastructure network is radial towards the city strengthening the network, nodes and centre. To give the Eastern edge of Cape Town the streets will become attractive for people and possibilities to develop a new centrality there, the companies to locate there. grid has to be strenghtened and completed there.48 49
  • 25. STRATEGY50 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kalk_Bay_Station_3.jpg 51
  • 26. MAIN INTERVENTION The main intervention for the realization of a stronger Eastern edge of Cape Town is to create two North-South railway lines. The Eastern railway line between Khayelitsha and Bellville will be realized first. This railway line has as a goal to work as a cor- ridor for urban development. The railway line between Mitchells Plain and Khayelitsha is an old cargo line, but this one will get a new life and will be made suitable for public transport and become connected to the ex- isting railwayline towards Mitchells Plan and Khayelitsha. MITCHELLS PLAIN - BELLVILLE KHAYELITSHA - BELLVILLE52 53
  • 27. CURRENT SITUATION The big problem of the current connection between Bellville and Khayelitsha is that passengers always have to change train at Bontheuwel station. The Bellville transfer time of 4 à 5 minutes at Bontheuwel station when passengers going from Khayelitsha to Bell- ville is a normal time for people go change trains. When passengers going from Bellville to Khayelit- sha the transfer time at Bontheuwel station is 16 minutes, which is quite long. The travelling distance over this route is around 40 kilometers, however the straight distance between Bellville and Khayelitsha is around 14 kilometers. This is a big difference and Bontheuwel 24 min for the passengers between Bellville and Khayelit- sha, it would be better if the travelling time and dis- 22 min tance can become shorter. 4 à 5 min transfer time 16 min transfer time Khayelitsha - Bellville: 1 hour and 2 minutes Bellville - Khayelitsha: 1 hour and 9 minutes Travel distance: around 40 km 33 min 31 min Khayelitsha54 55
  • 28. AMOUNT OF TRAIN USE PER DAY - SITUATION 2006 TO CAPE TOWN FROM CAPE TOWN Station No. of Boarding Station No. of Boarding Passengers All Day Passengers All Day Philippi 16 151 Cape Town 59 316 Nonkqubela 14 940 Mutual * 28 173 Khayelitsha ** 14 666 Salt River * 23 230Metrorail train Bellville Nolungile 14 566 Bonteheuvel 20 920 Bellville * 13 608 Bellville * 15 744 Langa 12 404 Maitland 13 647 Nyanga 11 482 Langa 11 189 Heideveld 11 325 Pinelands * 10 310 Retreat 9 630 Woodstock 8 623 Mitchells Plain 9 233 Philippi 7 192 TOTAL 128 005 TOTAL 198 344 Nolungile * Stations where passengers board trains after transferring from other trains Nonkqubela ** In the morning peak, many passengers board to the train to Cape Town at Nonkqubela and Nongile travel- Khayelitsha ling in the direction of Khayelitsha in order to secure a seat. They remain seated when the train turns around at Khayelitsha, thus disording the number of passengers boarding at all three stations. Source: Public transport plan, draft for public consultation, June 2006 The current railway system in Cape Town is the commuter rail. This is a rail service between central busi- ness districts and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. The trains providing such services may be termed commuter trains (source: wikipedia - metrorail). The stations from Khayelitsha and Bellville can be found back in the top 10 from the biggest number of pas- sengers per day who go in the direction of Cape Town for work or other aims. During the morning peak (between 6.00 -9.00) 41% of the total amount of trainusers will go to their destination, and during the afternoon peak (16.00 - 19.00) 32% of the total amount of train users will return to their home destination ( public transport plan, June 2006, pg 36). This means that there can occur overcrowding in the trains dur- ing these peak hours.56 57
  • 29. ASSUMPTION OF THE AMOUNT OF TRAIN USE PER DAY Bellville Amount of passengers per day towards Cape Town (2006): 13 608 Amount of passengers per day towards other directions (2006): 15 744 Bellville Approximately 5 000* passengers per day will use the new light rail system. In Bell- ville, car use is the main mode of transport between home and work. Bellville station is a station where train users transfer between trains to go to their destination, so the assumption is that the passengers from Bellville will be people who come from other areas. Khayelitsha Khayelitsha Total amount of passengers per day (2006): 44 172 The amount of passengers from Khayelitsha will become doubled to approximate- ly 90 000* passengers per day, when the new sytem is ready for use. Within the area between Bellville and Khayelitsha, there will be more job opportunities created for people with a low education grade. * These numbers are assumptions, it is hard to say how many people will actually use the new system when it is realized Source current numbers: Public transport plan, draft for public consultation, June 200658 59
  • 30. TRAVEL DISTANCE AND TRAVEL TIME OVER THE NEW RAILWAY TRACK When the new railway lines are ready to operate, the traveltime and distance for passengers be- tween Khayelitsha/ Mitchells Plain and Bellville will become significant shorter, from around 40 km to around 17 km. The dis- tance between Khayelitsha and Bellville, when travelling over the former airport line, will be a bit longer. These lines all offer a North-South connection with high potentials for development around the stations. MITCHELLS PLAIN - BELLVILLE around 18,5 km -> 35-40 min KHAYLITSHA - BELLVILLE around 21 km -> 40 - 45 min KHAYLITSHA - BELLVILLE around 17 km -> 35 min60 61
  • 31. RAILWAY TRACK PROJECTED IN THE METROPOLITAN INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK Railway tracks will be realized in two phases: phases: Public transport system : hybrid lightrail Factsheet hybrid lightrail system Eastern Railway track start: 2010 Lightrail is faster than a tram, but less heavy Average speed: 30 km/h Western Railway track start: 2030 and cheaper than a train (wikipedia) System length: to 40 km Maximum capacity: 6 000 persons / hour in one direction Hybrid lightrail has a higher average speed and involves adjustments enabling the vehi- Source: Bach, B 2006, Urban design and traffic - a selection from Bach’s toolbox cles to share the traditional railway line and railway safety systems locally. The new railway lines will play an impor- tant role within the metropolitan rail- waysystem, an extension is possible from Khayelitsha towards Somerset West. The new railwaylines will become the first where the lightrail train will run over. The system length is good, but the trains might become overcrowded during the peak hours. The building process of the Eastern rail- way line will start in 2010 and the railway line gets elevated, because it is not un- thinkable that heavy trains will take over in the future. The pedestrians in the area can walk safely on ground floor level, and the train is no barrier for crossing the rail- way track. The space under the railway track can be left open, but shops can also located there. The rebuilding of the former airport railway line will start after 2030, when the airport is moved towards Example of lightrail trains from the RandstadRail in NL Source: wikipedia the Northernside of Cape Town. A possibility for expansion of the new railway line is to continue the railway Railway will be elevated track from Khayelitsha to Strand - Somerset West62 63
  • 32. MAIN ROAD STRUCTURE - EXISTING The railway system is not the only infra- structure mode which will be renewed and expanded, the road system is also very important to become renewed on metropolitan scale. The current situation of the road network at the Eastern edge has a lot of gaps with- in the connections in the area. There are a few connections towards the bigger scale roads, but that also needs to become bet- ter. The smaller scale is not visible on this map, but there are not much build up areas, so this also needs to become de- veloped.64 65
  • 33. MAIN ROAD STRUCTURE - MISSING LINKS Completing the missing links -> a GRID STRUC- TURE appears Strengthen the grid: a goal for 2050 The strategy for the development of the road system is to complete the ‘missing’ links. These ‘links’ are connections be- tween stopped roads. The road system will become continuous, and the connec- tions with the larger scale roads will also become better. With the completion of the missing links, a grid structure will appear, which is one of the goals to reach in 2050 for a polycen- tral city. This grid structure will give the opportunity to the area to develop in dif- ferent ways.66 67
  • 34. MAIN ROAD STRUCTURE - NEW Realization phase 1 starts 2010 The improvement of the road system will take place in two phases, like the realisa- tion of the railway lines. Phase 1 will be the roads in the area around the Eastern railway line. This realisation phase will start in 2010 at the same time as the start of the building of the railway track, and will be finished approximately five years later. Phase 2 will start after 2030 when the airport moves towards the Northern side of Cape Town, and will be the road conections over the former airport area. Phase 2 of the improvement of the in- frastructure network will be finished ap- proximately 5 years after the start of the building process. The road system will get better connec- tions within the area and the connections with other areas will also be improved. The connections with the larger scale will also be improved, and the system gives also chances for good connections with the lower scale. Realization phase 2 starts after 203068 69
  • 35. NEW INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK WITHIN THE METROPOLITAN SCALE The infrastructure network will become stronger after the completion of the infra- structure network. Two North South rail- way lines will provide faster connections between Mitchells Plain and Bellville and Khayelitsha and Bellville. The railway lines themselves will work as a development corridor for new activities. The road structure will provide better connections within the area and between other areas in Cape Town. The connection between railway and road will also become important. The rail- way stations will become located along main roads and important as transfer lo- cations between road based public trans- port and the train.70 71
  • 36. DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES The first locations where road based public transport and public transport by train will come together are the train sta- tions along the Eastern railway line. For this reason, it is also the area which will be showed in the design section of this booklet. These station locations form the main lo- cations within the area, and have many opportunities for development. A first important opportunity is the fact that these station locations are important for the interchange between road based public transport and public transport by train. These station locations are also at- tractive for companies to locate, because many low educated employees come by train and these locations are also good accessble by car and trucks. With the dif- ferent flows of people going towards and from the stations, these stations are also an attractive location for new activities like markets and shops. If the interchange between the move- ment flows from and towards the station and the different activities work well, these station areas have the potential to grow out towards important centralities.72 73
  • 37. EXAMPLE SUCCESSFUL CENTRALITY -> VOORTREKKER ROAD N7 R102 R101Voortrekker Road location N1 M10 M7 R300 N2 Spatial layering Activities Voortrekker Road is a road with historical importancy, it is one of the first roads built in Cape Town. This historical pattern is still visible, many streets on a higher and lower scale are con- nected with Voortrekker Road. This means that it is relative easy N2 to come on Voortrekker Road from the highway N1 and the N7 R102 residential streets within the surrounded neighborhoods. This attract many functions to locate at Voortrekker Road. From the R101 beginning towards the end of Voortrekker Road, many differ- ent scales of shops are located there. These shops are attracting people from the whole city to do their shoppings. N1 M10 M7 R300 N2 Big picture: Impression of Voortrekker Road Small pictures: Car shop, factory toy shop, electronic equipment shop and formal retails74 75
  • 38. EXAMPLE SUCCESSFUL CENTRALITY -> CLAREMONT AND WYNBERG Spatial layering Activities Cavendish Square M5 M5 Lansdowne Lansdowne Road Road The reason that Claremont and Wynberg are important for peo- M3 M3 ple to go is the M4 (metropolitan scaled road). The M4 forms Wynberg Wynberg an important route from the City Centre of Cape Town towards train station train station the Southern suburbs and Simon’s Town, and is like Voortrekker Road also one of the first important roads built in Cape Town. The M4 is also good connected with the surrounding neighbor- hoods. Different scales of shops are located along this route, and also a big shopping mall named Cavendish Square is lo- cated there. M5 M5 Not far from the road, the railway line between the City centre of Cape Town and Simon’s town is situated there. Wynberg station forms an important location for people from the Cape Flats to do their shoppings. The station is located not far from Lansd- owne road, which is an important route between Wynberg and the Cape Flats. The main activity at the station is the informal market. Big picture: Impression from the air towards Claremont and Wynberg Small pictures: Dwelling in Claremont, Cavendish Square shopping centre, Wynberg formal retail and informal retail near Wynberg Station76 Claremont & Wynberg Location 77
  • 39. DESIGN78 79
  • 40. Kuilsrivier CURRENT SITUATION AREA 5 km 220.000 inhabitants Source: South African National Census 2001 Blackheath Industria Delft 9 km Mfuleni Blue Downs Eersterivier Total area is around 45 km2 Reference: house Bellville South Khayelitsha80 81
  • 41. MIXED USE ZONE - PERSPECTIVE 2050 The current situation of the Eastern edge is that there is not much dense urban development, visible at the previous pages. The perspective for 2050 is that with the improve- ment of the metropolitan infrastructure network, opportu- nities are created for the development of new centralities around the train stations at both railway lines. The Eastern railway line and the area there will be the first with the development of new activities, and the main goal for this area is to develop a centrality with working places and job opportunities for the lower educated inhabitants of Cape Town and attractive activities on different scale to attract people from a larger scale.82 83
  • 42. MIXED USE ONE - NEW INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK Development grid over decades The infrastructure network forms the underground for the de- velopment of the area. The grid structure is chosen to imple- ment for the local scale of the infrastructure network. The ad- network. vantage of the grid structure is that flexible development of the area is possible, which makes it easier to make changes in the building structure without the need of big changes within the infrastructure network. The building structure can easily develop from small separate houses towards a closed build- ing block. The size of the grid is based on what Kusumo (2007) wrote in her thesis ‘Railway station, centres and markets’ about a reseach of Arnis Siksna from 1998 that “small square blocks, of about 60-80m, perform better than larger blocks because they produce finermesh circulation patterns, more potential frontages, more coherent block fabrics and finergrained, con- tinuous urban fabrics, and both low- and highrise buildings.”84 85
  • 43. MIXED USE ZONE - ZONING FUNCTIONS Amount of functions: Working places -> 205 ha Residential: high density -> 60 ha Residential medium density -> 100 ha Residential low density -> 190 ha The current amount of inhabitants within the whole area is 220.000. The assumption is that the area will get around 150.000 extra inhabitants in the formal resi- dential areas. It is difficult to say something about the informal area South of the formal new area. The assumption is that around 10.000 new job oppor- tunities will be created within the manufacture facto- ries and the different kinds of shops along the railway and roads. The expectation is that not only inhabitants will work in these fctories and shops, but also people from other areas who come by train and other kinds of transport.86 87
  • 44. MIXED USE ZONE PROJECTED WITHIN THE AREA Current area The current situation shows that the area has not a very dense urban development. There are a lot of open spaces visible. Projecting the zoning plans for the mixed use zone within the scale of the Eastern Area, it is visible that the mixed use zone is situated between a green/blue strip and the industrial zone of Blackheath Industria. The green/blue zone stays undeveloped when talking about building development, but can become a recreational area for the inhabitants and the wider region. Blackheath Industria will develop more towards an industrial zone more orientated on food and drinks coming from the winelands of Stellenbo- sch, and provide also job opportunities. The mixed use area will also create job opportunities and commercial activities around the roads towards the station, and has a good connec- tions with the residential areas within the area and the wider region of Cape Town.88 89
  • 45. RESIDENTIAL AREA - PRINCIPLE HIGH DENSITY Development of the street over decades Phase 1 : After 10 years (2020) Phase 2 : After 20 years (2030) Phase 3 : After 40 years (2050) impressions of a high density residential street Plan and cross-sections high density residential streets90 91
  • 46. RESIDENTIAL AREA - PRINCIPLE MEDIUM DENSITY Development of the street over decades Phase 1 : After 20 years (2030) Phase 2 : After 30 years (2040) Phase 3 : After 40 years (2050) impressions of a medium density residential street Plan and cross-sections medium density residential streets92 93
  • 47. RESIDENTIAL AREA - PRINCIPLE LOW DENSITY Development of the street over decades Phase 1 : After 30 years (2040) Phase 2 : After 35 years (2045) Phase 3 : After 40 years (2050) impressions of a low density residential street Plan and cross-sections low density residential streets94 95
  • 48. STATIONS STELLENBOSCH ARTERIAL ROAD STATION (assumption of 60.000 users per day) COMPARISON: Leiden Central Station (NL) -> 57.318 users per day (2005) Source: http://www.treinreiziger.nl/punctualiteit/instappen.php Source: http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2181/1641919756_810adc68b8.jpg?v=0com/2181/1641919756_81 0adc68b8.jpg?v=0 The asumption of passenger numbers earlier in the booklet shows that this new train line will get around 45.000 users per day from Khayelitsha and around 5.000 passengers per day from Bellville to go to their work or to one of the shop- BUTTSKOP ROAD STATION ping possibilities around the stations. The assumption is that (assumption of 20.000 users per day) 70.000 people from this area will use the train line every day. This is alsmost half of the population who live here. They will use the train to go to their work in the direction of Bellville or for doing their shopping. This means that a total of 120.000 people per day who will use this line and the three stations to go on and off the train, and to change towards the bus or minibus to go somewhere else. HINDLE ROAD STATION The three stations in the area are Stellenbosch Arterial Road (assumption of 40.000 users per day) station with 60.000 passengers per day, Buttskop Road Station with 20.000 passengers per day and Hindle Road station with 40.000 passengers per day. To give and idea of the numbers, Stellenbosch Arterial Road station is comparable with a day at Leiden Central Station in the Netherlands.96 97
  • 49. STELLENBOSCH ARTERIAL ROAD STATION AREA CES PLA NG RKI WO COMMERCIAL Zoning Stellenbosch Arterial Road station is the location on which the further zooming in takes place. There is a clear zoning visible within this area. The work locations TRAIN USERS -> WALK TOWARDS will be zoned around the railway line and the North- THE WORKING PLACES FROM THE STATION South roads and the commercial functions will become located around the Stellenbosch Arterial Road and the train station. A rough assumption of the movement pattern will be that the passengers from the train will CAR USERS -> TAKE THE ROUTE ALONG THE SHOPS AND STOP probably walk from the station along the railway line THERE towards the work locations, and the car users will take the main route over Stellenbosch Arterial Road and stop along the shops along the road. Movement assumption98 99
  • 50. PLAN The plan for the Stellenbosch Arterial Road Station area car- ries some important parts. The area itself is located along the metropolitan scale Stellenbosch Arterial Road which runs be- tween Elsies River and Stellenbosch. The density within the residential areas are the highest around the station and the commercial activities, and gets lower further from the station. The grid structure from the infrastructure network within the area is also an important part for the connectivity of the area with itself and the bigger scale. The most important parts are the Stellenbosch Arterial Road, the train station and the work locations. These locations will get a closer look further on in this booklet.100 101
  • 51. ROAD TYPOLOGY - CROSS SECTIONS Within the area, four types of roads can be recog- nised. The residential street, the tertiary road, the secondary road and the main road. The residential street is the street which runs be- tween building blocks. This street doesn’t have to be wide, because the speed of the motorised trans- port is low. Parking along the street here is possible 1 and there is also enough space for pedestrians. 2 Residential street The tertiary road is a bit wider than the residential street and forms the connection between the resi- dential street and the secondary road. Parking along the street is also possible here and pedestrians can walk along the road. 1 The secondary road forms the connection between the tertiary road and the main road. This road is faster than the tertiary road and has a boulevard 4 like appearance, with plantation and lamp posts in 2 the middle of the total four lanes. Pedestrians have a large space to walk along this road. Tertiary road Stellenbosch Arterial Road is the main road within this area and is the connection between this and other areas within Cape Town. The road has already four lanes which provides a relative fast connec- tion between Elsies River and Stellenbosch. When the development process is finished, there will be side roads created for slower road traffic and to make connections towards the shops and the area 3 behind. This road will also get a boulevard appear- ance with plantation in the middle and along the Secondary road - boulevard side roads, and lampposts in the middle of the fast 3 lanes. 4 Stellenbosch Arterial Road102 103
  • 52. IMPORTANT ROAD AXIS - STELLENBOSCH ARTERIAL ROAD104 105
  • 53. FAST ROAD turn 1 TOWARDS STELLENBOSCH TOWARDS ELSIES RIVER turn 2 Connectivity with the area The already existing fast lanes stay as a relative fast be- tween Elsies River and Stellenbosch, with a few direct connections towards the surrounded neighbourhood. The effect of the grid structure is that the connections within the areas,when entering the area by car, are very good.106 107
  • 54. IMPRESSION - DRIVING OVER THE FAST ROAD108 109
  • 55. SIDE ROADS turn 1 turn 2 Connectivity with the area The new side roads are created for the slower road traffic to give them the possibility to go to the shops along these roads. The connections from these sideroads towards the surrounding neighborhoods are very well, which is an ef- fect of the grid structure. Once within the area, the whole area is almost accessible within one or two junctions. The shops along the side roads are from different scales. There can be find small scaled shops like cloth shops, but also supermarkets and as bigger scale shops the car shops and furniture shops. Impression of the types of shops along the side roads110 111
  • 56. IMPRESSION - DRIVING OVER ONE OF THE SIDE ROADS112 113
  • 57. IMPORTANT LOCATION - TRAIN STATION114 115
  • 58. STATION - GROUND FLOOR LEVEL MARKE THALL Small formal shops under the station platform Indoor market at the market hall at the square116 117
  • 59. STATION - PLATFORM LEVEL Waiting for the train People can sell their goods118 119
  • 60. CROSS- SECTIONS The station ‘building’ has two levels. The ground level lo- cates different kinds of small scale shops and at the station square there is a market hall located where a indoor mar- ket can take place. The platform level also has two func- tions, at the sides can be an informal market where people can sell their goods, and people wait for the train. The two cross-sections show that the station platform is located 6 m above ground level, this is for the bigger trans- port a good heigh to be able to pass the station via Stel- lenbosch Arterial Road. People can enter the station by the different stairs. The platform is wider in the middle of the station and has a roof there, to give the possibilities to people to sell their goods and to let the people wait in the shade. 1 2 1 2120 121
  • 61. MOVEMENT ASSUMPTION PEDESTRIANS FROM THE STATION - NORTHERN SIDE STAIRS 1 STAIRS 2 STAIRS 3 STAIRS 4122 123
  • 62. MOVEMENT ASSUMPTION PEDESTRIANS FROM THE STATION - SOUTHERN SIDE STAIRS 5 STAIRS 6 STAIRS 7 STAIRS 8124 125
  • 63. MOVEMENT ASSUMPTION PEDESTRIANS FROM THE STATION - PLATFORM On the previous pages is showed how the movement assump- tion is from the different stairs of the station. The combined movement patterns shows that the squares will be almost complete used, when people come at the same time from the different stairs. The shops under the stations are located very well, when look- ing to these movement patterns. Many people will walk along these shops and will probably use these shops for getting their goods. The market hall at the North-Eastern side of the station is also located very well. It is good visible and with the entrances at the good location, it can also serve as a good walking route to- wards the residential area behind the market hall. With market stalls along the walking routes, the market hall will become sucessful when the pedestrians will buy their good there. The station platform can also serve as a walking route, it can be used as a crossing over the Stellenbosch Arterial Road and pedestrians can also walk from the Northern station square towards the bus and minibus station.126 127
  • 64. ORIENTATION BUILDINGS - POSSIBLE ENTRANCES As already mentioned on the previous page, the location of the entrances from the buildings along walking routes are very important. When an entrance of the building is clear and visible, people will enter this building. Entrances along streets are also important to make the street attractive to go in. No entrances means that there is no reason to go in this street, and this street will become an unattractive backstreet. For this area is chosen to make possible entrances at all sides of the residential building blocks and make entrances at least at two sides at the bigger buildings (the shops and the work lo- cations) to avoid the appearance of unacttractive backstreets.128 129
  • 65. VIEWS TOWARDS THE STATION WESTSIDE 1 2 1 EASTSIDE 2130 131
  • 66. IMPRESSION WALKING OVER THE PLATFORM TO THE TRAIN132 133
  • 67. IMPRESSION - STATION SQUARE134 135
  • 68. IMPRESSION - STAIRS TOWARDS THE PLATFORM AND STATION SQUARE136 137
  • 69. ROAD BASED PUBLIC TRANSPORT - BUS AND MINIBUS STATION Bus station Minibus station Cross section bus and minibus station138 139
  • 70. IMPORTANT LOCATION - WORK LOCATIONS Work locations form buffer between railway line and residential area The work locations are located along the railway line. There are two important reasons for this decision, people don’t have to walk far from the train station towards their work, and these buildings form a buffer between the railway line and the residential areas which decrease the noice from the trains into the area. The walking routes from the stations run along the railway line. These routes are only accessible for pedestrians and people who cycle towards their work. The route will get a park like appearance with trees and lamp posts along both sides of the route. These work locations are manufacture factories. This is a form of light industry, which doesn’t make a lot of polution and doesn’t make a lot of noise and can be located in the neighborhood of residential areas. These factories will create job opportunities for lower educated people in Cape Town, and a lot of these people will travel by train towards their work.140 141
  • 71. WORK LOCATIONS http://www.fusioncomponents.com/images/manufacture-image.jpg http://www.canadapipeline.com/image-files/manufacture_assemble.jpg http://www.tungsang.com/main_imgs/manufacture_overview.jpg www.kabahinfo.net/photo/manufacture-kiswah4.jpg Manufacture Cross - section: walking route towards the work locations142 143
  • 72. IMPRESSION - WALKING ROUTE TOWARDS THE WORK LOCATIONS144 145
  • 73. REFLECTION146 147
  • 74. METROPOLITAN SCALE - CURRENT SITUATION To go back on metropolitan scale to where this project started with, a short conclusion for the current situation is that there is a hole in the urban development and the development of activities on the Eastern side of Cape Town. Activities and urban development takes place along impor- tant infrastructure lines and nodes, this can be roads and rail- way stations. This trend is already visible within the historical maps of the development of Cape Town at the begin of this booklet, and went on through the last centuries. Some of the most important activity locations grew out to- wards centralities, with the City Centre as the most powerful one. The other centralities are there, but only important for the people from that area. This is an effect of the radial orienta- tion of the infrastructure towards the city centre, which makes the city centre very important. The other centralities are also located along infrastructure lines and nodes, but at this mo- ment not really visible within the city. The radial structure of the important infrastructure lines causes a hole at the urban development and the development of activities, and centrali- ties, at the Eastern edge of the city. On the following pages, the different parts of the project will shortly reflected.148 149
  • 75. METROPOLITAN SCALE - INFRASTRUCTURE Current situation 2050 The current situation of the metropolitan infrastructure net- nected with the larger scale for both the road network and work is that it has a radial orientation towards the City Centre. railway network. The North-South railway lines will play an This makes the City Centre very important within the metro- important role in this. The new connections between Mitch- politan area, and this is the cause of the hole in development ells Plain/ Khayelitsha and Bellville will shorten the travel at the Eastern Edge of Cape Town. The period between now time and travel distance on what it is now. And these new and 2050 will be used to make a shift from this radial orien- connections will also become important development cor- tation towards a grid structure, and this grid structure will ridors for new activities and even new centralities. strenghten the whole infrastructure network in Cape Town. After the improvement of the infrastructure network, the area at the Eastern Edge of Cape Town will get better con-150 151
  • 76. METROPOLITAN SCALE - ACTIVITIES Current situation 2050 From the pictures of the infrastructure network and the cur- kets, which have to serve the inhabitants of the area. rent situation of the actvities and centralities, the conclusion can be made that the activities area located along important The improved infrastructure gives opportunities for the de- infrastructure lines and nodes. velopment of activities along the points where roads and railway meets. The location of the train stations at these It is clearly visible within the current activity map on the left points are also very important factors for having succesful page that the radial orientation of the infrastructure network development of activities around these stations and roads has its effects on the location of the activities. It is clear that and filling up the gap of development at the Eastern edge. the gaps in the infrastructure at the Eastern Edge have their effects on the development of the activities. There is hardly any development in activities, on a few shops and supermar-152 153
  • 77. METROPOLITAN SCALE - URBAN DEVELOPMENT 2050 The improvement of the infrastructure system and the succes- ful development of activities around significant locations will also help the total urban development of the Eastern Edge. The activities provide new job opportunities and attract people to come to the location to make use of these activi- ties. These activities will grow and need more space within the area and the location becomes also attractive for people who come there often or work there to go live there, and residen- tial areas becomes also an important factor for such a location and the urban development will become expanded bt the re- alisation of residential areas.154 155
  • 78. METROPOLITAN SCALE - EXISTING AND NEW CENTRALiTIES Stellenbosch Arterial Road Station Area The combination of the succesful improvement of the infra- structure network, the succesful development of activities around important infrastructure lines and nodes and the ex- pansion of the urban area will benefit that these location grow out towards centralities. An example of one of the succesful centralities is the development of the Stellenbosch Arterial road and the Stellenbosch Arterial Road Station.156 157
  • 79. END RESULT Reference: Voortrekker Road Current situation Reference: house Bellville South 2050 Going back to the current situation of the Stellenbosch Arte- roads along the Stellenbosch Arterial Road with the different rial Road Area, the area is now nothing more than a relative scales of shops makes the area also attractive for the people fast road between Elsies River and Stellenbosch with some come come by car, which makes the area attractive for differ- low density living areas with small separate houses. The di- ent kinds of users and that this area becomes very important rect area along the Stellenbosch Arterial Road is unbuilt, and for a larger scale within Cape Town. there are hardly any connections towards the built up areas. There are almost no activities and facilities for the inhabit- To end the story, it is visible that between now and 2050, the ants. The area is not very well connected with the larger scale Stellenbosch Arterial Road area will develop from an empty infrastructure network, and this fact makes the area not very unattractive area towards an attractive centrality with differ- attractive for companies to locate here. ent kinds of activities and different kinds of people who will visit the area and live in the area. To take a look to the situation in 2050, the Stellenbosch Arte- rial Road area will become a well connected area, with the lower scale (the neighborhood) and the larger scale (the rest of the city), both with the road network and railway network. With the Stellenbosch Arterial Road Station as main location, where people come together to take the train or people ar- rive at the station to go to their work, and the connection with road based and railway based public transport which come together at the station, the station area is very im- portant for activities to locate. The development of the side158 159
  • 80. BIBLIOGRAPHY160 161
  • 81. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Websites: Bach, B 2006, Urban design and traffic – a selection from Bach’s Commuter rail - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commuter_rail & toolbox, CROW, Ede http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metrorail_%28Western_Cape%29 Dewar, D & Todeschini, F 2004, Rethinking urban transport Lightrail - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lightrail after modernism - Lessons from South Africa, Ashgate Publish- ing Limited Farnham UK South African National Census 2001, numbers and statistics - http://www.capetown.gov.za/en/stats/2001census/Pages/ City of Cape Town 2006, Planning for future Cape Town - An Profiles.aspx argument for the long term spatial development of Cape Town, draft document August 2006 Heeling, J, Meyer, H, Westrik, J 2002, Het ontwerp van de stad- Photographs: splattegrond, SUN Amsterdam If not mentioned the source under the photographs, then Heyningen, H van 2007, Planning districts socio - economic they are from the collective photograph database. analysis 2007, Strategic Development Information and GIS Department, City of Cape Town Kusumo, C 2007, Railway Station, Centres and Markets - Change and Stability in Patterns of Urban Centrality, Thesis for TU Delft, Delft Towards a more colourful Cape Town - Mapping, experiencing and rethinking the city 2008, MSc 3 booklet Spacelab 2007- 2008162 163
  • 82. APPENDIX
  • 83. CITIES: MOVEMENT AND CONNECTION Date: 17 January 2008 Name: Annemarie Brinksma E-mail: anbrinksma@hotmail.com
  • 84. AbstractThis purpose of this paper is to get a theoretical backgroundfor the MSc Urbanism graduation project ‘Cape Town: Con-nection and movement’, about movement and connectionwithin cities. Movement and connections have a lot to dowith each other, movement does not exits if there are noconnections. Different kind of people move through the city24 hours a day, with all their own way of movements. Trans-portation is an important way to move, and differentiatesfrom most car use in Europe and in the USA to public trans-portation in the less developed world. Disconnection in cit-ies is an import problem, there not only exists disconnectionbetween rich ‘formal’ and poor ‘informal’ worlds, but also intheir living environments and the way of movement withinthe cities. The ‘formal’ society lives in richer residential areas,move by car and have good job opportunities while the ‘in-formal’ society lives in townships, move by public transportand by foot and their job opportunities are low. These societ-ies need each other to keep the economy healthy, but theyare also far away from each other by these big differences.Another form of disconnection within cities are the ‘gatedcommunities’, residential areas who have built walls aroundthem and entering is only possible by passing a gate and se-curity. A relative new of connection within and between citiesthat came up the last decades, are the communication tech-nologies like mobile phones and internet which made con-nections over the whole world easier. For the richer ‘formal’world a gift, but the poorer ‘informal’ world may not have thepossibilities to invest in modern communication technolo-gies and are threatened to get more disconnected from the‘formal’ world. If the connection between those two worldswould be better, the ‘informal’ world could receive more ben-efits from the ‘formal’ world, but how can these connectionbe better and what role can movement play in this?Keywords: movement, connection, disconnection, ‘formal’world, ‘informal’ world, communication technologies
  • 85. 1. IntroductionWhat does movement and connection within cities have to and essential transport mode to go to work or other facilities eas in mid-town Manhattan or upstate New York. In Lowerdo with each other? As the words ‘movement’ and ‘connec- within cities. Hamilton and Hoyle (1999, p. 86) talk about the East side of Manhattan live many African American peopletion’ already say, people move in from A to B and the route streets which are nothing more than a connection to go as and the place have to deal with social problems like a highfollowed is the connection. The different kind of movements soon as possible from A to B. People get from their house percentage of unemployment, poverty, crime and relativelywithin cities lead to the facts that the city never sleeps, into the car, drive to their destination and park their car in poor health environment. People have difficulties with find-movements do not stop at a certain time and runs 24 hours front of the building or even park their car under the build- ing a job, services like banks and shops choose for better lo-a day. Movements need connections. Connections can be ing. It is not even more necessarily needed that people have cations. This area is seen as a bad place to live by the rest ofnotified as infrastructural connections but also as commu- to walk outside on the street. the city, and has become ‘disconnected’ from the rest of thenity connections. Interlocked connections can also lead to city, and has difficulties develop economically. In this Newdisconnection from others in the city, with as an example the This is different in Asia, Africa and South America, where the York example, these people work and live in different mo-‘gated communities’. In the contemporary cities is the role of number of private cars per person is significant lower. In cities bility patterns which make them disconnected from eachcommunication technologies important for movement and in China, the bicycle is the most important transport mode other.connections, but these communication technologies also for movement within the city. An example given in Hamiltoncan disconnect the societies who do not have the possibili- and Hoyle (1999, p. 70) for Beijing, the average speed of pub- Not only the functions in a city can make the distinctionties to access these facilities. lic buses were 15 km/h, and for the bicycle ride, 12 km/h. The within cities. Infrastructure can also form a disconnection average speed in the city is almost the same, but a bicycle between a city, think of roads and railways which are built on is smaller and apparently more manoeuvrable and don’t get an higher level than the actual city level and rivers with not2.The rhythm of movements within cities stuck in traffic jams. Traffic jams are also a reason that in the many bridges to pass. These barriers can play an important metropolitan cities all over the world like New York, Paris and role in the division of the city. If there are not enough con-During the 24 hours of the day the movement rhythm of London, the public transport system is an important mode nections through these barriers, people will choose to livecities differentiate. Five days a week, early in the morning, for movement within these cities. But in Hong Kong, people on one of the sides and not go often to the other city part. Aspeople go to work. This differentiate from people with low- chose in the 1980’s for the public transport system because an outcome, one of the city parts do not get the possibilitiesincome jobs who take the bus at 5 o’ clock in the morning to of the charging of the amount of actual road use by private to develop that well and will get marked as ‘the bad side toarrive at work, to people with higher-income jobs who take cars. This was an experiment between 1983 and 1985 by the live’. This is also just because different places exist in somethe car between 8 and 9 o’clock to arrive at work. At these government, where electronic transponders were mounted mobility patterns and not in other patterns.moments, other movements from homeless people, or peo- under the cars. This experiment was rejected by the public,ple who worked during the night may be stayed unnoticed. because they felt watched by ‘big brother’. (Hau, article writ- 3.1. ‘Formal’ and ‘informal’ worlds within citiesBut after a working day, the city will be attracted by people ten in Hamilton and Hoyle 1999, pp. 91-2)who will enjoy the nightlife or will have their working shift. These mobility patterns are also visible within the ‘formal’Within these rhythms, the differences between social classes and ‘informal’ worlds. This can be seen in a sense that therise above. During nighttime it is more likely that people 3. Disconnection within cities ‘formal’ city is designed for people, but the ‘formal’ city is alsowith a ‘poorer’ background are working, while most of the designed against the people for who the city is not designedpeople with a better education background will work during The distinction between ‘rich’ and ‘poor’ is visible in the city- (the people in the ‘informal’ world). An exception in thisdaytime. Allen (1999, p. 64) shape itself. An example given in Amin & Graham (1999, pp. case is South Africa. There were also designs made during 12 -13) about New York’s Manhattan and Lower East side of the apartheid period (1948-94) within the cities for the poor2.1. Patterns of movement Manhattan, “how spaces which are physically close within people, to separate them from the rich people. a city can simultaneously be relationally very distant andThe car is the most important transport mode in Europe relatively disconnected”. Manhattan is ‘New York’s financial ‘Formal’ and ‘informal’ are not far away from each other inand North America. Most of the households here have one centre’ with a global reach, where financial transactions take cities. Townships are situated next to richer residential areas Figure 1. ‘De nieuwe wegenkaart van Snelder’ (English: the new road mapor more private cars standing in front of their houses. The place every weekday with advanced ICT infrastructures. The and people from these ‘informal’ townships work for exam- made by Snelder)shows that if there will come a new road system in The Neth-trend of living within areas on the edge of the city or even a top professionals who work there are extremely well paid, ple as a service worker by families in the richer residential erlands, fast travel between cities will go better (De nieuwe wegenkaart vanfew kilometers outside the city, makes the car an important and live mostly in highly expensive, exclusive, housing ar- areas of the city and the ‘formal’ city needs the ‘informal’ un- Snelder,2007)
  • 86. skilled people from the townships to keep the economy on a 3.2. ‘Gated communities’ The upcoming of these new communication technologieshealthy level. “The informal city can then be seen as a strate- the last few decades is for the ‘formal’ richer world a gift.gic component of advanced urban economies” Sassen (2005, Many contemporary (US) cities close their ‘richer buildings’ These people now have better connections world-wide. Butp.86) The city needs the people with high-income and low- off, with walls and security. It is also happening in residential people in the ‘informal’ poorer world may not be possible toincome jobs to keep all the required services functioning. areas, where richer people have their houses. This is an ex- invest in these communication technologies. Some of these ample of what they called “the spatial segregation of city life”, areas don’t even have connections to networks of clean drinkOn the other side ‘formal’ and ‘informal’ are far away from which can be seen as “a reaction to the extraordinary mix water, electricity and sanitation facilities. The disconnectioneach other. The lifestyles and mobility patterns differentiates of city life” Allen (1999, pp. 85-6). These areas are closed off between the world with access to all these ‘modern’ facilitiesextensively from each other, and also their living possibilities with gates and walls and people who want to enter the area, and the world with not this access to facilities will get worse,are very different. People living in ‘informal areas’ are often have to use a special key or report it by the security. These because they can not hook on the (global) networks.low educated, have difficulties in finding jobs and don’t have areas are called ‘gated communities’, and give the residentsa high living expectation because of the lack on facilities, the feeling that they live save with a lower change of crimewhile people who live in ‘formal areas’ have better possibili- in their neighborhood. These areas are visibly disconnected 4.1. Communication technology in South Africaties to get a higher education level, have better changes to from the surrounding areas in the city, but these gated com-find a job and their living expectations are higher because of munities need infrastructure and facilities to be not com- Belonging of the poorer ‘informal’ world does not alwaysthe good facilities. pletely disconnected from the rest of the city. Also services mean that it is not possible to have access to communication are required in those areas, done by people who come from technologies. In South Africa for example, cell phone tech-In the ‘formal’ world, cars are the most important way to other city parts or even from the ‘informal’ world. nology is these days an important mode of mobility to breakmove from one to another city part for work, or even to other out of the restrictive mobility patterns. In figure 2 are theparts of the country. The car gives their owner a feeling of numbers of cell phone use and landline phone use mappedfreedom to move wherever they want to go, give a different 4. Connection with communication technologies for the city of Cape Town (Statistics South Africa, 2001), not aset of places where it is possible to go (than for example pub- large percentage of the inhabitants of the townships are us-lic transport) related to the infrastructure special designed In the last decades, the coming up of communication tech- ing these technologies because of the (for them) expensivefor fast car travel (see figure 1 with as example the motor- nologies like the internet, satellite television and electronic prices.ways in The Netherlands), and is seen as a status symbol. In trading had also consequences for the development of cities.the ‘informal’ world, people will go by public transport or by Suddenly it was not necessary anymore to live in the middle If people have mobile phones then they are mostly secondfoot go to their work in another city parts, and a only a very of the city and distances between cities got smaller for the hand, fixed after they broke down by their former ownersfew people own a private car. The reach of these people is people who have full access to the new technologies and and sold again for ‘cheap’ price at different numbers of spazalower and gives them a lower feeling of freedom, because of can afford to live further away from work and other facili- shops in the townships where also the community telephonethe traveling time to go somewhere. The people who have to ties. Internet makes it possible to have contact via email with shops resident. These kind of shops, showed in figure 3a andwalk to work do often have to walk for more than an hour to friends and family, shopping became easier and also work- 3b on the next page, are old cargo containers and now usedreach their destination, where people driving the car can be ing home with an network connection to the office is now to offer the people in the Townships cheap phone calls. Theout of the region within after an hour of driving. possible. The need to travel to everything has decreased, people pay units less than a third of the standard price. BBC which can be positive for the problem of traffic jams. This is news talks about that these people in Langa (one of the old-People living in poorer (‘informal’) areas, work mostly in the not really so at the moment, research has shown that per- est Townships in Cape Town)“pay 85 cents a minute insteadmanufacturing industrial sector or as service workers for sonal travel has increased with each new communications of the normal rate of 280 cents a unit” and the units make‘richer’ families in the formal areas. For example in South Af- possibility because of being not anymore necessary to live use of the mobile phone technology (Hamilton, 2003). It mayrica, many of these people use taxis and minibuses to go to near facilities and work. If companies develop the possibili- be possible that the numbers of use for the community tele-work. The train is too expensive for most of them, and taxi or ties for home-working more, people would not go necessari- phones are not taken in these statistics.minibuses are cheaper in those areas to move from one to ly to their offices which would give less pressure on the roadsanother place. The taxi system can be seen as different from, and there would be less traffic jams. This has also a positivefor example, in Europe where taking a taxi is relatively ex- effect on the air pollution. Figure 2. Cell phone use(left) and landline phone use in townships Cape Townpensive. 2001(own analysis map) shows that both are not that much used by the people there.
  • 87. 5. Conclusions and recommendations References Movements within cities happen 24 hours a day in different Bibliography ways. People work at daytime, but also at night and they move with different transport modes. It depends on the city Allen, J 1999, ‘ Worlds within cities’, in D Massey, J Allen, & S which transport mode is the most ‘popular’ to use, and this Pile (eds.), City Worlds, Routledge, London, pp. 53-97 also depends on the possibilities of the inhabitants. In the ‘formal’ world it is more likely that the people use the car, but Amin, A & Graham, S 1999, ‘Cities of connection and discon- in the ‘informal’ world people use public transport or even nection’, in J Allen, D Massey & M Pryke (eds.), Unsettling cit- walk. The ‘formal’ and ‘informal’ world need each other, but ies movement/ settlement, Routledge, London, pp. 7-47 are also very disconnected from each other. Another form of disconnection are the gated communities, in which resi- Hamilton, K & Hoyle, S 1999, ‘Moving cities: transport con- dents live behind walls and have to pass gates and security nections’, in J Allen, D Massey & M Pryke (eds.), Unsettling cit- to enter the area. Connection, disconnection and movement ies movement/ settlement, Routledge, London, pp. 49-94 also play an important role by the upcoming of the more advanced communication technologies. These technologies Hamilton, R 2003, Community phones connect SA townships. connect the whole world to each other have as a big ad- Retrieved January 16, 2007 fromhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ vance that contacts and shopping can be done from home, technology/3246732.stm but these technologies disconnect the ‘rich’ world which has access to these technologies and the ‘poor’ world which do Sassen, S 2005, ‘Fragmented urban topographies and their not have access to these technologies. underlying interconnections’, in A Brillembourg, F Fereiss & H Klumper (eds.), Informal city – Caracas Case, Prestel, Munich, A recommendation after writing this paper can be that the pp. 83-7 ‘formal’ richer and ‘informal’ poorer societies get more con- nected with each other. There is already a form of connection ‘The prevalence of slums’ 2006, in M Davis 2006, Planet of between those two ‘worlds’. If the ‘informal’ society would be slums, Verso, London, pp. 20-50 better connected to the ‘formal’ society, they could receive more benefits from the ‘formal’ society and the connection Wright, G 2005, ‘Informal cities multiple realities’, in A Brillem- possibilities between them would be expanded. How to in- bourg, F Fereiss & H Klumper (eds.), Informal city – Caracas crease these connections and benefits between the ‘formal’ Case, Prestel, Munich, pp. 79-82 and ‘informal’ worlds? What role can movement play in this? Statistics South Africa 2001, City of Cape Town - Census 2001 – 2006 WARDS: Census of household goods profile, retrievedFigure 3a & 3b Spaza shop with community phones where people in Town- October 13, 2007, from Statistics South Africa databaseships do their phone calls for less than a third of the standard price (Communityphones connect SA townships, 2003) Map reference De nieuwe wegenkaart van Snelder [Image] 2007. Retrieved January 16, 2008 from http://sync.nl/van-a-naar-a-neder- land-werkt-hard-aan-een-verkeersinfarct/