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Types of Pathogens
Types of Pathogens
Types of Pathogens
Types of Pathogens
Types of Pathogens
Types of Pathogens
Types of Pathogens
Types of Pathogens
Types of Pathogens
Types of Pathogens
Types of Pathogens
Types of Pathogens
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Types of Pathogens

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  • 1. Types of Pathogens Anna Beth Reardon KINS 2041
  • 2. Pathogens Pathogen – A microorganism that causes disease. Reservoir – A natural environment in which a pathogen typically lives. - A human - An animal -An environmental component like soil or water How do pathogens spread? Pathogens must leave the reservoir through some portal of exit.
  • 3. Pathogens Human Portals of exit: -Saliva for mumps -Mucous membranes for sexually transmitted diseases -Blood for HIV and hepatitis -Feces for intestinal infections -Nose and throat discharges for colds and influenza Pathogens can be transmitted directly or indirectly. Directly transmitted – pathogens are passed from one person to another without an intermediary. -Sneezing -Coughing -Sexual contact -Blood -Mosquitoes
  • 4. Types of Pathogens Indirectly transmitted – animals or insects serve as vectors carrying the pathogens from one host to the next. -Ticks -Mosquitoes Different types of pathogens may include: -Bacteria -Viruses -Fungi -Protozoa -Parasitic worms -Prions
  • 5. Bacteria Bacteria – single-celled organism that usually reproduce by splitting in two to create a pair of identical cells. -Most abundant living things on earth -Helpful and harmful bacteria -Helpful bacteria: produce vitamins help digest nutrients keep harmful bacteria in check by competing for food and resources secreting substances toxic to pathogenic bacteria Diseases associated with bacteria: Pneumonia – inflammation of the lungs -Symptoms: fever, chills, shortness of breath, cough -Leading infectious cause of death worldwide -Vaccinations are recommended for adults 65 and older
  • 6. . Bacteria cont. Meningitis – infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord -Symptoms: fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion -Usually mild and goes away on its own -Vaccinations are recommended for children 11-18. Strep throat – red, sore throat with white patches on the tonsils -Symptoms: swollen lymph nodes, fever, headache Tuberculosis – chronic bacterial infection that usually affects the lungs -Symptoms: coughing, fatigue, night sweats, weight loss -10- 15 billion Americans have been infected and carry Ulcers – 25 million Americans suffer -Symptoms: pain in abdomen, nausea, loss of appetite
  • 7. Virus Virus – a very small infectious agent composed of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat; lacks an independent metabolism and reproduces only within a host cell. -Inside the host cell, it sheds its protein covering, and its genetic material takes control of the cell and creates more viruses. -Most common form of contagious disease Diseases associated with viruses: Common cold – lasts 1-2 weeks -Almost always transmitted by hand-to-hand contact -Reduce risks by washing hands frequently and avoid touching face -Avoid multi-symptom cold remedies
  • 8. Virus cont. Influenza – infection of the respiratory tract -Commonly called the flu -Symptoms: fever and extreme fatigue -Recover within 1-2 weeks but can develop pneumonia -Highest rates occur in children Herpesvirus- a family of viruses responsible for cold sores, mononucleosis, chickenpox, and herpes. -Once infected, the host is never free of the virus -Virus lies latent within cells and become active periodically -Two herpesviruses can cause severe infections in people with suppressed immune system which infects the lungs, brain, colon, and eyes
  • 9. Virus cont. Viral Hepatitis- inflammation of the liver -Caused by Hepatitis A, B, or C -Symptoms: fatigue, jaundice, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and nausea -Recover in one month -5-10% of people infected with Hepatitis B and 85-90% of Hepatitis C become chronic carriers of the virus -500 million people worldwide may be carriers -People who should get checked are people who had injected drugs, received blood transfusion, have tattoos or piercings
  • 10. Fungi & Protozoa Fungus- an organism that absorbs food from organic matter -Usually restricted to the skin, mucous membrane, and lungs -Athlete’s foot, jock itch, and ringwom are common -Can be deadly in people with an impaired immune system Protozoa- a microscopic single-celled organism that often produces recurrent, cyclical attacks of disease -Malaria is a major killer worldwide -Mostly among infants and children -Giardiasis- parasite that lives in the intestines of humans -Symptoms: nausea, diarrhea, bloating, abdominal cramp
  • 11. Parasitic Worms &Prions Parasitic Worms- a pathogen that causes intestinal and other infections -Examples include: tapeworms, hookworms, and pinworms -Tapeworms can grow many feet -Pinworms are most common in United States -Originate from contaminated food or drink Prions- responsible for degenerative disorders of the central nervous system -Lack DNA or RNA and consist of only protein -Sponge-like holes in the brain -Symptoms: loss of coordination, weakness, dementia, and death -Examples include: Mad Cow Disease
  • 12. Reference Insel, Paul M., and Walton T. Roth. "Immunity And Infection." Connect Core Concepts in Health. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print. "Bacteria." American Museum of Natural History. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http:// www.amnh.org/nationalcenter/youngnaturalistawards/1998/bacteria.h tml> "Viruses and Bacteria." NetDoctor.co.uk -The UK's Leading Independent Health Website. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/ health_advice/facts/virusbacteria.htm>.

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