0
Environmental Comparison of Conventional   and Organic Technological Routes for Sugar   Obtaining Concerning to Greenhouse...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route                                 1. INTRO...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route                        2. SUGAR SCENARIO...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route                2. SUGAR SCENARIO IN BRAZ...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route              3. GHG EMISSIONS IN SUGAR L...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route3. GHG EMISSION IN SUGAR LIFE CYCLE - ORG...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route      3.3 PRODUCT SYSTEM: CONVENTIONAL SU...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route                    3.3 PRODUC SYSTEM MOD...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route                    3.3 PRODUC SYSTEM MOD...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route              3.4 PRODUCT SYSTEM: ORGANIC...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route                      3.4 PRODUCT SYSTEM ...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route                3.4 PRODUCT SYSTEM MODELI...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route               4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route                         4. RESULTS AND D...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route                        4. RESULTS AND DI...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route                        4. RESULTS AND DI...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route                        4. RESULTS AND DI...
Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route                                    5. CO...
THANKS FOR YOUR         ATTENTION!!!                      Contact:Charles Prado Monteiro: monteiro.charles@terra.com.br   ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Environmental Comparision

364

Published on

Environmental Comparison of Conventional
and Organic Technological Routes for Sugar
Obtaining Concerning to Greenhouse Gases
Emissions

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
364
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Environmental Comparision"

  1. 1. Environmental Comparison of Conventional and Organic Technological Routes for Sugar Obtaining Concerning to Greenhouse Gases Emissions Charles Prado Monteiro Marcelo Almeida Costa Emilia Satoshi Miyamaru Luiz Alexandre KulayInLCA/LCM 2008 – International Life Cycle Assessment & Management 2008 – LCA VIII
  2. 2. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 1. INTRODUCTION• Brazil and India are the largest sugar producer in the world.• Brazilian sugar represents about 50% of the international sugar market.• The Brazilian sugar is obtained from the sugarcane.• Since the sugar is an important product in the human diet, as a source of energy, it is one of the most traded product in the world. InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  3. 3. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 2. SUGAR SCENARIO IN BRAZIL• 2007/2008: 515.8 million tons of sugarcane produced in 6.7 mil ha. Brazilian Sugar Production - Crop-years 35 31.3 30.7• 2007/2008: 31.3 millions tons of 30 24.9 26.6 26.2 sugar produced Unit - Million tons 25 20 15• 2008/2009 Estimate: 558.7 million 10 tons of sugarcane in 7.1 mil ha. 5 0 2003/2004 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008• 2008/2009 Estimate: 32.8 millions tons of sugar InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  4. 4. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 2. SUGAR SCENARIO IN BRAZIL/WORLD• Two technological options: – Conventional Sugar: Produced through chemical fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides. About 80% of sugarcane is burned before the harvest. – Organic Sugar: Vinasse and Filter Cake (wastes from sugar indutrial process - refinery) No synthetic chemical inputs in the entire production chain InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  5. 5. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 3. GHG EMISSIONS IN SUGAR LIFE CYCLE – ORGANIC ROUTE X CONVENTIONAL ROUTE• 3.1 Definition of goal and scope – Objective: to compare the environmental performance in terms of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from organic and conventional routes of sugar production. – Function: To supply the energetic needs for an adult human being (70 Kg of body mass) for an year. – Function Unit: supply 730,000 kcal – Reference Flow: 4,000 kcal/kg of sugar – 182.5 kg of sugar/year – Approach: cradle to gate InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  6. 6. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route3. GHG EMISSION IN SUGAR LIFE CYCLE - ORGANIC ROUTE X CONVENTIONAL ROUTE– Exclusion Criteria: exclusion of Unit Processes and environmental loads: • Quantitative: contribution below 1.0% were excluded from the product system • Environmental Relevance– Data Quality criteria– Allocation factors– Impact Assessment Model – IPCC (2001) GWP 100 InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  7. 7. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 3.3 PRODUCT SYSTEM: CONVENTIONAL SUGAR Transportation Bagasse Bagasse BurntSugarcane Sugar Production and GenerationCultivation Sugarcane of Energy burnt Energy Sugar Excess Energy Vinasse and Filter Cake InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  8. 8. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 3.3 PRODUC SYSTEM MODELING Conventional Sugar – Agricultural Phase• Production cycle: 5 crops in 6 years.• Yield: 68.7 ton/ha.year• Fertilizer Comsuption (ha.yr) with Vinasse and Filter Cake: – N – 60 kg – Urea and Ammonium Nitrate – P – 8.3 kg – Single Superphosphate – K – 13.3 kg – Potassium Chloride – Vinasse: 76.2 m3 and Filter Cake: 5.6 ton• Operational Profile (Crops): – Mechanic Harvest – 35%; Mannual Harvest – 65% – Green Sugarcane – 20%; Burned Sugarcane – 80%• Transportation – Seed – Sugarcane for Refinary InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  9. 9. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 3.3 PRODUC SYSTEM MODELING Conventional Sugar – Industrial Phase• Yield: 120 kg sugar/ton sugarcane• Grinding of Sugarcane – Juice: sugar and molasses (industry of ethanol) – Bagasse: energy production (self-sufficient)• Primary Treatment - Cush Cush, Sieves and hydrocyclones.• Chemical Treatment – Addition of SO2 (sulphur dioxide) to the juice – Addition of Ca(OH)2 (hydrated lime) to the juice.• Evaporation / Crystallization• Separation and drying – Sugar – Molasses InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  10. 10. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 3.4 PRODUCT SYSTEM: ORGANIC SUGAR Transportation Bagasse Bagasse BurntSugarcane Sugar Production and GenerationCultivation Green of Energy Sugarcane Energy Sugar Excess Energy Vinasse and Filter Cake InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  11. 11. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 3.4 PRODUCT SYSTEM MODELING Organic Sugar – Agricultural Phase• Production cycle: 5 crops in 6 years.• Yield: 81.7 ton/ha.year• Fertilizer Applied: – Green Manure (Cotrolaria juncea) – Cattle’s Manure – 2.45 ton/ha.yr – Vinasse: 90.7 m3/ha.yr – Filter Cake: 6.66 ton/ha.yr• Operational Profile (Crops) – Mechanic Harvest – 100% – Green Sugarcane – 100%• Transportation – Seed – Sugarcane for Refinary InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  12. 12. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 3.4 PRODUCT SYSTEM MODELING Organic and Conventional Sugar – Industrial Phase• Yield: 147.5 kg organic sugar/ton sugarcane• Sugar refining: the same for organic and conventional routes.• Brazilian model of sugar refining - two products: sugar and molasses• Molasses: ethanol production• Economic Allocation: 86% sugar; 14% to ethanol InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  13. 13. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Kg CO2 eq./FU – Agrictural Phase Organic Sugarcane - 806.68 Conventional Sugarcane - 631.89 Kg CO2 eq./FU – Industrial Phase Organic Sugar 22,631 Conventional Sugar 26,100 InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  14. 14. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS• Difference between GHG emissions are related to agricultural stage – sugarcane cultivation.• Direct GHG emissions from the conventional sugarcane (ha.year): – N2O: 3.05 kg - 58% nitrogenous fertilizers, 15% Biomass burnt, 13% vinasse and 14% filter cake – CH4: 15.17 kg – Biomass burnt• Direct GHG emissions from the organic sugarcane (ha.year): – N2O: 1.86 kg - 46% manure cattle’s, 29% filter cake and 25% vinasse InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  15. 15. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS• Agricultural stage of the organic sugarcane emits less GHG, compared with the cultivation of the conventional sugarcane• Organic sugarcane harvesting is carry on by through mechanized equipments (diesel consumption).• In this specific subject, the organic sugarcane emits more GHG than the conventional sugarcane (mechanized crop represents 35% of the production). InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  16. 16. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS• GHG direct emissions in industrial stages: bagasse burned and energy generation.• Process Control Measures: residual CH4 and N2O• Direct GHG emissions from the conventional and organic sugar (boiler): – CH4: 4.75x10-6 kg/Kg sugar – N2O: 1.00x10-3 kg/kg sugar• Electricity: average energy generation: 16.83 KWh/ton sugarcane – 65% Refinary comsuption – 35% Sold to the concessionary InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  17. 17. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS• Analyzing the Life Cycle Assessment of the sugar industrial phase, we noticed a high emission of GHG: – CO2 eq. Fossil (70% of total): comsuption of natural gas, coal and heavy oil in chemical production industry – soda powder, lime and sulphur dioxide. – CO2 eq. Biogenic (12% of total): it burns of biomass for generation of energy and Brazilian Grid (3.2% it burns of biomass). – The other 18% are regarding several stages included in the LCA sugar model, such as model, such as industrial process, transport, equipments and structures. InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  18. 18. Greenhouse Gases Emission in Sugar Life Cycle: Organic Route x Conventional Route 5. CONCLUSION• The greenhouse gases emission were higher in conventional route than organic sugar process.• Cultivation by conventional route without sugarcane burnt – legal exigency in 2014 in Sao Paulo – emits more GHG than the organic cultivation, because the emissions of N2O from the nitrogenous fertilizers are higher than N2O generated due to the cattle manure.• The most significant GHG emissions are in the industrial phase. Three main products responsible for this are sulphur dioxide (53%), Soda Powder (33%) and Lime (14%). InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  19. 19. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!!! Contact:Charles Prado Monteiro: monteiro.charles@terra.com.br InLCA/LCM 2008 - LCA VIII
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×