Greek people did feel a cultural connection or a cultural identity with one another. They called themselves Hellenes . GREEK IDENTITY City-Sates were independent. They had different laws and government WHY ?
They believed they had a common ancestor , the hero Hellen . Olympics Games : About 776 B.C., every four years Greeks met to compete in athletics contests to honour the god Zeus.
In the 700 B.C. the Greeks developed an alphabet based on the alphabets of the Phoenicians. The Greek Alphabet Capital Lowercase Name Roman Letter Capital Lowercase Name Roman Letter alpha mu nu rho
Greeks had a common religion : they believed that Zeus and the other gods controlled daily events in the world Hermes : messenger of the gods Temple of Athena : goddess of arts and war Venus Poseidon : god of the sea
What helped the Greeks feel a cultural identity ? 1. A common religion. 2. Written language. A B C 3. Belief in a common ancestor
The Persian Wars 540 B.C.: Persian armies conquered Babylon, Assyria. Egypt and Greek cities in Asia Minor. 500 B.C.: Greeks of Asia Minor rebelled against the Persian. Athenians sent help, but they could not defeat the Persians. 490 B.C.: Darius I turned his soldiers toward Athens because Athens helped the colonies fight the Persians. Athenians defeated Persian in the battle of Marathon . Persian King Darius I
Persian king Xerxes 486 B.C .: King Darius died. 480 B.C : His son Xerxes sent 800 ships to attack Athens. In the sea battle of Salamis , the Greeks defeated the Persians.
Salamis 480 BC Marathon 490 BC Thermopylae 480 BC
What happened in Greece after the Persian Wars ? To prevent future attacks by invaders, Greek city-sates formed leagues
Sparta led the Peloponnesian league Athens led the Delian League
The golden Age of Athens From 479 B.C. to 431 B.C ., Athenians enjoyed a time of achievements called the Golden Age . Pericles Pericles led Athens during much of this period, with the help of an assembly. He believed the democracy could be better. How?
Pericles made the government of Athens stronger by allowing all citizens to take part. He also made it easier for Athenians to working the arts and sciences by having the government support them.
Architects designed beautiful publics buildings The Parthenon: built to honour goddess Athena
Acropolis of Athens Amphitheatre of Salamis Temple of Athena
Greek columns Doric Order Ionic Order Corinthian Order
Sophocles wrote tragedies : serious plays, in which the main character comes to an unhappy end. Great writers of Golden Age Sophocles Aristophanes wrote comedies : humorous plays in which made fun of political leaders or traditional ideas . Aristophanes
Herodotus is considered the first historian and one of the earliest geographers, wrote about the Persian Wars. Herodotus Hippocrates discovered that illnesses came from natural causes. They were not punishment of the gods, as most people had believed. He wrote a code of conduct that doctors still follow today . Hippocrates
Socrates Aristotle Socrates : he taught by asking questions and makings his students think rather than simply telling them information. Plato Plato was student of Socrates Great thinkers and teachers Aristotle was student of Plato
The end of the Golden Age During Golden Age, Athens and Sparta became the most powerful city-states in Greece. What were the problems? Athens wanted more land. BUT… Sparta wanted to waken the influence of Athens.
What happened with the leagues? The city-states of Peloponnesian League supported Sparta The city-states of Delian Leagues supported Athens In 431 B.C. the Peloponnesian War broke out
Peloponnesian War Persian Empire Athens & supporters Sparta & supporters Athens & members of Delian League Aegean Sea Persian Empire Ionic Sea Mediterranean Sea Athens Sparta Thessaly Ephesus Peloponnesus Corinth
After Sparta attacked Attica, many people from the countryside moved into Athens. With Athens crowded, diseases swept through the city-state. A lot of Athenians soldiers died, including Pericles.
What happened with Athens without Pericles ? The members of the assembly began to follow bad leaders called demagogues . They made promises they could not keep and led the assembly into make poor decisions. 404B.C.: Athens surrendered to Sparta
Sparta replaced the Athenian assembly with an oligarchy. The Athenians soon rebelled and brought democracy back to Athens.