Lean	  System	  Design	  ©	  Equinox	  Limited	                           By	  Ant	  Boobier	  
What	  is	  a	  System?	  ©	  Equinox	  Limited	  
What	  is	  a	  System?	  ©	  Equinox	  Limited	  
Some	  Systems	  Thinking	                                        Source:	  Donella	  H	  Meadows	  ©	  Equinox	  Limited	  
Some	  Systems	  Thinking	                                        Source:	  Donella	  H	  Meadows	  ©	  Equinox	  Limited	  
Some	  Systems	  Thinking	          	  Metabolic	  system...	  With	  lolly	  cake	  !	                                   ...
Some	  Systems	  Thinking	          	  Metabolic	  system...	  With	  lolly	  cake	  !	                                   ...
Are	  all	  Systems	  the	  same	  ?	          	  ‘Process	  should	  be	  uniquely	  tailored	  to	  each	              P...
Agile	  Buffet	                                  “Today’s	  typical	  Agile	  process,	  no	  ma6er	  what	  name	         ...
Lean	  Principle	              Descrip<on	                                                    Deliver	  value	  to	  the	 ...
OpMmize	  output	  from	  the	  enMre	  system…	  ©	  Equinox	  Limited	     Picture:	  Stephen	  Lewis	  experiencinterne...
OpMmize	  output	  from	  the	  enMre	  system…	            	  but	  we	  have	  system	  hierarchies	  so…	  ©	  Equinox	...
OpMmize	  output	  from	  the	  enMre	  system…	            	  but	  we	  have	  system	  hierarchies	  so…	              ...
Frame	  the	  System	                                 The	  System	                                Current	  State	  ©	  E...
Systems	  Journey	                                             Frame	                                         Current	  Sy...
Steps	  to	  Frame…	         1.	  Roles	  and	  ResponsibiliMes	  ©	  Equinox	  Limited	  
Steps	  to	  Frame…	         1.	  Roles	  and	  ResponsibiliMes	                                   2.	  Work	  Types	  ©	 ...
Steps	  to	  Frame…	         1.	  Roles	  and	  ResponsibiliMes	                                   2.	  Work	  Types	     ...
Steps	  to	  Frame…	         1.	  Roles	  and	  ResponsibiliMes	                                   2.	  Work	  Types	     ...
Framework	  for	  Designing	  Systems	                                The	  System	                                       ...
Framework	  for	  Designing	  Systems	                                The	  System	                                       ...
Framework	  for	  Designing	  Systems	                                               The	  System	                        ...
Framework	  for	  Designing	  Systems	                                               The	  System	                        ...
Framework	  for	  Designing	  Systems	                                               The	  System	                        ...
The	  System	  Workshop	  •  Make	  sure	  every	  area	  is	  represented	  •  No	  one	  has	  an	  end-­‐to-­‐end	  pic...
Summary	  of	  System	  Design	  	                        Item	          Descrip<on	                       Outputs	       ...
1.	  Outputs	  (Purpose)	      •  What	  is	  the	  objecMve?	      •  What	  has	  to	  be	  delivered	  to	  whom	  and	...
2.	  Pathways	      •  Sequencing	  and	  responsibility	      •  What	  Work	  Stages	  need	  to	  be	  completed	  by	 ...
3.	  ConnecMons	      •  IdenMfy	  the	  feedback	  processes	  and	  dynamics	         determining	  overall	  system	  b...
Watch	  out	  for	  oscilla<ons…	  ©	  Equinox	  Limited	  
4.	  Methods	      •  What	  is	  each	  Work	  Stage’s	  content	  and	  sequence	      •  How	  do	  you	  know	  the	  ...
Journey	  from	  ‘Why’	  to	  ‘How’	    o  PracMces	  relate	  to	  mulMple	       Principles	    o  Group	  pracMces	  in...
Process	  Pajerns:	  The	  How	           Item	               Process	  Pa5ern	          Outputs	             •  Purpose	 ...
So	  why	  does	  all	  that	  ma5er…?	  ©	  Equinox	  Limited	  
So	  why	  does	  all	  that	  ma5er…?	       	  “95%	  of	  varia+on	  in	  performance	  is	  due	  to	  the	           ...
So	  why	  does	  all	  that	  ma5er…?	       	  “95%	  of	  varia+on	  in	  performance	  is	  due	  to	  the	           ...
So	  why	  does	  all	  that	  ma5er…?	       	  “95%	  of	  varia+on	  in	  performance	  is	  due	  to	  the	           ...
Further	  Reading	  and	  References	        	   	                 	     	     	     	     	     	  	        	   	        ...
@antboobier                              anthony@nomad8.com©	  Equinox	  Limited	       www.nomad8.com
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Lean System Design Presentation from AgileNZ 2012


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Presentation I did at AgileNZ 2012 around approach that I take to designing Product Development processes, here in New Zealand.

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Lean System Design Presentation from AgileNZ 2012

  1. 1. Lean  System  Design  ©  Equinox  Limited   By  Ant  Boobier  
  2. 2. What  is  a  System?  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  3. 3. What  is  a  System?  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  4. 4. Some  Systems  Thinking   Source:  Donella  H  Meadows  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  5. 5. Some  Systems  Thinking   Source:  Donella  H  Meadows  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  6. 6. Some  Systems  Thinking    Metabolic  system...  With  lolly  cake  !   Source:  Donella  H  Meadows  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  7. 7. Some  Systems  Thinking    Metabolic  system...  With  lolly  cake  !   Source:  Donella  H  Meadows    Our  focus  is:  SoHware  Product  Development  Process:  Idea  through  to  ProducMon  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  8. 8. Are  all  Systems  the  same  ?    ‘Process  should  be  uniquely  tailored  to  each   Project/Value  Stream’    (Core  Kanban  Emergent  Behaviour)          -­‐  David  J  Anderson  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  9. 9. Agile  Buffet   “Today’s  typical  Agile  process,  no  ma6er  what  name   you  call  it,  takes  the  best  from  the  buffet  of  Agile   prac>ces”   -­‐  Jeff  Pa5on   ©  Equinox  Limited   Source:  www.agileproduct  design.com  
  10. 10. Lean  Principle   Descrip<on   Deliver  value  to  the  customer  quickly,  rapid  delivery;  high  quality;  low  cost   Deliver  Fast   Queuing  theory  to  Limit  Work  in  Process  (WIP)  and  context  switching   Managing  workflow  is  easier  than  managing  schedules,  using  repeatable  workflow   Waste  is  anything  that  does  not  add  value  to  the  customer.  The  three  biggest  wastes  in   Eliminate  Waste   soHware  development  are:   1.  Building  the  wrong  thing:  building  features    that  aren’t  needed   2.  Failure  to  learn:  policies  that  interfere  with  our  ability  to  learn   3.  Thrashing:  anything  that  interferes  with  smooth  flow  of  value;  Handovers   Predictable  performance  is  driven  by  feedback:  rapidly  respond  to  change   Learn  Constantly   Maintain  op<ons;  keep  code  change  tolerant,  minimise  irreversible  decisions   Defer  commitment,  schedule  irreversible  decisions  to  Last  responsible  moment     Build  Quality  In   Final  Verifica<on  should  not  find  defects!  Prevent  with  executable  requirements   Mistake  proof  your  process  with  test  first  development  to  establish  correctness   (Integrate  Quality)   Break  dependencies:  architecture  should  support  addiMon  of  any  feature  at  any  Mme   Op<mize  the  Whole   Focus  on  the  en<re  value  stream  from  customer  request  to  deployed  soHware   Deliver  a  complete  product,  a  complete  team  delivering  not  just  the  soHware   (Value  the  Whole)   Think  long  term    rather  than  local  opMmizaMon   Autonomy:  Empowered  self-­‐organising  feature  teams  with  effecMve  leadership   Engage  Everyone   Mastery:  Provide  challenge  and  environment  which  enables  people  to  grow   Purpose:  Tie  the  work  to  value  and  a  common  vision     Keep  Geng  Be5er   Failure  is  a  learning  opportunity:  invesMgate  and  correct  them  as  they  occur   Standards  exist  to  be  challenged  and  improved   (Relentless  Improvement)   Use  the  scien<fic  method  Plan-­‐Do-­‐Check-­‐Act  process  ©  Equinox  Limited   Source:  Mary  and  Tom  Poppendieck  
  11. 11. OpMmize  output  from  the  enMre  system…  ©  Equinox  Limited   Picture:  Stephen  Lewis  experiencinternet.co.uk  
  12. 12. OpMmize  output  from  the  enMre  system…    but  we  have  system  hierarchies  so…  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  13. 13. OpMmize  output  from  the  enMre  system…    but  we  have  system  hierarchies  so…   …define  what     that  system  is  first…   know  your  limits  !  ©  Equinox  Limited   Picture:  Stephen  Lewis  experiencinternet.co.uk  
  14. 14. Frame  the  System   The  System   Current  State  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  15. 15. Systems  Journey   Frame   Current  System   Define   Current  State   Establish   New  System  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  16. 16. Steps  to  Frame…   1.  Roles  and  ResponsibiliMes  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  17. 17. Steps  to  Frame…   1.  Roles  and  ResponsibiliMes   2.  Work  Types  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  18. 18. Steps  to  Frame…   1.  Roles  and  ResponsibiliMes   2.  Work  Types   3.  Work  Size  and  Timing  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  19. 19. Steps  to  Frame…   1.  Roles  and  ResponsibiliMes   2.  Work  Types   3.  Work  Size  and  Timing   Then  our  Customer….  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  20. 20. Framework  for  Designing  Systems   The  System   Source:  Steven  J  Spear  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  21. 21. Framework  for  Designing  Systems   The  System   Output   Source:  Steven  J  Spear  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  22. 22. Framework  for  Designing  Systems   The  System   Pathways   Output   Source:  Steven  J  Spear  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  23. 23. Framework  for  Designing  Systems   The  System   Pathways   Connec>ons   Output   Source:  Steven  J  Spear  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  24. 24. Framework  for  Designing  Systems   The  System   Pathways   Connec>ons   Output   Methods   Source:  Steven  J  Spear  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  25. 25. The  System  Workshop  •  Make  sure  every  area  is  represented  •  No  one  has  an  end-­‐to-­‐end  picture,  they   learn  things  from  one  another  •  RepresentaMon  of  how  work  flows   •  Value  Stream   •  Work  Flow  and  Work  Stages  •  Polices  and  Procedures   •  DefiniMon  of  Done  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  26. 26. Summary  of  System  Design     Item   Descrip<on   Outputs   •  What  is  the  objec<ve?   •  What  has  to  be  delivered  to  whom  and  by  when  to  ensure  success?   •  Match  supply  with  demand   Pathways   •  Sequencing  and  responsibility   •  What  Work  Stages  need  to  be  completed  by  whom  in  what  order  to   achieve  the  desired  outcome   Connec<ons   •  Conveying  informa<on  and  services  between  work  stages   •  What  are  the  hand-­‐offs  between  the  different  Work  Stages   •  What  informa<on  triggers  people  to  undertake  their  ac<vi<es  at   the  correct  <me   •  Handovers   Methods   •  What  is  each  Work  Stage’s  content,  sequence  and  <ming   •  How  do  you  know  the  method  you  are  using  is  working?   •  Policies  and  Procedures  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  27. 27. 1.  Outputs  (Purpose)   •  What  is  the  objecMve?   •  What  has  to  be  delivered  to  whom  and  by  when  to   ensure  success?   •  The  biggest  source  of  waste  is  building  the  wrong  thing  or   building  things  people  dont  need   •  Every  system  has  a  purpose  within  a  larger  system   •  Purpose  of  Product  Development  is  to  generate  revenue   for  the  organizaMon   •  Match  supply  with  demand  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  28. 28. 2.  Pathways   •  Sequencing  and  responsibility   •  What  Work  Stages  need  to  be  completed  by  whom  in   what  order  to  achieve  the  desired  outcome   •  All  of  a  systems  parts  must  be  present  for  the  system   to  carry  out  its  purpose  opMmally   •  A  systems  parts  must  be  arranged  in  a  specific  way  for   the  system  to  carry  out  its  purpose   •  Systems  Thinking:   •  Inflow,  Ouglow,  Stock  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  29. 29. 3.  ConnecMons   •  IdenMfy  the  feedback  processes  and  dynamics   determining  overall  system  behaviour   •  Conveying  informaMon  and  services  between  Work   Stages   •  What  informaMon  triggers  people  to  undertake  their   acMviMes  at  the  correct  Mme   •  What  are  hand-­‐offs  between  Work  Stages   •  Source  of  waste   •  Systems  Thinking:   •  Feedback  Loops  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  30. 30. Watch  out  for  oscilla<ons…  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  31. 31. 4.  Methods   •  What  is  each  Work  Stage’s  content  and  sequence   •  How  do  you  know  the  method  you  are  using  is   working?   •  Policies  and  Procedures  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  32. 32. Journey  from  ‘Why’  to  ‘How’   o  PracMces  relate  to  mulMple   Principles   o  Group  pracMces  into   Process  Pajern  areas   o  Link  Process  Pajerns  to   System  Framework  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  33. 33. Process  Pajerns:  The  How   Item   Process  Pa5ern   Outputs   •  Purpose  and  vision   •  Product:  focus  on  the  product  rather  than  the  project   •  Value:  is  value  created  and  delivered  early   Pathways   •  Flow:  process  built  on  flow  to  eliminate  delay  (Itera<ons  or  Kanban)   •  Visual  Control:  a5end  to  the  system   •  Cycle  <me:  shorten  <me  work  starts  un<l  it  is  consumed  by  customer   •  Specifica<on  by  Example:  (aka  ATDD  or  BDD)     Connec<ons   •  Pull:  pull  based  capacity  planning   •  Cadence:  small  batches  delivering  to  customer  and  geng  feedback   regularly   •  Defini<on  of  Done:  well  defined  work  prac<ces   •  WIP:  ensure  WIP  is  kept  as  small  as  possible   •  Swarm:  team  support     Methods   •  Well  defined  work  prac<ces   •  Process  Improvement:  share  with  rest  of  organisa<on   •  Technical  Prac<ces   •  Low  Dependency  Architecture   •  Coding  Standards   •  Code  Reviews  ©  Equinox  Limited   •  Con<nuous  Integra<on   •  Automated  Tes<ng  
  34. 34. So  why  does  all  that  ma5er…?  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  35. 35. So  why  does  all  that  ma5er…?    “95%  of  varia+on  in  performance  is  due  to  the   system“        -­‐  W  Edwards  Deming  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  36. 36. So  why  does  all  that  ma5er…?    “95%  of  varia+on  in  performance  is  due  to  the   system“        -­‐  W  Edwards  Deming    “In  most  systems  95%  of  performance  can  be   a9ributed  to  the  system  and  as  li9le  as  5%  is   affected  by  the  individual  worker”        -­‐  John  Seddon  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  37. 37. So  why  does  all  that  ma5er…?    “95%  of  varia+on  in  performance  is  due  to  the   system“        -­‐  W  Edwards  Deming    “In  most  systems  95%  of  performance  can  be   a9ributed  to  the  system  and  as  li9le  as  5%  is   affected  by  the  individual  worker”        -­‐  John  Seddon   …well  that’s  95  good  reasons  !  ©  Equinox  Limited  
  38. 38. Further  Reading  and  References                                      ©  Equinox  Limited  
  39. 39. @antboobier anthony@nomad8.com©  Equinox  Limited   www.nomad8.com
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