The Smart Grid Security Blog w ebcast Series Volume 2 : Smart Grid & Data Security Jack Danahy Co-Author : The Smart Grid Security Blog Andy Bochman Co-Author : The Smart Grid Security Blog May 2010
As part of the "compliance monitoring process" for all CIPS
1.4.1 Data Retention - The Responsible Entity shall keep all documentation and records from the previous full calendar year unless directed by its Compliance Enforcement Authority to retain specific evidence for a longer period of time as part of an investigation.
CIP 7 - Systems Security Mgt
R1. Test Procedures — The Responsible Entity shall ensure that new Cyber Assets and significant changes to existing Cyber Assets within the Electronic Security Perimeter do not adversely affect existing cyber security controls. For purposes of Standard CIP-007-3, a significant change shall, at a minimum, include implementation of security patches, cumulative service packs … database platforms , or other third-party software or firmware.
R7. Disposal or Redeployment — The Responsible Entity shall establish and implement formal methods, processes, and procedures for disposal or redeployment of Cyber Assets within the Electronic Security Perimeter(s) as identified and documented in Standard CIP-005-3.
R7.1. Prior to the disposal of such assets, the Responsible Entity shall destroy or erase the data storage media to prevent unauthorized retrieval of sensitive cyber security or reliability data.
R7.2. Prior to redeployment of such assets, the Responsible Entity shall, at a minimum, erase the data storage media to prevent unauthorized retrieval of sensitive cyber security or reliability data.
* Note the following is always exempted in NERC CIPS:
"Cyber Assets associated with communication networks and data communication links between discrete Electronic Security Perimeters."
NERC CIPS & Data
Example: Credit Card System Regulation (PCI DSS) http://www.flickr.com/photos/coryschmitz/4592819168/ Section Guidance/Requirement 3.2 Do not store sensitive authentication data (even if encrypted) like CCV 3.3 Mask PAN when displayed 3.4 Render PAN unreadable anywhere it is stored 4.1 Use strong cryptography and security protocols … during transmission over open, public networks 6.3
Develop software applications based on industry best practices
6.3.7 Review custom code prior to release to production
6.5 Develop all web applications based on secure coding guidelines 7.2 Establish a mechanism for systems with multiple users that restricts access 8.5.16 Authenticate all access to any database containing cardholder data 10.2
Implement automated audit trails for all system components
10.2.1 All individual user accesses to cardholder data
Record at least the following audit trail entries
10.3.1 User identification
10.3.2 Type of event
What is the Big Deal? Confidentiality Control Integrity Authenticity Availability Utility http://www.flickr.com/photos/egarc2/2432270195/ X Any mishap can doom the infrastructure
Welcome to the Parkerian Hexad (That’s a mouthful) Confidentiality Access to data is limited to those intended Control Data is only accessible or changeable by those intended Integrity Data can be relied upon to be accurate and unchanged Authenticity Veracity of data source and provenance can be assured Availability Timely access to data is always ensured Utility Security or insecurity does not inhibit the practical use of data
Data Volume will add to the Challenge www.everest-2003.com/route_e.html
Smart Grid Data is Expansive
More like existing MEGA X Existing Data
Many more data elements
Much higher frequency
Current Data is Limited
Simple meter reads
Limited diagnostic information
Do Not Treat Data as a Block DATA is actually Required Beneficial Not Relevant Integrity ? ? ? Privacy ? ? ? Availability ? ? ? Identity ? ? ? Non-Repudiability ? ? ? Timeliness ? ? ?
Think about the Logical Cuts on the Data Short-lived Meter Diagnostic Data Power Use Readings Customer Identification Data Meter Location Data
Applications Need and Store Different Composites Short-lived Meter Diagnostic Data Power Use Readings Customer Identification Data Meter Location Data Private Long-term Storage Private Mid-term Storage Protected Short-term Storage Bit Bucket What customer owns what meter, and where? How much power, where, this month? Application layer How much power, where, this reading? Is this meter going to fail?
A Data Characterization Example http://www.flickr.com/photos/coryschmitz/4592819168/
Benefits to Smart Grid Data Security Practices
Data loss is expensive
Data storage can be expensive
Data encryption is vital (but expensive)
Segregation maximized efficiency
Compartmentalizing data enables compartmentalized access
Anomalies are simpler to detect in a well-regulated environment
Regulations exist and are changing, mandating data security
Compliance is easier to ensure with a partitioned system
Thanks ! The Smart Grid Security Blog smartgridsecurity.blogspot.com