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CMC Abnormal Psychology Chapter11
 

CMC Abnormal Psychology Chapter11

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    CMC Abnormal Psychology Chapter11 CMC Abnormal Psychology Chapter11 Presentation Transcript

      • This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.  The following are prohibited by law:
      • any public performance or display, including transmission over any network;
      • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images;
      • any rental, lease, or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-205-50294-6
      PowerPoint for Abnormal Psychology Fourteenth Edition James N. Butcher Susan Mineka Jill M. Hooley Prepared by Andy Pomerantz Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
    • Chapter 11 Substance-Related Disorders
    • Introduction
      • Addictive behavior—behavior based on the pathological need for substance or activity—may involve the abuse of substances such as:
        • Nicotine
        • Alcohol
        • Barbiturates
        • Tranquilizers
        • Amphetamines
        • Heroin
        • Ecstasy
        • Marijuana
    • Introduction
      • Substance abuse generally involves a pathological use of a substance resulting in
        • Potentially hazardous behavior
        • Continued use despite a persistent social, psychological, occupational, or health problem
      • Substance dependence involves a physiological need for increasing amounts of a substance
    • Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
      • Alcoholic – a person with a serious drinking problem whose drinking impairs his or her health, personal relationships, and occupational functioning
      • Alcoholism – a dependence on alcohol that seriously interferes with life adjustment
    • The Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Demographics of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
      • Lifetime prevalence for alcohol abuse in the U.S. is 13.4%
      • More than 37% of alcohol abusers suffer from at least one coexisting mental disorder
      • Alcohol abuse cuts across all age, educational, occupational, and socioeconomic boundaries
    • The Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
      • Alcohol has complex and often contradictory effects on the brain
        • At lower levels, alcohol stimulates certain brain cells and activates the brain’s “pleasure areas”
        • At higher levels, alcohol depresses brain functioning
    • The Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
      • Excessive drinking can be viewed as progressing from early- to middle- to late-stage alcohol-related disorder
      • For individuals who drink to excess, the clinical picture is highly unfavorable and may include:
        • Cirrhosis of the liver
        • Malnutrition
        • Stomach pains
    • The Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
      • Psychosocial effects of alcohol abuse and dependence include:
        • Chronic fatigue
        • Oversensitivity
        • Depression
        • Impaired reasoning
        • Personality deterioration
      • Several acute psychotic reactions fit the diagnostic classification of substance-induced disorders
    • Biological Causal Factors in the Abuse of and Dependence on Alcohol
      • The mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway is the center of psychoactive drug activation in the brain
    • Figure 11.1: The Mesocorticolimbic Pathway
    • Biological Causal Factors in the Abuse of and Dependence on Alcohol
      • Genetics probably play an important role in developing sensitivity to the addictive power of drugs like alcohol
      • Learning factors appear to play an important role in the development of substance abuse
    • Psychosocial Causal Factors in Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
      • Potential alcohol abusers tend to
        • Have parents who are negative role models
        • Be emotionally immature
        • Expect a great deal of the world
        • Require an inordinate amount of praise and appreciation
        • React to failure with marked feelings of hurt and inferiority
        • Have low frustration tolerance
        • Feel inadequate and unsure of their abilities to fulfill expected male or female roles
    • Psychosocial Causal Factors in Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
      • Alcohol abusers also tend to be unable or unwilling to tolerate tension and stress
      • Many people expect that alcohol use will lower tension and anxiety and increase sexual desire and pleasure in life
      • Adults with less intimate and supportive relationships tend to show greater drinking following sadness or hostility
    • Sociocultural Causal Factors
      • The incidence of alcoholism is minimal among Muslims and Mormons, whose religious views prohibit the use of alcohol
      • The incidence of alcoholism is high among Europeans (15% in France)
    • Treatment of Alcohol-Related Disorders
      • Biological approaches include:
        • Medications to block the desire to drink
          • Antabuse
          • Naltrexone
        • Medications to lower the side effects of acute withdrawal
          • Valium
    • Treatment of Alcohol-Related Disorders
      • Psychological treatment approaches include:
        • Group therapy
        • Environmental intervention
        • Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy
      • Several approaches stress controlled drinking rather than abstinence
      • Alcoholics Anonymous has reportedly met with considerable success
      Treatment of Alcohol-Related Disorders
    • Treatment of Alcohol-Related Disorders
      • Success of alcoholism treatments range from low rates for hardcore substance abusers to rates of 70-90% when modern treatment procedures are used
      • “ Project MATCH” found equal success rates among the following treatments:
        • A 12-step program
        • A CBT program
        • Motivational enhancement therapy
      • Relapse prevention programs attempt to maintain abstinence once the behavioral excesses have been checked
      • Aside from alcohol, the psychoactive drugs most commonly associated with abuse and dependence are:
        • Narcotics
        • Sedatives
        • Stimulants
        • Anti-anxiety drugs
        • Pain medications
        • Hallucinogens
        • Caffeine and nicotine
      Drug Abuse and Dependence
    • Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics)
      • Narcotics include:
        • Opium
        • Morphine
        • Heroin
      • These drugs were originally praised for their medical uses, but they are dangerously addictive
    • Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics)
      • The immediate effects of narcotics include:
        • Alleviation of physical pain
        • Relaxation and pleasant reverie
        • Alleviation of anxiety and tension
        • Euphoric spasm
    • Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics)
      • Long-term effects include:
        • Physiological craving for the drug
        • Withdrawal symptoms
        • Gradual deterioration of well-being
    • Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics)
      • Some investigators have suspected that endorphins play a causal role
      • A high incidence of antisocial personality has been found among heroin addicts
      • In the U.S., addiction is associated with a narcotics subculture
    • Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics)
      • Treatment for narcotics addiction is initially similar to that for alcohol addiction
      • Methadone and buprenorphine are often used in conjunction with a rehabilitation program
    • Cocaine and Amphetamines (Stimulants)
      • Cocaine and amphetamines
        • Increase feelings of alertness and confidence
        • Decrease feelings of fatigue
      • Over the long-term, however, amphetamines
        • Are psychologically and physically addictive
        • May result in brain damage and psychopathology
    • Methamphetamine
      • Highly addictive stimulant drug known by some as “poor people’s cocaine”
      • Increases level of dopamine in brain
      • Prolonged use causes structural changes in the brain
      • Use has increased substantially in last 10 years
      • Users are resistant to treatment, and relapse is common
    • Barbiturates (Sedatives)
      • Barbiturates were once widely used to induce sleep
      • They are dangerous drugs commonly associated with
        • Physiological and psychological dependence
        • Lethal overdoses
    • Barbiturates (Sedatives)
      • Those who become dependent on barbiturates tend to be middle-aged people who rely on them as sleeping aids
      • Withdrawal is a key issue in treatment
    • Hallucinogens: LSD and Related Drugs
      • Hallucinogens cause an individual to see or hear things in different and unusual ways
      • This category includes:
        • LSD
        • Mescaline
        • Psilocybin
        • PCP
        • Ecstasy
    • Ecstasy
      • Both a hallucinogen and a stimulant
      • Increasingly popular as a party drug among young adults
      • Chemically similar to methamphetamine
      • “ Rush” and well-being, but serious adverse consequences also
    • Marijuana
      • Marijuana may be classified as a mild hallucinogen
      • The effects of marijuana vary but may include:
        • Euphoria
        • Hilarity
        • Hyper-talkativeness
        • Anxiety
        • Depression
        • Hallucination
    • Marijuana
      • Marijuana is not strongly physiologically addictive, but it may be psychologically addictive for some people
      • Psychological treatment methods have been shown to be effective in reducing use in dependent adults
    • Stimulants: Caffeine and Nicotine
      • Problematic for many reasons
        • Easy to abuse
        • Readily available
        • Addictive properties
        • Difficult to quit
        • Withdrawal symptoms
        • Health problems and side effects
    • Pathological Gambling
      • Although pathological gambling does not involve a chemically addictive substance, it is similar in the following ways:
        • The personality factors that tend to characterize addictive gamblers
        • The difficulties attributable to compulsive gambling
        • The treatment problems involved
    • Unresolved Issues
      • Is the use of methadone effective in the treatment of heroin, or does it simply exchange one addiction for another?
    • End of Chapter 11