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  • This session commences the second part of the content. Effective knowledge management relies on strong systems, structural processes and well-aligned policies and practices. In this second part of the program, the foundations on which knowledge management should operate are explored in some detail.
  • Chapters 5 and 6 provide an overview of the many different structures and basic systems which can assist with the development of effective knowledge capture, sharing and integration. Initially, we examine the ways in which individuals can be encouraged to strongly support the knowledge agenda. Chapter 5 of the text explores how supportive knowledge qualities and values can be nurtured through the human resource practices. Chapter 6 identifies the systems and technologies which enable effective knowledge management. Effective knowledge management relies on both of these foundations.
  • Page 111 Human resource management (HRM) is one of the more powerful structural mechanisms by which knowledge management is encouraged. It operates as the framework for the ways in which people operate in the workplace. Because it strongly influences how people are introduced to the organisation, and guides their ongoing work activities, it is a powerful form of acculturation. This session explores the various elements of HRM which guide and stimulate the development of an effective knowledge culture. Before commencing, it is very important to note that HRM is not just a process that operates through a central human resource area in an organisation. Like knowledge management, it is a living system which can be guided by policies and processes centrally, but it is most powerfully experienced within each individual’s own work setting. In other words – the values and culture that operate in that local area are powerful human resource influences, and will determine how the individual operates. Thus, knowledge management and human resource management rely on very similar principles to support the organisational goals.
  • Page 111 HRM can be described as the organisational processes and systems which assist with staff recruitment, selection and management. They are generally developed as standards for the whole organisation, so that there is integrity and uniformity of expectation for each individual. HRM systems are intended to provide guidance as to the required work activities, behaviour and values which should operate in the organisation. In larger organisations, they may be strongly defined and publicised. Smaller firms may rely on less explicit systems. These systems are designed to support employees from the time they are recruited to the time they leave the workplace.
  • Page 111 HRM fulfils three major functions. It: Staffs the organisation with people who have appropriate knowledge and expertise Ensures the work undertaken fulfils the organisation’s goals Develops systems and processes that encourage good practice. These processes have been developed over many decades across many nations, and are based on good practice and much theoretical research. They aim to provide a suitable framework for all staff. The systems also link closely to the strategic priorities of the organisation. They protect the employer and employee by guiding them as to appropriate standards of behaviour and practice.
  • Pages 113 – 114. One of the functions of HRM is to guide employees as to the protocols and standards which operate in the organisation. This guidance assists knowledge management by providing employees with cues as to the strategic value of knowledge, the expectations of the knowledge community, and desired competencies, and by encouraging appropriate skill development. Human resource management draws attention to the strategic value of knowledge by clarifying and publicising the organisational standards, role expectations and rewards. Knowledge competencies are defined and promoted through various human resource management activities. Common knowledge competencies include collaboration, information skills, management, strategic planning and relationship management. HRM processes emphasise the importance of learning and development. They can also assist with the ongoing enrichment of these skills through learning and development opportunities. Workplace learning occurs in many contexts: through work activities and experiences; sharing of expertise; mentoring by more experienced colleagues; and via formal learning opportunities within the organisation. These may be encouraged through HRM, particularly through the identification of the developmental needs of the individual. An effective knowledge community aims to merge its various knowledge priorities into the basic foundational systems which operate in the organisation. If strategic needs are reflected in the human resource management practices, these can be enacted in the functional processes of the local units.
  • LO1, Pages 111 – 114. Figure 5.1, page 112, Organisational structure influences decision-making, communication and the capacity to innovate in organisations. These are important knowledge management influences. Staffing describes the processes associated with the recruitment, selection and retention of staff in the organisation. Performance management provides employees with guidance as to what roles and performance standards they should reflect. Feedback provision is a critical element of these activities. Learning and development describes the various ways in which an organisation assists employees to grow and develop. Increasingly, organisations recognise the need to encourage the development of individuals and leaders and teams. Organisational evaluation and review describes the various activities which monitor the state of the organisation’s culture and outcomes.
  • LO1, Pages 111 – 114. Figure 5.1, page 112, Organisational structure influences decision-making, communication and the capacity to innovate in organisations. These are important knowledge management influences. Staffing describes the processes associated with the recruitment, selection and retention of staff in the organisation. Performance management provides employees with guidance as to what roles and performance standards they should reflect. Feedback provision is a critical element of these activities. Learning and development describes the various ways in which an organisation assists employees to grow and develop. Increasingly, organisations recognise the need to encourage the development of individuals and leaders and teams. Organisational evaluation and review describes the various activities which monitor the state of the organisation’s culture and outcomes.
  • LO2, Page 114 – 118. Organisational structures influence the way in which power and responsibility will operate across a firm and by implication, the way in which knowledge can be disseminated and adopted by others. Each organisation designs its work arrangements according to how it would like to build its decision making and communication processes. The structure of the organisation provides a clear overview of how individuals will be allowed to contribute to decision making and communicate with other members. Some organisations encourage flexible and innovative approaches to communication and decision making while others are more concerned with maintaining the hierarchical status quo. Workplace structure refers to the way people are organised into groups in an organisation. Structures can be based on the location, type of work undertaken or some other form of grouping. The type of organisational structure strongly predicts how people will interact and work together. These can be illustrated by examining the three models from Figure 5.2 in the text.
  • Functional Structure Model – Figure 5.2, page 115. When grouped according to work function, members are located with others working in a similar field – for example, engineering is grouped together into a single section. This model can result in silos, where people interact most strongly with their own areas, not other groups. This model often encourages hierarchical decision making and communication, and reduces the quality of interaction across other groups in the organisation. While staff members may learn from each other in their functional area, there is less potential to learn and develop laterally. Structures of this nature often generate strong loyalty to the unit and its function rather than the organisation.
  • Divisional Structure Model – Figure 5.2, page 115. Divisional structures can be based around products, services or location. In this arrangement, roles are distributed across various groups to provide localised support. In this diagram, the grouping is based around products, with each product area supported by a localised functional group. Different specialisms provide support around that product area, developing a strong knowledge of the product across the diverse members. However, a structure of this nature can also reduce the consistency of organisational processes, and still runs the risk of strong local loyalty.
  • Matrix Model – Figure 5.2, page 115. A third model combines the two formats, so that some elements are locally managed, while others are centrally driven. This matrix structure can offer the benefits of both models while encouraging cross-fertilisation of ideas and consistency. This model allows greater interaction across the community, and encourages learning which can be shared across all members.
  • Page 116. As noted in chapter 2 of the text, knowledge workers need to be fully engaged and seek opportunities to work with many different colleagues across their organisation. They are generally found to benefit most when the organisational structure encourages Flat structures which reduce barriers to interaction Transparent processes which increase people’s awareness of the priorities and activities which are occurring across the organisation, Strong communal values which focus on the enactment of the knowledge agenda and An effective balance between the needs of the individual and the broader community. In particular, the organisational structure benefits from adapting to the needs of knowledge workers.
  • LO1, Pages 111 – 114. Figure 5.1, page 112, Organisational structure influences decision-making, communication and the capacity to innovate in organisations. These are important knowledge management influences. Staffing describes the processes associated with the recruitment, selection and retention of staff in the organisation. Performance management provides employees with guidance as to what roles and performance standards they should reflect. Feedback provision is a critical element of these activities. Learning and development describes the various ways in which an organisation assists employees to grow and develop. Increasingly, organisations recognise the need to encourage the development of individuals and leaders and teams. Organisational evaluation and review describes the various activities which monitor the state of the organisation’s culture and outcomes.
  • LO3, Page 119 – 123. Staffing is always important, but particularly so in a knowledge intensive community. Staffing includes a number of work activities which assist the organisation with drawing in good staff and then encouraging their engagement with the knowledge community. These five areas are the essential elements of an effective staffing strategy. They reflect the concern for getting the right person into the right roles, and ensuring they are provided with the right information to meet expectations. The staffing function also relates to the need to monitor and encourage healthy work contexts. Each of these will now be discussed in more detail.
  • Page 119 Workforce planning is based around three sets of analyses: the strategic shifts in workforce roles and requirements, the staffing trends within the organisation, and the overall placement of new staff. By forecasting the potential changes and demands on employee roles across a range of scenarios, it becomes easier to identify the long-term need for new staff, and to avoid costly appointments that are not strategically useful.
  • Page 120 Core competencies relate to the skills and capabilities that individuals need to work in knowledge communities. Some of the common knowledge competencies relate to collaboration, communication, adaptability and self-managing processes. HRM assists with the identification and clarification of these core competencies, and the recruitment of people who can demonstrate those capabilities. Knowledge
  • Page 120 – 121. Recruitment and selection is a critical element of the staffing process for an organisation, as it ensures the right people are appointed. Poor selection leads to very costly outcomes for an organisation, particularly in knowledge work where highly flexible and adaptable people are needed. Good selection and recruitment aims to apply a rigorous and carefully managed process. The ultimate goal is to ensure the person and the job are well-matched. In order to achieve a good person-job fit, various processes need to be undertaken. First, the job needs to be well defined so that the requirements are well understood. The advertising for the role needs to be suitable disseminated, and the selection processes need to be carefully undertaken. Selection can introduce a range of errors and biases – as outlined on page 122 of the textbook. Companies need to ensure they have gained a good understanding of the person’s capacity to fulfil the required role. Various questions in the interview can assist with clarifying the depth of knowledge and the individual’s capabilities. Structured interviews are a good method of ensuring equitable and fair practices are followed with all the candidates. The process for selection and recruitment has many steps – as shown in the next slide.
  • Page 121, Figure 5.3 As this figure shows, the steps in selecting a staff member requires a number of steps. These processes take considerable time, and may lead to a lag between the loss of a staff member and the appointment of a new member. They often involve a number of people who assist with selection, advertising and reviewing the appointment process. A risk associated with selection and recruitment is that many firms simply repeat the role requirements of the last person. In knowledge communities, a vacant position is advisably reviewed prior to reappointing. The workforce planning may reveal a new role is needed, or the requirements have altered. It is important to see these situations as opportunities to look at roles afresh.
  • Page 121, Figure 5.3 As this figure shows, the steps in selecting a staff member requires a number of steps. These processes take considerable time, and may lead to a lag between the loss of a staff member and the appointment of a new member. They often involve a number of people who assist with selection, advertising and reviewing the appointment process. A risk associated with selection and recruitment is that many firms simply repeat the role requirements of the last person. In knowledge communities, a vacant position is advisably reviewed prior to reappointing. The workforce planning may reveal a new role is needed, or the requirements have altered. It is important to see these situations as opportunities to look at roles afresh.
  • Page 122 – 123. Any new employee needs to be inducted and oriented to the workplace. Even if a person moves to a new area within the same workplace, it is important to provide a new induction to ensure the staff member is well versed in the local culture and expectations. Three types of processes are commonly provided to new staff members. Orientation: Provides new employees with a sense of the wider organisation, including its knowledge priorities. In many organisations, these familiarisation processes are conducted for all new members as a centrally managed service – often through human resource management. They are increasingly provided online as well, although this reduces the chance to meet other colleagues, which can be a significant loss to the individual. Induction assists new employees to settle into their local work community and to adapt to the specific systems. This process is commonly managed by the local unit, and may take a considerable time. It may also be staggered across a number of sessions. Commonly, inductions provide an overview of the culture and the expectations of the unit. It may outline the types of processes which are followed, and describe the roles people play. It can ensure the new member has a good grasp of the main systems and services. Acculturation supports the adoption of the organisational values and culture by encouraging the new member to “be like everyone else”. The various activities and experiences of the new member provide clear messages as to what is acceptable behaviour and what is not. This, in turn, encourages the adoption of certain values and priorities. All three levels play an important role in promoting the knowledge agenda. The individual needs to hear consistent values and messages from all three levels if knowledge management is to take firm hold.
  • Page 123 Human resource management also plays in important role in promoting safe and harmonious work practices. Knowledge workers expect to be treated well by their employers. They need to feel safe, to be asked to undertake reasonable workloads and to feel respected and valued in their workplaces. The management of staff safety and health, and the monitoring of workloads are important forms of human resource practice. Some issues which may arise with knowledge workers include: Healthy use of laptops and computers. Overuse of keyboards and poor posture are major concerns for many people who work at computers. Workloads are a soaring issue – people take their work home and are working longer hours. Clear work policies on workload and time spent on work need to be provided. And people need to be strongly encouraged to take annual leave. With respect to knowledge workers, the opportunity to reflect and explore ideas is most important. Workloads which prevent reflection are highly deleterious to people’s mental health. Work cultures also need to be monitored. There is increasing publicity about bullying in the workplace, for example. Clear systems and processes to deal with such issues are most important. A highly effective organisation aims to encourage the highest standards of behaviour and protects its staff members from harm – through physical or mental abuse. The provision of transparent and clear systems and policies is very important.
  • LO1, Pages 111 – 114. Figure 5.1, page 112, Organisational structure influences decision-making, communication and the capacity to innovate in organisations. These are important knowledge management influences. Staffing describes the processes associated with the recruitment, selection and retention of staff in the organisation. Performance management provides employees with guidance as to what roles and performance standards they should reflect. Feedback provision is a critical element of these activities. Learning and development describes the various ways in which an organisation assists employees to grow and develop. Increasingly, organisations recognise the need to encourage the development of individuals and leaders and teams. Organisational evaluation and review describes the various activities which monitor the state of the organisation’s culture and outcomes.
  • LO4, Page 123 – 126. Performance management is the process by which a person is guided as to where work effort should be allocated, and how the individual can support the organisational priorities. It ensures staff members clearly understand their roles and responsibilities, and maintain an appropriate understanding of these. Performance management can provide guidance on work behaviours too. Leading organisations are increasingly establishing values and behavioural expectations that each staff member is expected to reflect. These are also linked to the performance management process. A part of this process is the provision of performance standards. People need to be given clear guidance on the performance expected of them. Performance standards clarify what behaviours are important and how well they should be demonstrated. In the case of knowledge workers, this might relate to knowledge competencies, such as collaboration, innovation and teamwork. Performance management processes will differ across different organisations. The goal of these processes is to guide employees toward desired behaviours, and reduce the likelihood of undesirable behaviours. Many systems encourage goal setting so that new performance targets can be established. People function well if they have achievable but challenging goals. In the case of knowledge work, performance management processes should value the knowledge creation and exploration process as well as outcomes. The system should also encourage development, rather than appraisal, as knowledge work is very dynamic and will evolve constantly. Feedback provision is most important for any work community. It is particularly critical for knowledge communities. People value feedback. It helps to affirm that they are on track and undertaking the right activities, and also offers positive reinforcement of the desired actions and behaviours. The manner of the feedback provision, and the relationship between the feedback provider and receiver can strongly influence the acceptability of the feedback. Many companies train their feedback providers to ensure they are adequately skilled in this important role.
  • LO5, Pages 126 – 127. Many knowledge workers strive to excel. They set tough goals and strive to achieve them. While they demonstrate a high degree of intrinsic motivation, that is, personally derived satisfaction, they also value recognition from their peers and the organisation as a whole. Extrinsic motivation is experienced when rewards are linked to outstanding effort. The identification and nurturing of high achievers can be a very challenging process in a knowledge-intensive community. Many of the values and work behaviours are process related, rather than short-term outcomes. The measurement of high performance is therefore something that needs to be carefully considered. Another dilemma is whether individuals should be singled out, or a team recognised. In many cases, teams will be the better avenue for recognition, as they reflect the collaborative values of real knowledge settings. KM Viewpoint 5.2 (page 127) illustrates the approach Alcoa has taken. The awards listed in this case study illustrate the focus on group endeavour – they typically go to locations, operational units, teams or, sometimes, individual nominees. Notably, the recognition is also linked to the values which are critical to Alcoa. These include creativity, teamwork, leadership and development of concepts.
  • LO1, Pages 111 – 114. Figure 5.1, page 112, Organisational structure influences decision-making, communication and the capacity to innovate in organisations. These are important knowledge management influences. Staffing describes the processes associated with the recruitment, selection and retention of staff in the organisation. Performance management provides employees with guidance as to what roles and performance standards they should reflect. Feedback provision is a critical element of these activities. Learning and development describes the various ways in which an organisation assists employees to grow and develop. Increasingly, organisations recognise the need to encourage the development of individuals and leaders and teams. Organisational evaluation and review describes the various activities which monitor the state of the organisation’s culture and outcomes.
  • LO6, page 128 – 130. Learning and development is another aspect of human resource management. Knowledge intensive communities place a great deal of importance on learning and development. They recognise the need to nurture their knowledge workers and to encourage their ongoing growth and development. Each year sees new expectations of knowledge workers: in terms of technological skills, inter-personal or communication strategies, or professional expertise. Organisations develop many different strategies to encourage learning and development. The provision of learning opportunities is generally recognised as essential. However, some firms pay external providers to develop their staff, while others fund internal groups to provide support. Furthermore, some areas are highly centralised, while others are decentralised. As the text notes, the focus of these different providers can vary. Central learning and development units often focus on generic learning areas which are common across the community, while local areas provide more tailored support. Various forms of learning opportunities can be found in organisations. Workshops and seminars are normally short-term sessions which explore a single skill or area of learning. Programmes are normally more extended, integrated activities which build a strong learning community and support the learning transfer back to the local workplace. In many of these longer programmes, learners are encouraged to undertake action learning, where they can test new ideas in the local area. Learning of this nature encourages greater integration back into the workplace. The capacity to transfer the learning experience back into normal work practices is often quite challenging. For many employees, it can be difficult to schedule formal development sessions. E-learning offers an alternative, in that it can be undertaken at any time. However, e-learning can be hard to sustain as it lacks a strong sense of community, and there may be less commitment to making the time.
  • Page 129 Organisations need to preserve their organisational memory – particularly of people who possess unique knowledge which is critical to the long-term benefit of the community. Their expertise should be identified, transferred to a successor and retained to benefit the firm into the future. However, many firms fail to adequately succession plan. The value of the knowledge holder is unrecognised until it is too late. Knowledge communities need to increase their consciousness of the expertise they hold. Human resource management practices can support succession planning by assisting tilth skills and capabilities audits to identify the existing memory holders, providing opportunities for potential recipients to be identified and sponsored, and enabling effective approaches to allow the transfer of the knowledge.
  • Page 129 – 131. Learning transfer occurs when a person takes new understandings back into the real workplace. While organisations may spend considerable funds on providing learning opportunities, they may not transfer into changed behaviours. Many factors can impede learning transfer. In particular, the level of encouragement in the workplace, the ease of transfer (in terms of recalling and applying what was learnt), time to practice and leadership support for the new learning all influence how much an individual can apply back into the work setting.
  • LO1, Pages 111 – 114. Figure 5.1, page 112, Organisational structure influences decision-making, communication and the capacity to innovate in organisations. These are important knowledge management influences. Staffing describes the processes associated with the recruitment, selection and retention of staff in the organisation. Performance management provides employees with guidance as to what roles and performance standards they should reflect. Feedback provision is a critical element of these activities. Learning and development describes the various ways in which an organisation assists employees to grow and develop. Increasingly, organisations recognise the need to encourage the development of individuals and leaders and teams. Organisational evaluation and review describes the various activities which monitor the state of the organisation’s culture and outcomes.
  • LO7 Pages 131 – 132. Another aspect of HRM which supports knowledge work is the process of organisational evaluation and review. this is a focus which is gaining increasing recognition in organisations. More firms are recognising the critical nature of monitoring the organisational well-being and addressing issues which are arising. They also recognise the important of monitoring the culture to ensure the right values and qualities are being nurtured across the community. Organisational health can be assessed through a range of measures. For example, exit interviews of staff who are leaving offers a useful source of unbiased and honest feedback on what is happening into eh organisation. Some indicators of issues requiring consideration can be monitored. A regular survey of all staff, or a sample of staff, also offers a broader opportunity to measure the performance of the community on these value / cultural issues. In some cases, the organisation may decide that various aspects of the organisational should be redeveloped. The evaluation may lead to structural changes or enhancements in practice or policies. HRM staff often support these change processes. Certainly, the local managers and supervisors would also be strongly involved in changes of this nature.
  • Human resource management provides an important link between the individual and the knowledge agenda operating across the organisation. the various HR systems and processes encourage a stronger understanding of the knowledge priorities and how they should be supported by each individual. HRM guides the organisation as to where staff members should direct their efforts and values. Thus, it is a critical system for the knowledge management agenda.

Grh Grh Presentation Transcript

  • Lição nº 3 Anabela Mesquita sarmento@iscap.ipp.pt
  • Objectivos da aula1. Descrever como as estruturas de apoio que afectam a gestão do conhecimento2. Explicar como a estrutura da organização pode influenciar a actividade do conhecimento3. Explicar os processos dos recursos humanos na organização do conhecimento4. Avaliar o desempenho do sistema de gestão para identificar os factores que encorajam as boas práticas do conhecimento
  • Objectivos da aula (cont)5. Desenhar uma estratégia de recompensa eficaz para apoiar o compromisso dos colaboradores com os resultados do conhecimento6. Descrever de que forma a aprendizagem e o desenvolvimento podem ser incentivados7. Descrever de que forma a evolução da organização e a sua análise podem ajudar a manter uma boa prática do conhecimento
  • Alicerces do conhecimentoNa lição de hoje vamos fornecer uma visão dediferentes estruturas e sistemas que contribuempara a captura, partilha e integração deconhecimento efectivoVeremos de que forma os indivíduos podem serencorajados e apoiados no desenvolvimento doconhecimento através de práticas de recursoshumanos
  • GRH
  • • As organizações são feitas de pessoas. De forma a podermos geri-las bem, temos de compreender de que forma as mudanças as afectam a nível cognitivo e emocional.
  • Momento de reflexão• Pense num momento de grandes mudanças na sua vida. Descreva a natureza dos seus sentimentos nessa altura. Que lições aprendeu desta introspecção? De que forma acha que estas experiências o/a vão ajudar em processos de mudança futura?
  • • A Gestão de Recursos Humanos (GRH) é um Introdução poderoso mecanismo através do qual a gestão de conhecimento é incentivada.• Como tem uma forte influência na forma como as pessoas são introduzidas na organização e guia as suas actividades, constitui um poderoso instrumento de aculturação.• Esta sessão explora os elementos da GRH que orientam e estimulam o desenvolvimento de uma cultura de conhecimento.• Refira-se que a GRH não é apenas um processo que opera através de uma área de RH mas sim um sistema vivo influenciado pelos valores e cultura existentes no local de trabalho
  • Estrutura de apoio para a gestão doGestão de Recursos Humanos (GRH) conhecimento• Processos e sistemas organizacionais que apoiam o recrutamento, selecção e gestão de pessoal• Fornecer orientações no que respeita às actividades, comportamento e valores requeridos no trabalho• Apoiar os colaboradores desde o momento em que são recrutados até quando deixam o seu local de trabalho
  • Gestão de Recursos Humanos gestão do Estrutura de apoio para aObjectivos:conhecimento(cont)• Prover a organização de colaboradores que possuam um conhecimento e perícia apropriados• Assegurar que o trabalho empreendido cumpre os objectivos da organização• Desenvolver processos e sistemas que incentivem as boas práticasEstes processos podem ser desenvolvidos ao longo dos anos e baseiam-se em boas práticas e conceitos teóricos.
  • Estrutura de apoio para a gestão do• GRH apoia a gestão do conhecimento, inserindo conhecimento (cont) os funcionários nas regras e padrões da organização através: – Reconhecimento do valor estratégico do conhecimento através do anúncio das normas, papeis a desempenhar e recompensas – Definindo as competências do conhecimento (colaboração, capacidades, gestão planeamento estratégico e gestão de relacionamentos) – Avaliando a aprendizagem e o conhecimento – criação de oportunidades de aprendizagem – Integrando o conhecimento nos processos da GRH
  • Estrutura de apoio para a gestão do conhecimento (cont) Análise e Estrutura Gestão do Aprendizagem & avaliaçãoOrganizacional Pessoal Desempenho Desenvolvimento organizacional
  • Estrutura de apoio para a gestão do conhecimento (cont) EstruturaOrganizacional
  • Estrutura organizacionalA estrutura organizacional influencia a forma como o poder e a responsabilidade vão actuar na empresa bem como na forma como o conhecimento pode ser dessiminado e adoptado.Tem impacto na:• Tomada de decisões• Comunicação• Hierarquia de processos• Estrutura do local de trabalho Exemplos
  • Estrutura organizacional (cont)Estrutura Funcional
  • Estrutura organizacional (cont)Estrutura Divisional Estrutura Divisional
  • Estrutura organizacional (cont)Modelo Matrix Produto 1 Produto 2 Produto 3 Produto 4 Serviços Pesquisa Produção Engenharia Vendas Administração
  • Estrutura Organizacional (cont)• Os elementos da estrutura organizacional trazem mais benefícios quando incluem: – Estruturas planas que ajudam a reduzir barreiras na interacção entre os elementos – Processos transparentes que aumentam o reconhecimento das prioridades e actividades que ocorrem na organização – Fortes valores comunais com foco na melhoria do conhecimento – Balanço entre as necessidades individuais e colectivas
  • Estrutura de apoio para a gestão do conhecimento (cont) EstruturaOrganizacional
  • Pessoal• A gestão do pessoal inclui actividades que apoiam a organização e encorajam o envolvimento na comunidade: – Planeamento da força de trabalho – Núcleo de competências – Recrutamento e selecção – Indução e aculturação – Gestão do contexto de trabalho
  • Planeamento da força de trabalho• Alterações estratégicas relativas aos papéis e exigências do grupo• Orientação geral do pessoal dentro da organização• Colocação de novos funcionários na equipa
  • Dentro da GP é preciso definirde trabalho (cont)Planeamento da força o núcleo de competências• Competências, comportamentos e capacidades, ao nível de trabalho, exigidas a todos os colaboradores numa organização (ex.: competências interpessoais)• Incentivar os colaboradores a serem flexíveis e adaptáveis• Reconhecer a natureza dinâmica do conhecimento• Incentivar o desenvolvimento de competências que apoiem a organização
  • Selecção e recrutamento de trabalho (cont)Planeamento da força• Recrutamento de novos colaboradores através de um processo rigoroso e cuidado.• Objectivo: Boa pessoa — Ajustado ao cargo• Inclui boa gestão da selecção de entrevistas e práticas
  • Selecção e Recrutamento Processos Resultados a considerar Papeis futurosPasso 1 Planeamento e Previsão Necessidades correntesPasso 2 Posições identificadas Relacionamento para outros papeis Criar a descrição do cargo e Focar no núcleo de competências,Passo 3 critérios de selecção Capacidades interpessoais Fontes podem incluir Internet, jornais,Passo 4 Posição anunciada Convites internos e planeamento sucessõesPasso 5 Aplicações da shortlist a serem consideradas
  • Selecção e recrutamento (cont) Processos Resultados a considerar Analisar as aplicações da shortlist: Escolher a estratégia que reflecte -Selecção da estrutura da entrevista o papel.Passo 6 -Actividades de avaliação -Teste de personalidade Objectivo: Selecção com base no Comportamento perante o cargo. - ArbitragemPasso 7 Fazer a nomeação Indução / Orientação: -Processos e sistemas Assegura uma forte aculturação no Local de trabalho.Passo 6 - Expectativas de desempenho - Papeis/ relacionamentos Enfatiza a pertença. - Cultura
  • Planeamento da força de trabalho (cont)Indução, orientação and aculturação• Orientação: Providenciar novos colaboradores com um sentido de organização mais abrangente, includindo prioridades de conhecimento.• Indução: Apoiar os novos colaboradores na integração e a adaptação aos sistemas específicos, na sua comunidade do local de trabalho• Aculturação: Apoiar a adopção da cultura e valores da organização
  • Planeamento da força de trabalho (cont)Outro aspecto a ter em consideração é a gestão do contexto de trabalho• Segurança e saúde• Quantidade de trabalho• Cultura do local de trabalho
  • Estrutura de apoio para a gestão do conhecimento (cont) EstruturaOrganizacional
  • Gestão de desempenhoNa gestão de desempenho é preciso:•Clarificar as prioridades organizacionais e opapel do individuo no apoio a estas.•Definir os moldes em que as pessoas deveminteragir e trabalhar•Padrões de desempenho•Processos de gestão de desempenho•Feedback
  • Recompensar a determinação dos trabalhadores do conhecimento• Motivação intrínseca: personalidade derivada da satisfação• Motivação extrínseca: recompensas fornecidas pela organização
  • Estrutura de apoio para a gestão do conhecimento (cont) EstruturaOrganizacional
  • Aprendizagem e desenvolvimentoAprendizagem individual• As comunidades de conhecimento incentivam comportamentos de aprendizagem e desenvolvimento• Criação de oportunidades para aprendizagem e desenvolvimento pessoal• Workshops e seminários• Programas• Aprendizagem activa• E-learning
  • Aprendizagem e Desenvolvimento (cont)Planeamento da sucessão• Proteger e preservar a memória organizacional• Conhecimento original transferido e retido• Desafio: Identificar os suportes de memória existentes, os potenciais receptores e a melhor estratégia para a transferência do conhecimento
  • Aprendizagem e desenvolvimento (cont)Transferência de aprendizagem• A transferência de aprendizagem para um contexto formal de aprendizagem no local de trabalho.• A capacidade de transferência irá depender dos incentivos, da facilidade de transferência, tempo para praticar e do apoio do superior.
  • Estrutura de apoio para a gestão do conhecimento (cont) EstruturaOrganizacional
  • Análise e avaliação organizacionalNa análise e avaliação organizacional é preciso:•Monitorar resultados relativos ao bem-estar ecultura organizacional•Entrevistas•Medidas de desempenho•Desenvolvimento organizacional
  • ConclusãoEm jeito de conclusão podemos dizer que:•GRH liga o individuo à agenda do conhecimento•Os sistemas e processos direccionam a atençãoda equipa de colaboradores para as prioridadescríticas da organização•GRH guia a organização para onde os membrosda equipa devem direccionar os seus esforços evalores