Introduction, page 245. Learning and development are essential activities in a knowledge-intensive community. Knowledge draws on people’s learning to build new forms of knowledge and expertise. An effective community regards learning as an essential component of the knowledge community activities. Knowledge workers innovate and adapt as they explore and integrate new knowledge and experiences. These processes are built around experimentation, learning and changed concepts as new influences are explored. These forms of learning are essential to innovative practice. Social, intellectual and technical capital need to be nurtured and valued across the community. These three forms of knowledge activity all require ongoing learning and support as new and better approaches are developed. Knowledge workers will spend considerable effort on engaging with this new learning and emerging knowledge challenges. The knowledge service can play an important role in supporting this developmental process.
LO1, Pages 246 – 247. In recent years, most organisations have recognised the need to provide many different forms of learning opportunities for people. Three forms of knowledge and skills acquisitions are acknowledged. Training is the term used to describe learning processes guided by an expert. Generally, training is used when the skills or competencies can be learnt through practice and application. These skills are often relate to practical tasks and activities and frequently target one particular facet of a required competency such as a new software application or report writing. An experienced instructor normally conducts the training, so that the learner is directed toward approaches that build the desired skills. Feedback is an important element of training, as it ensures the learner identifies the required level and standards of performance. Learning describes changes in skills, knowledge and abilities which influence how one thinks and operates in the future. This term reflects the changes in skills, knowledge or abilities that result from training, experimentation, reflection, abstraction or other forms of experience and thinking. Learning helps the individual to adapt existing knowledge to accommodate new insights, knowledge or competencies. Learning equips the individual to meet emerging work demands, particularly using more complex work capabilities like problem-solving, decision-making, communication, strategic planning and team building. These more complex capabilities can take some time to build, and may benefit from the support of a coach or expert guide. Development is the ongoing process of growth and change which occurs as new influences are encountered. This emphasises the incremental and adaptive nature of the process. As skills continually grow and renew, the individual can achieve higher potential an d meet new and difficult work challenges. In many organisations, there has been a shift away from training toward development , demonstrating a growing awareness of the ways in which people best learn and reflect new work demands. This has led to some major changes in providing learning opportunities. Most organisations now describe their major processes as Learning and development or, L&D. We will use this term in preference to training, as it better reflects the type of growth that knowledge workers experience.
Page 245 – 246. As we talk through this session, two terms will be used quite frequently. They describe the types of learning and development which generally occur in knowledge settings. Competencies are areas of knowledge and skills which contribute to job-related behaviours. These are often readily identifiable and measurable, such as technical, literacy or motor skills. In the case of knowledge workers, a number of competencies have been identified for knowledge workers, to help select the right people. Chapter 3 for example, highlighted many competencies that leaders require, such as communication, interpersonal skills and other behaviours that assist with knowledge activities. Capabilities , on the other hand, describe the range of skills and competencies which enable the individual to meet the challenges associated with performing complex work roles. These may draw on many different competencies to achieve major outcomes. Leadership capabilities, for example, require advanced competencies in many areas, and will draw on these further. New experiences may also result in highly refined capabilities. For instance, a person who spends considerable time working in a very political setting may need highly advanced negotiation and influencing skills to work in this context. Ultimately, their political capabilities will draw on these skills and many others to achieve the desired goals. Knowledge work relies strongly on capability development.
Page 246 There is no single best learning approach. The learning context and goals need to be considered when designing learning opportunities. Different methods suit different purposes – as the next slides will illustrate. It also needs to be recognised that each individual may have a different learning preference. Some people learn best by reading and reflecting. Others like to see models and demonstrations of processes, while others may prefer to hear about new concepts. We each have different preferences. Ideally, an organisation should provide opportunities which reflect this diversity of preference. Different forms of learning also need different support approaches. In many cases, complex learning will require a range of options to be incorporated. A good example of this is when leadership development is being encouraged. Leaders may seek to learn through workshops, coaches, reading, interaction with peers, experimentation and many other formats. Organisations need to provide opportunities which reflect these different needs. This is where the knowledge service may operate as a supportive developmental agency to provide assistance. However, the role of the individual and the local community are also key influences in this process.
Page 250, Table 10.1, page 251 – 253. There are many different ways in which people learn. Some of the strategies to support learning may be generated by the organisation to assist learners, while others may be managed by the individual. For example, as the first box on this slide shows, there are a range of processes which encourage employees to learn about the work context, and to gain an understanding of the issues facing the organisation. These range from one-on-one learning opportunities (such as induction and on-the-job training) to mass education activities, such as lectures and seminars. Individually tailored learning opportunities assist the individual to meet personal learning needs in a more self-determined manner and within their local time and space. This is particularly important for those times when a new skill or competency is needed to undertake a work-related role. When people have a need to learn something, they will have high commitment to learn, and will find it easier to take that learning back into their work roles. Some of these forms of individual learning might encourage interaction with other peers who are also seeking to acquire new insights. Authentic and action learning may be particularly effective means of learning in this way. It should be noted that these are but some of the learning approaches which might be used – there are many others. (Students may wish to consider how effective each of these are for their own learning. The notes on pages 247 – 249 can be helpful in the discussion.)
Figure 10.1, page 250 , text page 246. Extensive research has identified many factors which affect successful learning. As the figure shows, a range of influences can impede or enhance learning and its transfer to the work activities of the individual. These largely relate to individual factors, organisational factors, operational factors and the learning context. Note the strong interaction across these four major influences: a learner is not taught in a vacuum. The values, encouragement, opportunities and setting in which one learns all interact to provide either positive or detrimental learning contexts. A knowledge community should offer positive support across all three areas, and also support the individual's own personal focus on learning. Organisations wishing to encourage ongoing learning and development need to be conscious of these factors and plan for their management in any learning process. We will now explore each of these four areas in more detail.
Figure 10.1, page 250, page 246, 250 - 251. Individuals vary greatly in their approaches to learning. Generally, adult learners require relevant, valuable, and legitimate learning experiences that can be explored within, or transferred back to, their work settings. They need a degree of control over their learning processes, with opportunities for reflection, choice and critical thinking. A range of factors can influence an individual's willingness to engage in learning opportunities, and to draw new insights from that engagement. These factors include: Prior learning experiences – Was learning enjoyable? Rewarded? Useful in building new capabilities? Focused on the right issues? The memories of past experiences influences a person’s willingness to re-engage with new opportunities. Ability / reflective skills / risk taking – We all bring different capacities to our learning. Intellectual ability, a willingness to reflect and to take risks during learning will influence how much we can draw from a learning experience. Risk taking is an interesting issues: many individuals are afraid of looking silly, so they can spend a lot of energy on concealing their ignorance instead of addressing the areas that need to be better informed. Commitment to / perceived value of learning – individuals also place different weighting on the value of learning and their commitment to gaining new knowledge. Some feel little need to actively pursue learning, while others are quite dedicated to the pursuit of new knowledge. This may be influenced by their background, or by their organisation's rewarding of effort in relation to new learning. If someone were to gain an MBA, for example, is their tangible recognition that this is a benefit to eh organisation? Career aspirations - the benefit to the individual can also be an important guide as to how much importance learning gains. If an individual is ambitious and keen to progress career-wise, learning assumes greater importance. Time management – the individual’s capacity to manage time can determine the capacity to learn while working. If there is insufficient time to reflect and explore new insights, learning cannot gain a foothold. The individual needs time and opportunity to consider the implications of the insights that have been gained and to integrate this awareness into their existing mental schemas. They may also need time to practice the new skills or applications in context. Poor time managers are likely to argue that they cannot find the time to do such work.
Page 249, Figure 10.1, page 250 The way in which the organisation encourages learning also influences the individual’s perception of whether it is worth investing the time and effort to gain new insights and set new challenges. There are a number of cues that are read by each individual as to the organisational values. The values of the organisation tell the individual whether learning is important or not. If the emphasis is placed on short-term productivity, but not process improvement and continual learning, there will be less emphasis on learning. The learning philosophy of the organisation also sends a big message. Factors such as are staff encouraged and funded to attend training programmes and workshops? Are they encouraged to share their knowledge when they return? Is learning considered part of the work role or something that should be done outside hours? These messages indicate the centrality of learning in the organisational philosophy. Rewards for, and recognition of, learning also send a strong message. What happens when people demonstrate growth and development through their work roles. Are they acknowledged for their innovations and application of learning to work behaviours? Are they asked to assist others as models? Does a highly motivated staff member who seeks new earning challenges and experiences find it easy to gain recognition and support for new experiences? The leadership across the organisation is an important source of these messages. Is learning promoted and tangibly supported? Or are staff prevented from support to learn? A classic indicator is whether a learner is encouraged to attend an external programme or discouraged because “there is too much work to do”. This is a very powerful message as to how much importance that leader places on learning. Performance management systems also provide subtle cues as to what counts. If the system focuses on appraisal , that is, a retrospective analysis of what was achieved, there is less consideration of learning needs. A performance development system, on the other hand, emphasises the ongoing learning and development of the individual to meet new challenges, and considers how the individual can be encouraged to gain new skills and capabilities. The actual knowledge system and structure are another cue. Is it easy to share knowledge so that others can learn from it? What types of knowledge does the knowledge management system generate and collect? Are there structured learning opportunities to support the knowledge management strategy? Are experts and those learning new techniques recognised and valued? These few indicators show how many messages individuals receive from the organisation as to the value placed on learning. Their own attitudes are often influenced by these cues and determine how much effort will be committed to this ongoing developmental process. Another strong influence relates to the operational cues that operate, as the next slide shows.
Page 249, Figure 10.1, page 250 There are many factors that influence an individual. An extremely strong source of guidance relates to the local operational unit’s values and encouragement of learning. While many of the organisational factors can impact at this level, there are additional factors to be considered too. For example, the ease of learning transfer is a key factor in whether new understandings and insights are translated into new organisational practice and learning. Learners may need time to practice, and someone to encourage their efforts while they consolidate their knowledge. If the operational unit is antagonistic to building in practice opportunities and testing new ideas, transfer becomes very difficult. This is often mirroring the learning culture which operates. The operational unit will have protocols as to who should gain access to learning opportunities, (if anyone) and how they will be supported with time away from the office, funding or time relief to ensure their job is maintained. These principles are, once again, strong messages. Similarly, the learning orientation of the unit will be another factor. What is the attitude to errors which may occur while someone is learning new skills? If a blame culture operates, people will be reluctant to test new ideas. If members are encouraged to learn, they will be more willing to get things wrong. The leadership of the group again plays a role. Does the leader discuss learning needs and goals? Is there sponsorship to build new strategies? Similarly, if new capabilities need to be developed across the group, is their good support available to inculcate those capabilities? Do members like to learn together? And of course, the knowledge sharing practices of the local community send a very strong message about whether learning counts. Do members share their knowledge / skills / resources / expertise etc? What knowledge is valued? Is new knowledge captured ad recorded? It can be seen that these are all significant factors – a knowledge-centric local community will encourage much greater learning.
Page 249, Figure 10.1, page 250 - 251. Learning is best undertaken in well designed learning contexts. While many organisations encourage “self-managed” learning, this approach fails to recognise the high losses attached to “trial and error”. Learning needs to be properly supported to ensure individuals are able to access exactly the right source of guidance when needed. This is not necessarily an easy thing to do. Like many other aspects of the knowledge environment, an organisation needs to consider what will best assist its employees to reach the optimum level of performance required. L&D activities will need to incorporate a range of different learning opportunities , so that individuals can participate in different ways, for different learning needs. This is normally determined by the firm, based on costs, philosophy and desired outcomes. The support available can vary from access to external sources, to a range of learning opportunities sponsored by the firm. These might include workshops, online resources, coaches, mentors and many other forms of support. The learner’s own philosophical orientation toward learning may also be influential. Some learners see their capacity to learn as a fixed amount: “I can only learn to this extent”; others see it as an unlimited potential to grow and develop. These attitudes will also influence how far one takes the opportunities. Appropriate resources also play a part. Are there useful resources to guide learners? How can they find them? Relevance to the work context also plays a part in encouraging learning. if the learning experience is seen as having little real value, it will be disregarded by potential learners. There needs to be a real connection between learning and the work which a person undertakes. These four factors all interact to determine how strongly learning is encouraged and adopted by an individual.
LO2, Pages 252 – 253. Many organisations now recognise the importance of building their employee capabilities by encouraging learning as an ongoing goal. In effective organisations, the link between learning and organisational outcomes is strongly understood: an investment in staff members leads to major returns for the organisation. This has led to much greater understanding of how a learning organisation should operate, and has resulted in holistic developmental approaches. This approach indicates that members should be supported from the time they start in the organisation to the time they leave. Learning occurs from the moment a person commences working in an organisation. At that time, the individual is learning a vast amount: how the place works; who should be regarded as key members; what systems and protocols operate; what is expected, and what skills need to be further consolidated… these are all important and require significant attention during this induction / orientation phase. In the early years of employment members will need guidance on how the organisation operates and the role they should play. As they gain more familiarity, and their qualities are noticed by others, they may be offered new opportunities to gain more exposure and challenges. These too will require new learning experiences. Capacity building needs to be encouraged to build new leaders for the future. This may be inked to the provision of leadership programmes and other forms of development so that as leaders move on or retire, a new wave of highly capable leaders are available. Informal and formal opportunities need to be provided, so that staff members can be guided through structured learning opportunities and also linked to others with significant knowledge and expertise. These elements are explored further in the next slides.
Figure 10.2, page 253, pages 252 – 253. Early professionals need a great deal of support as they build an awareness of their organization and the role they may play. As the figure shows, there are three levels of activity which need to be cultivated. First, the individual plays a critical role: new competencies need to be developed to match the organisational expectations; Knowledge needs to be applied and tested in new and different settings – and adapted as needed. Mentors should be identified and cultivated. Despite the intensity of starting in a new workplace and negotiating the many challenges which emerge, the new professional should ensure learning opportunities are identified and attended. Above all, the individual should ask questions. The operational unit is similarly critical to the early professional's learning outcomes. Advice or even allocation of a mentor can greatly assist. Learning opportunities should be planned, provided and monitored to ensure the new member is gaining maximum support. Feedback on emerging skills and capabilities should be provided regularly to guide and support learning. On the job learning can be planned and structured to build sequential growth in core knowledge. Encouragement to learn and grow needs to be built in as part of the culture. And of course, the efforts of the individual to learn need to be rewarded and recognised. Organisational commitment to learning must also be evident and highly prominent. This can take many forms. The organisation can, for example, monitor how well new members area being supported and how frequently they are participating in the activities which are provided. It can sponsor and strongly promote communities of practice to draw in new members. Orientation programmes are important forms of guidance on the overall culture and core values of the organisation. And learning activities and opportunities would be funded by the organisation. This triadic approach to supporting early professionals will encourage their ongoing commitment to learning, as these are very formative years in a career. An organisation that claims to be a knowledge intensive community will need to think very carefully about how it supports its new career staff.
Figure 10.2, page 253, pages 252 – 253. Mid career professionals also need a support as they assume new and different roles. Often these relate to project management and team leadership. The individual must still take responsibility for building advanced capabilities in relation to leadership, communication, time management and applied competencies which are required. The operational unit continues to have responsibility for providing learning opportunities and encouraging interaction with the wider organisational community. it should also support learning participation for these people and encourage sharing of learning when the individual does build new skills. Organisational support for these mid-career professionals must also be similarly consistent, recognising that these professionals have evolving roles, and hence, evolving needs. Different forms of learning opportunities will be required, and in particular, increased opportunities to interact with colleagues from other areas. Again, this orchestrated commitment ensures the overall outcomes are strongly learning focused.
Figure 10.2, page 253, pages 252 – 253. As leaders develop across the community, they will also need ongoing support. Again, this reflects the combined focus of the three levels. The individual will need to seek learning opportunities to develop new capabilities. The sharing of knowledge and guidance of others through mentorship also encourages learning from those other parties, while sharing knowledge too. As an ongoing strategy, leaders should also seek new learning challenges to keep growing and developing. The operational unit also has similar responsibilities to provide learning opportunities which are appropriate to the individual, and to provide feedback on leadership skills and outcomes. Of particular importance is the need to cultivate new opportunities for people to undertake leadership roles. This is a critical form of capacity building. Organisational support operates in a different way as it seeks to build a broader leadership context for the community. at a basic level, it needs to recognise and recruit new leaders so that there is an ongoing pool of highly capable and experienced people. Political capacity building may be a particular skill that is needed by new leaders. This can be gained through shadowing and coaching, so that new leaders are confident when working in this context. Leadership programmes also offer valuable means of building more understanding of the role and responsibilities. Talent should be nurtured, and innovative practices need to be encouraged. In a knowledge community, people should be able to take (measured) risks in the knowledge that the environment has a strong learning orientation. This model shows that the individual employee has learning needs throughout his/her career. As people grow into new roles and opportunities, they will need to cultivate different learning and experiences to support those roles. The organisation, operational unit and individual all paly an important part in maintaining the organisation as a learning community.
LO3, page 254 – 255. Relationships are critical in knowledge communities, as they determine the success of knowledge sharing and exploration strategies. The interactions between people are strongly influenced by the degree to which social capital is cultivated in the community. Organisations which strongly encourage positive, constructive and collaborative work behaviour will be better placed to build effective knowledge cultures. In turn, these generate effective knowledge communities. Many organisations are developing their values as foundations for behaviour, reflecting this recognition of the importance of social capital. These values often focus on respect, collaboration, learning and development and other aspects of building a collaborative and enjoyable working community. A challenge for many graduates is the shift from the focus on individualistic performance to collective work behaviours. The encouragement of new employees to adopt these concepts is an important issue if knowledge management is to be successfully implemented. Similarly, team membership needs proper support. Working in a team setting is very complex. Team building and related activities can greatly assist the building of social capital – particularly when teams are a major form of work structure. Communities of practice may also need support to encourage their effective functioning. Organisational support could include facilitation of discussions and other forms of support for constructive social interaction.
LO4, page 255 – 257 Many organisations invest heavily in leadership development . These programmes offer an opportunity for learning through and with peers, combining theoretical perspectives with practical applications. Peer-learning also provides reflective learning opportunities – particularly where lessons have been learnt through strategy failures. Modelling encourages desirable work behaviours and strategies by introducing the learner to individuals who are successful examples. Shadowing allows an individual to observe a leader close at hand. The learner shadows the model for several days, observing, discussing, and sharing issues. Coaching provides feedback and guidance in the work setting to guide an individual towards better strategies and practices. With mentoring provides a cheaper mechanism for guiding the individual toward appropriate strategies. The mentor meets regularly with the mentee to share issues and identify potential strategies. However, the mentor does not observe or interact intensively with the mentee while this is undertaken, relying, instead, on verbal recounts of how things progressed. While individuals can identify and develop a personal mentoring relationship with a person they see as a valuable model, many organisations operate formal mentorship schemes where individuals are matched with suitable role models. Authentic learning, such as that outlined in K Challenge 10.1, illustrates the form of learning that is often used to encourage leadership development. In the text example, Shell operates a very comprehensive programme where leaders explore issues and apply them into their workplace. They gain an extensive understanding of their work context and their role as leaders while interacting closely with their peers. E-learning is noted as being particularly useful in providing efficient learning forums which can be accessed at times which suit the learner.
LO5, pages 257 – 258. In many knowledge communities project work is assuming increasing importance. As with teams, there are many additional competencies and roles which must be developed to meet the complexities of working in project groups. Learning and development opportunities can support the development of these capabilities through a range of different ways. Standardised templates, guidelines and methodologies support the team by providing guidance on how the various project activities should be managed. They serve as models of good practice for others to adopt, and draw from those who are expert in working in this mode. Guidance on project roles and responsibilities can support each individual in clarifying what is expected, how the activities should be managed and the various strategies which might be useful. In many communities, training as to the project methodology and roles to be undertaken offers a useful guideline to those moving into new responsibilities. Common organisational strategies also assist those who work across different project teams. Regular updates on improvements and record keeping processes can also maintain the currency of knowledge which members possess. Update sessions ensure everyone is learning similar concepts and approaches, not different methods. Project team leadership is a specialist role, as the project leader must also manage the technical tasks as well as the team dynamics. This role can benefit greatly from a project team leadership development programme to guide leaders and to encourage their sharing of strategies and methods. Project related capabilities will also need to be developed across the team. Various skills will be needed, depending on the team and its focus. Project learning and reflection is often neglected in project teams. Members complete the handover of the project and then disband without undertaking a reflective review. Effective teams evaluate their performance and learning and document that for others to consider. In the process, they will experience considerable learning and development.
LO6, pages 258 – 260. Technology is one area where staff members will experience constant change, resulting in the need to regularly update skills and capabilities. Technology users range from novices to expert. Novice users have little experience in understanding, using and applying the technologies to meet their needs. Empowered users are confident, competent and keen to adopt new strategies. Expert users are those who regularly use technological skills in their core work processes. They quickly adapt to new strategies, and are often keen to enhance their capabilities on a regular basis. However, they don’t wish to waste time being taught basic processes or being asked to wait for others to learn steps. This variation in skill makes learning and development support very challenging, as users need to be provided with learning opportunities that are suited to the individual. As the text shows, different levels of user may anticipate quite different levels and types of support when learning about a new strategy. Technological literacy, that is, the capacity to analyse, apply and manage technological processes, is a complex area that is not yet properly addressed in many communities. We assume people come into a workplace with these skills fully developed, but it is rarely the case. The knowledge service will need to review the technological capabilities users require, and to build these into development opportunities. However, they are best developed at point of need, so the choice of learning method needs to be carefully considered. While e-learning is sometimes seen as the best option, many users will find it hard to make the time to learn unless there is a social element to the learning process. There are a range of competencies that people need to develop when using technology. These are fully explored on page 260 of the text. In brief, most people need to be build four forms of technological literacy: Technological skills to understand and apply a range of processes to capture, document share and manage their knowledge. Conceptual understanding of how knowledge and information systems work and how principles and practices should operate in a particular context. Organisational context and tools should be understood by users. Why an organisation has chosen a particular approach and how that approach supports the desired outcomes and priorities should be clear. Each user should learn why each new system will benefit the organisation and how it will help their own work processes. Self-management requires individuals to have a strong sense of standards, expectations and outcomes when working with technology. This helps the individual to judge the quality and output of work on work systems and processes.
Page 261 – 262. Before providing technological learning opportunities, it is important to build a good understanding of the user capabilities and the organisational requirements of staff with respect to technology. A variety of approaches may be used: Organisations may undertake a needs analysis of the technological skills that employees require. The needs analysis should encompass the four aspects of technological literacy – technological, conceptual, organisational and self-management. These analyses aim to identify the specific capabilities required to work with the real organisational systems and processes. A skills audit can help to measure what level of skill users can demonstrate. This can be done in two ways: through self reports (which can inflate the capability estimates) or through testing individuals to assess their performance. Organisations can develop a technological skills framework that they can apply to selection, induction, promotion, ongoing training, performance development reviews and other forms of individual competency development. The framework should be built in consultation with representative users. This establishes standards and expectations as to the technological skills and capabilities staff are expected to demonstrate in their work roles. User support can be offered at point of need to individuals, so that they can obtain help as required. This often operates through a help desk. Failure analysis can be undertaken when people seek help from technical experts. The analysis can clarify whether the system or the user requires additional support. User groups offer insight into developmental needs, while also providing support and feedback to colleagues. User groups comprise peers with a common interest in learning about a new technology. They may also be supported by an expert who provides guidance. The issues explored by these members can also be identified and shared with those designing new learning opportunities or online help. It can be seen that organisations that build a strong analytic focus to inform their technological development strategy could ensure a much stronger support for their users.
LO7, Page 262 – 263. Figure 10.3 summarises some of the issues which should be considered when building a developmental strategy. Of central importance is the recognition that learning occurs within a specific organisational context . Because it needs to be targeted and strategic, it may also emphasise the strategic priorities which have been identified by the organisation’s executive and wider community. Comprehensive approaches to knowledge development often result in ongoing organisational change and development, as employee growth leads to a quest for improved processes and practices. Allied to this is the need to encourage personal, professional and career development in each individual, group and operational unit. The learning framework in which the L&D takes place operates at four levels: first, it relies on a needs analysis which offers a framework on which learning and development can be structured. This analysis integrates the individual, operational and organisational perspectives to give a comprehensive picture of what is required in terms of support. Second, the framework identifies the support and learning culture elements which need to be provided or addressed. These first two layers are then used to inform the creation of appropriate learning opportunities. Finally, the learning context and the ways in which learning is encouraged needs to be monitored and explored on an ongoing basis. This then assists with generating learning outcomes in terms of competencies, capabilities and capacity building.
LO8, pages 263 – 264. While the organisational and operational unit play an important role in supporting L&D, the ultimate responsibility rests with the individual. Each person needs to monitor the new forms of knowledge which need to be created, and the skills which are starting to be less well developed. We all need to upgrade our knowledge and capabilities on a regular basis. The individual therefore needs to monitor and plan for ongoing learning. There are three very useful methods which can assist. Career planning assist learning by identifying desirable long term career paths and the learning which is needed to be well placed to meet those future challenges. Typically, a person identifies a future role or direction which appears to suit their knowledge, skills, attributes and personal characteristics. The individual may identify a range of avenues which could be pursued to build additional experiences and credentials in the desired area. The individual seeks to use the available opportunities within and beyond the workplace to develop further capabilities. Ideally, the process also enriches the individual’s current work role. Goal setting allows the individual to reflect on his or her achievements and identify new performance targets for the coming year. Many successful individuals integrate career planning, personal, professional and developmental goals in this process. Goal-setting is most successful when individuals aim for a challenging, but achievable outcome. Performance development reviews help the individual to explore career and developmental needs with an informed sponsor – who may or may not be the direct supervisor. During the discussion, many people focus on areas of growth and development which should be pursued in the coming year and the support which will be needed to achieve these. This helps to clarify the goals which should be pursued.
This chapter has explored a number of issues relating to learning and development. It has emphasised that learning and development is the responsibility of the individual, the operational unit and the organisation as a whole. All play a part in ensuring that the learning an individual seeks is then built into ongoing work activities and capabilities. Learning never stops: we all need to keep developing as we adopt new roles. This is particularly the case in knowledge intensive communities, where technology and new knowledge are constantly challenging employees to build new capabilities. There are many approaches to learning, but those that encourage strong transfer are the most preferred. In many cases these are peer-based activities which use a combination of approaches. The most critical message from this session, however, is that learning and development is an essential element of a knowledge organization. It cannot operate without members who seek new knowledge and learning.
Capitulo10 aprendizagem e desenvolvimento
Lição nº 9Aprendizagem e desenvolvimentonum ambiente de conhecimentoAnabela Mesquita
Objectivos da aula1. Descrever os princípios de aprendizagem que devem estar presentesno ambiente do conhecimento2. Desenhar de que forma um suporte de desenvolvimento holísticopode ser fornecido3. Identificar estratégias para ajudar no desenvolvimento do capitalsocial4. Discutir os mecanismos que podem incentivar as capacidades deliderança5. Descrever de que forma as necessidades de aprendizagem baseadasna resolução de problemas ou projectos, podem ser apoiadas6. Rever de que forma o serviço de conhecimento pode apoiar odesenvolvimento tecnológico dos utilizadores7. Esboçar as exigências de uma estratégia de desenvolvimento doconhecimento8. Esboçar as finalidades e as características de um plano dedesenvolvimento
Aprendizagem num ambientede conhecimento• A aprendizagem e o desenvolvimento são actividadesessenciais numa comunidade de conhecimento intensivo• Os trabalhadores de conhecimento inovam e adaptam àmedida que exploram e integram o novo conhecimento e asexperiências. Estes processos ocorrem através daexperimentação, aprendizagem e mudança• O capital social, intelectual e técnico precisam de ser“alimentados” e valorizados na comunidade.
Aprendizagem numambiente de conhecimento(cont.)• Treino: aprendizagem de processos supervisionado por um perito• Utiliza-se quando as competências / habilidades podem ser aprendidas atravésda prática e da aplicação• Normalmente relacionam-se com tarefas e actividades práticas• Normalmente o instrutor conduz o treino• Aprendizagem: mudança nas habilidades, no conhecimento e nascompetências que influenciam a forma como se pensa e vai agir no futuro eque resultam do treino, experimentação, reflexão, abstracção ou outrasformas de experimentar ou pensar• Desenvolvimento: processo contínuo de crescimento e mudança• Alteração de paradigma - aumento do reconhecimento da forma como aspessoas aprendem e reflectem – passou-se da preocupação com o treino paraa ênfase no desenvolvimento.
Aprendizagem num ambientede conhecimento (cont.)• Competências: áreas de conhecimento e de habilidadesque contribuem para o desenvolvimento decomportamentos relacionados com a função• Podem ser identificadas e medidas tais como competênciastécnicas, literacia, etc.• Capacidades: conjunto de habilidades e competênciasque permitem o indivíduo ir ao encontro dos desafiosassociados ao desempenho de papéis complexos notrabalho• Liderança, negociação, etc.
Aprendizagem num ambientede conhecimento (cont.)Abordagem à aprendizagem• Não existe a abordagem perfeita à aprendizagem• O contexto e os objectivos têm de ser considerados aquando do desenho dasoportunidades de aprendizagem• Diferentes métodos adequados a diferentes finalidades• Os indivíduos podem ter preferências no que concerne as abordagens àaprendizagem• Uns podem aprender melhor lendo e reflectindo; outros gostam de vermodelos e demonstrações; outros podem gostar de ouvir conceitos• Diferentes formas de aprendizagens precisam de diferentes abordagens deapoio• As organizações necessitam fornecer oportunidades que reflictam essasdiferentes necessidades
Abordagens à aprendizagemAprendizagem sobre ocontexto de trabalho- Nível organizacional• Indução• On-the-job training• Leitura• Seminários e workshopsOportunidades deaprendizagem a nívelindividual• Aprendizagem de improviso• Aprendizagem on-line• Aprendizagem autêntica• Aprendizagem activa
Aprendizagem numambiente de conhecimento(cont.)Factores queafectam aaprendizagemDesenvolvimentoe aprendizagemorganizacionalOrganizaçãoComunidadeFactoresorganizacionaisFactoresindividuaisFactoresoperacionaisContextoaprendizagem
Aprendizagem num ambientede conhecimento (cont.)• Factores de aprendizagem individual:• Experiências prévias de aprendizagem• Competências / capacidade de reflexão / capacidade de arriscar• Compromisso / percepção do valor da aprendizagem• Aspirações profissionais• Gestão do tempo• Criatividade / Inovação
Aprendizagem num ambientede conhecimento (cont.)• Factores organizacionais:• Valores• Filosofia de aprendizagem• Recompensas e reconhecimento da aprendizagem• Liderança• Sistema de gestão da performance• Sistema e estrutura do conhecimento
Aprendizagem num ambientede conhecimento (cont.)• Factores operacionais:• Transferência de aprendizagem• Cultura de aprendizagem / atitude perante o erro• liderança / garantia de aprendizagem• Suporte disponível• Partilha do conhecimento prático• Suporte de aprendizagem para o local de trabalho
Aprendizagem numambiente de conhecimento(cont.)• Contexto de aprendizagem:• Disponibilização de diferentes oportunidades deaprendizagem• Suportes disponíveis• Orientação do aluno• Recursos apropriados• Relevância• Foco estratégico• Conteúdo
Criação de uma abordagemholística de desenvolvimento• O processo de aprendizagem deve iniciar-se quando apessoa começa a trabalhar na organização• Com o passar do tempo, os colaboradores necessitarãode orientação relativamente à forma a organizaçãotrabalha• Capacidade de criar necessidades que incentivem acriação de novos líderes para o futuro• Oportunidades formais e informais de aprendizagemnecessitam de ser providenciadas
Aprendizagem holística e desenvolvimento daconsolidação do conhecimentoIndividual• Desenvolvimentode novas competências• Aplicação deconhecimento• Procura de mentores• Prestar atenção aoportunidades deaprendizagem• Colocar questõesUnidades operacionais• Localizar mentores• Planear, providenciar emonitorar oportunidadesde aprendizagem• Dar feedback• Assistência naaprendizagem on-the-job• Incentivar o crescimento• Recompensar oesforçoOrganizacionais• Supervisionar aaprendizagem dosparticipantes• Patrocinar e encorajaro envolvimento das CoP• Providenciar orientações• Planear e promoveractividades de aprendizagemProfissionais em estádio inicial
Aprendizagem holística e desenvolvimento naconsolidação do conhecimentoIndividual• Novos papéis• Liderança• Comunicação• Gestão do tempo• Planeamento• Aplicação decompetênciasUnidades operacionais• Desenvolvimento deoportunidades deaprendizagem• Incentivar a interacção• Apoiar a participação• Incentivar a partilhade aprendizagemOrganizacional• Reconhecer papéis enecessidades• Providenciar odesenvolvimento deoportunidades• Incentivar igualmente aaprendizagem / partilhaProfissionais de média carreira / gestores deprojectos / equipas de liderança
Aprendizagem holística e desenvolvimento naconsolidação do conhecimentoIndividual• Desenvolver novascapacidades• Partilha conhecimento• Outros mentores• Procurar novosdesafiosUnidades operacionais• Providenciaroportunidades deaprendizagem apropriadas• Dar feedback• Incentivar papéisde liderançaOrganizacional• Reconhecer novos líderes• Assistência com acapacidade de criação depolíticas• Programas de liderança• Educar talentos• Apoiar o arriscar /inovaçãoFase da Liderança
Desenvolvimento do capitalsocial• As interacções entre as pessoas são fortementeinfluenciadas pelo grau com que o capital social écultivado na comunidade. Organizações que encorajamcomportamento colaborativos e construtivos estãomelhor colocadas para criar culturas efectivas deconhecimento que, por sua vez, geram comunidadesefectivas de conhecimento• Valores – respeito, colaboração, aprendizagem,desenvolvimento• Individualismo versus colectivismo• Membros da equipa• Comunidades de práticas
Desenvolver as capacidadesde liderança doconhecimento• Desenvolvimento da liderança• Modelação• Encoraja comportamentos e estratégias desejáveis através daapresentação de exemplos de sucesso• Vigilância• Observar alguém de perto• Treinar (mentor)• Fornece feedback e orientação• Aprendizagem autêntica
Aprendizagem baseada naaprendizagem• Templates padronizados, directrizes e metodologias• Orientação nas responsabilidades e papéis a desempenharnos projectos• Actualizações regulares nos processos de melhoria emanutenção de registos• Liderança das equipas de projecto• Potencialidades relacionadas com o projecto• Aprendizagem e reflexão sobre projecto
Trabalhar com tecnologia• Área em constante mudança e up-skilling• Principiantes, conhecedores e peritos• Literacia tecnológica: capacidade para analisar, aplicar e gerirprocessos tecnológicos• Competências tecnológicas• Compreensão conceptual• Ferramentas e contexto organizacional• Auto-gestão
Trabalhar com tecnologia (cont.)Avaliar as competências do utilizador• Analisar as necessidades• Auditar as competências• Estrutura das competências tecnológicas• Suporte ao utilizador• Análise das falhas• Grupo de utilizadores
Construir uma estratégiadetalhada dodesenvolvimento doconhecimentoResultado da aprendizagemTreinar(competências)Aprender(capacidades)Desenvolver(capacidade de criar)Desenvolver análise de necessidade / estruturar / auditarDesenvolver apoio e culturasDesenvolver oportunidadesContexto de aprendizagemDesenvolver prioridades estratégias institucionaisSistema, estrutura e desenvolvimento organizacionalOpções profissionais / gestão de carreirasContextoorganizacionalContextoaprendizagem
Plano de desenvolvimentopessoal• Os indivíduos devem ser responsáveis pela sua própriaaprendizagem.• Planeamento da carreira• Consolidação de objectivos• Revisões do desenvolvimento do desempenho
Conclusão• A aprendizagem e desenvolvimento são daresponsabilidade do individuo, bem como da unidadeoperacional e da organização no seu todo.• O processo de aprendizagem nunca se esgota: todos nósprecisamos de nos manter em desenvolvimento àmedida que desempenhamos novos papéis.• Existem diversas abordagens de aprendizagem, masaquela que incentiva uma forte transferência deconhecimento deve ser a preferida.