Knowledge management can be equated with the implementation and use of particular types of ICT (corporate intranets, directories of expertise) to those who focus on more indirect methods of managing knowledge, via managing the people who possess and utilize knowledge.
Assumption – knowledge is a resource amenable to control and management Alvesson & Karreman (2001) argue that the inherently ambiguous, tacit, contextual, unspecific, dynamic, subjective nature of knowledge make it a resource that is difficult to manage.
There are also arguments that say that there are some features of knowledge which make it difficult to manage via IT systems. Another factor that makes the management of knowledge difficult is the potential for conflict that exist between workers and management over the process of managing organizational knowledge which can make workers concerned about, or unwilling to participate in knowledge management process.
There are a vast range of different ways via which knowledge in organizations can be managed. A number of writers suggest that to be most effective, the particular knowledge management strategy utilized by any organization should be compatible with and developed via taking account of an organisation’s business strategy. Important to link knowledge management initiatives to concrete business strategies – done via developing an understanding of the role of knowledge resources and processes in an organisation’s business strategy, and developing a knowledge management strategy to sustain and enhance these knowledge resources / processes.
Any deliberate efforts to manage the knowledge of an organisation’s workforce, which can be achieved via a wide range of methods including directly, through the use of particular types of ICT, or more indirectly through the management of social processes, the structuring of organizations in particular ways or via the use of particular culture and people management practices.
Codification focus on codified knowledge, in storage and retrieval of codified knowledge; personalization focus on ways to improve the face-to face sharing of tacit knowledge between workers.
Knowledge strategy Codification PersonalizationBusiness knowledge Competitive advantage Competitive advantagelink through knowledge reuse through knowledge creationRelevant knowledge Transferring knowledge Improving socialprocess from people to processes to facilitate documents sharing of tacit knowledge between peopleHRM implications Motivate people to codify Motivate people to share their knowledge their knowledge with others Training should emphasize the Training should development of IT skills emphasize the development of inter- Reward people for personal skills codifying their knowledge Reward people for sharing knowledge with others