Game development terminologies

Uploaded on

a collection of terminologies used in the game development industry, from my point of view any one who intends to work in that business should understand them.

a collection of terminologies used in the game development industry, from my point of view any one who intends to work in that business should understand them.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Game terminologies By Ahmed Badr
  • 2. Agenda• RGB• Color cube• Pixel• Color depth• Resolution• Pixel art• BMP• Grayscale
  • 3. Agenda• Alpha mask• PCX• JPEG/JPG• Alpha channels• Sprite• Polygon• Vertex• Edge
  • 4. Agenda• Model• Face• Mesh• Texture• Tile maps• Texel• Texture Mapping• UV mapping
  • 5. Agenda•MinMaps•procedural texture•point sampling•Bilinear interpolation•Tri-linear filtering•anisotropic filtering•Render•Frame
  • 6. Agenda•Gouraud shading•Reflection mapping•Specular reflection•Diffuse reflection•Refraction•Bump mapping•Normal mapping•parallax mapping
  • 7. Agenda• Lightmap• Ray tracing• Terrain• Height map• Pixel shader• Vertex shader• Cell shader• Game bots
  • 8. Agenda• AI• procedural animation• Skeletal animation• Morph target animation• Collision• Game engine• game genre
  • 9. RGB• The RGB color model is an additive model in which red, green, and blue (often used in additive light models) are combined in various ways to reproduce other colors.
  • 10. Color cube• A color in the RGB color model can be described by indicating how much of each of the red, green and blue color is included. Each can vary between the minimum (no color) and maximum (full intensity). If all the colors are at minimum the result is black. If all the colors at maximum, the result is white.
  • 11. Pixel• A pixel (short for picture element, using the common abbreviation "pix" for "picture") is a single point in a graphic image. Each such information element is not really a dot, nor a square, but an abstract sample
  • 12. Color depth• Color depth is a computer graphics term describing the number of bits used to represent the color of a single pixel in a bitmapped image.• This concept is also known as bits per pixel (bpp)
  • 13. Resolution• The number of pixels in an image is sometimes called the resolution.• The higher the resolution the higher the picture quality• In game industry the same concepts apply but put in mind that high resolution comes at the price of high memory consumption and processing time.
  • 14. Pixel art• Pixel art is a form of digital art, created through the use of Isometric raster graphics software, where images are edited on the pixel level. Two type of pixel art, Isometric and non isometric. Non Isometric
  • 15. BMP• BMP files are usually not compressed, so they are typically much larger than compressed image file formats for the same image. For example, an 800×600 24-bit image will occupy almost 1.4 megabytes• 800 x 600 x (24/8) = 1.4 MB
  • 16. Grayscale• Displayed images of this sort are typically composed of shades of gray, varying from black at the weakest intensity to white at the strongest
  • 17. Alpha mask• Used to introduce transparency to areas to the BMP files. A gray scale image is used to describe transparency in a BMP image
  • 18. PCX• PCX is an image file format developed by the ZSoft Corporation of Marietta, Georgia, USA. It was the native file format for PC Paintbrush and became one of the first widely accepted DOS imaging standards, although its use has since been succeeded by more sophisticated image formats such as GIF, JPEG, and PNG.• Advantage: compression without losing quality
  • 19. JPEG/JPG• In computing, JPEG is a commonly used method of compression for photographic images• Advantages: Holds transparency information without the need to an external file• Disadvantages: destructive compression is used.
  • 20. Alpha channelsIn a 2D image elementwhich stores a colorfor each pixel, anadditional value isstored in the alphachannel containing avalue ranging from 0to 1. A value of 0means that the pixeldoes not have anycoverage information
  • 21. SpriteSprite is a two-dimensional image oranimation that isintegrated into a.larger scene
  • 22. PolygonIn geometry a polygonis a plane figure thatis bounded by aclosed path or circuit,composed of a finitenumber of sequential .line segments
  • 23. Vertexa vertex is a corner ofan angle
  • 24. Edgea connection betweentwo vertices
  • 25. ModelA model is a fully-3Dcomputer graphic,polygonal object orcharacter used incomputer and videogames
  • 26. FaceIn geometry, a face of apolyhedron is any ofthe polygons thatmake up itsboundaries
  • 27. Mesh• A polygon mesh or unstructured grid is a collection of vertices and polygons that define the shape of an polyhedral object in 3D computer graphics.
  • 28. TextureTexture refers to theproperties held andsensations caused bythe external surfaceof objects receivedthrough the sense of.touch
  • 29. Tile maps• A picture with seamless edges repeated along side in X and Y axis
  • 30. Texeltexture element The smallest addressableunit of a texture map. When objects in theimage are near, one texel is mapped toone or more screen pixels. When objectsare distant, multiple texels are averagedinto one screen pixel
  • 31. Texture MappingTexture mapping is amethod, pioneered byEdwin Catmull, ofadding detail, surfacetexture, or colour to acomputer-generatedgraphic or 3D model
  • 32. UV mapping• UV mapping is a 3D modelling process of making a 2D image representing a 3D model. The map transforms the 3D object onto an image known as a texture. In contrast to "X", "Y" and "Z", which are the coordinates for the original 3D object in the modelling space, "U" and "V" are the coordinates of the transformed object. This creates the effect of painting the image onto the surface of the 3D object
  • 33. MinMapsA texture mappingtechnique that usesmultiple texture maps,or MIP maps. EachMIP map is half thesize of the first one,providing severaltexture maps forvarious levels ofdepth
  • 34. procedural texture• An algorithmic way of describing a texture. Unlike a bitmapped texture, in which the texture is represented as a bitmap, a procedural texture describes the texture mathematically. Although not widely used, this method is resolution independent and can create more precise textures, especially if there is great and varying depth to the objects being textured. Procedural textures may be 2D or 3D• cat=technology
  • 35. volumetric texture• A texture that is described in three dimensions. It can be created as a "stack" of 2D bitmapped textures or as a 3D procedural texture. When an object with volumetric texture is sliced in half, the texture would still be rendered accurately on the inside•
  • 36. point sampling• Also called "nearest neighbor," it is the simplest form of texture mapping, which is often associated with low-end games and applications that do not demand much realism. An algorithm is used to map a screen pixel to the corresponding point on the texture map. The attributes (color, alpha, etc.) of the nearest texel are then directly applied to the screen pixel. The process is repeated for each pixel forming the object being textured
  • 37. Bilinear interpolation• A texture mapping technique that produces a reasonably realistic image, also known as "bilinear filtering" and "bilinear texture mapping." An algorithm is used to map a screen pixel location to a corresponding point on the texture map. A weighted average of the attributes (color, alpha, etc.) of the four surrounding texels is computed and applied to the screen pixel. This process is repeated for each pixel forming the object being textured•
  • 38. Tri-linear filtering• Bilinear filtering has several weaknesses that make it an unattractive choice in many cases: using it on a full-detail texture when scaling to a very small size causes accuracy problems from missed texels, and compensating for this by using multiple mipmaps throughout the polygon leads to abrupt changes in blurriness, which is most pronounced in polygons that are steeply angled relative to the camera.• trilinear filtering interpolates between the results of bilinear filtering on the two mipmaps nearest to the detail required for the polygon at the pixel•
  • 39. anisotropic filtering• is a method of enhancing the image quality of textures on surfaces that are at oblique viewing angles with respect to the camera where the projection of the texture appears to be non orthogonal
  • 40. RenderRendering is the process ofgenerating an image froma model, by means ofcomputer programs. Themodel is a description ofthree dimensional objectsin a strictly definedlanguage or datastructure. It would containgeometry, viewpoint,texture and lighting.information
  • 41. Framea frame is one of themany still imageswhich compose thecomplete movingpicture
  • 42. Gouraud shading• Gouraud shading, named after Henri Gouraud, is a method used in computer graphics to simulate the differing effects of light and colour across the surface of an object. In practice, Gouraud shading is used to achieve smooth lighting on low-polygon surfaces without the heavy computational requirements of calculating lighting for each pixel
  • 43. Reflection mapping• reflection mapping is an efficient method of simulating a complex mirroring surface by means of a precomputed texture image. The texture is used to store the image of the environment surrounding the rendered object.• Types of cube mapping – Standard Environment Mapping – Cube Environment Mapping – HEALPix Environment Mapping•
  • 44. Specular reflection• Specular reflection is the perfect, mirror-like reflection of light• flection
  • 45. Diffuse reflection• Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light from an uneven or granular surface such that an incident ray is seemingly reflected at a number of angles•
  • 46. Refraction• Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. This is most commonly seen when a wave passes from one medium to another. Refraction of light is the most commonly seen example, but any type of wave can refract when it interacts with a medium•
  • 47. Bump mappingBump mapping is acomputer graphicstechnique where at eachpixel, a perturbation tothe surface normal of theobject being rendered islooked up in a heightmapand applied before theillumination calculation isdone
  • 48. Normal mapping• normal mapping is an application of the technique known as bump mapping• Normal mapping used to re-detail simplified meshes•
  • 49. parallax mapping• Parallax mapping is an enhancement of the bump mapping or normal mapping . To the end user, this means that textures such as stone walls, will have more apparent depth with less of an influence on the performance.• g
  • 50. LightmapA light map is a 3D engine light datastructure which contains the brightness ofsurfaces in a video game. Light maps arepre-computed and used for static objects
  • 51. Ray tracingRay tracing is a generaltechnique fromgeometrical optics ofmodeling the pathtaken by light byfollowing rays of lightas they interact withoptical surfaces
  • 52. Terrain• Terrain, or relief, is the third or vertical dimension of land surface.
  • 53. Height mapA height map or heightfield is a raster imageused to store values,such as surfaceelevation data, fordisplay in 3Dcomputer graphics
  • 54. Pixel shaderA pixel shader serves to manipulate a pixel,usually to apply an effect on an image, forexample; realism, bump mapping,.shadows, and explosion effects
  • 55. Vertex shaderA Vertex-Shader serves to manipulate thegeometry of an object of a scene.Therefore the form of the object changesand this changes the appearance of theobject. With the help of vertex Shadereffects as vertex lighting, terrain-/Object-deformation, waves or fish eyeperspective are possible
  • 56. Cell shaderCell Shading is the "art"of rendering yourobjects to look likecartoons. Variouscartoon effects can beachieved with verylittle modifications tothe original source.code
  • 57. Game botsis a robotic computer controlled entity thatsimulates an online or LAN multiplayerhuman death match opponent, team deathmatch opponent or a cooperative humanplayer. Computer game bots work viaartificial intelligence routines pre-programmed to suit the game map, gamerules, game type and other parametersunique to each game
  • 58. AIGame artificial intelligence refers totechniques used in computer and videogames to produce the illusion ofintelligence in the behavior of non-playercharacters (NPCs). The techniques usedtypically draw upon existing methods fromthe academic field of artificial intelligenceAI
  • 59. procedural animation• A procedural animation is a type of computer animation, used to automatically generate animation in real-time to allow for a more diverse series of actions than could otherwise be created using predefined animations.• Procedural animation is used to simulate particle systems cloth and clothing, rigid body dynamics, and hair and fur dynamics, as well as character animation•
  • 60. Skeltal animation• Skeletal animation, sometimes referred to as rigging, is a technique in computer animation, particularly in the animation of vertebrates, in which a character is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called the skin) and a hierarchical set of bones used for animation only (called the skeleton).•
  • 61. Morph target animation ((or per-vertex animation• Morph target animation (or per-vertex animation) is a method of 3D computer animation that is sometimes used as an alternative to skeletal animation. Morph target animation is stored as a series of vertex positions. In each keyframe of the animation, the vertices are moved to a different position.•
  • 62. Collisioncollision means the action of bodies • striking or coming together
  • 63. Game engine• A game engine is the core software component of a computer video game or other interactive application with real-time graphics. It provides the underlying technologies, simplifies development, and often enables the game to run on multiple platforms• The core functionality typically provided by a game engine includes a rendering engine (“renderer”) for 2D or 3D graphics, a physics engine or collision detection (and collision response), sound, scripting, animation, artificial intelligence, networking, streaming, memory management, threading, and a scene graph
  • 64. game genre• Video games are categorized into genres based on their gameplay•
  • 65. References••