Strategi Pemasaran

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Strategi Pemasaran

  1. 1. STRATEGI PEMASARAN Arriffin Mansor 1
  2. 2. 14 Langkah Rancangan Pemasaran Analisis Kos Strategi Matlamat Segmentasi volum dan Pemasaran – Pemasaran Pelanggan untung 4ps Belanjawan 7 Langkah Pengurusan Perletakan Belian atau menjual Jualan Produk harga kilang Ramalan Kos Overhead Modal Kerja Jualan Bualanan Penghantaran Pemasaran Belanjawan Metrik Pemasaran Pemasaran 2
  3. 3. 6 Langkah Rancangan Pemasaran`1 • Titik pulang kos1 • Matlamat Pemasaran • Modal kerja dan Modal Tetap2 • Strategi Perniagaan • Segmentasi ,Sasaran dan profile pelanggan3 • Saiz dan nilai pasaran • Strategi 4 P4 • Positioning atau perletakan • Strategi Pemasaran melaui BSC perspektif5 • Metrik Pemasaran • Belanjawan Pemasaran6 3
  4. 4. 3 ways of doing business – M. Porter Mass Product production Differentiation and cheap and premium pricing pricing strategi strategy Niche Marketing 4
  5. 5. THE STRATEGIC GAPS• HOW MUCH GROWTH IS LEFT IN MY CURRENT MARKETS? CUSTOMERS?• WHERE WILL MY FUTURE GROWTH COME FROM?• HOW WILL I CAPTURE MARKET SHARE?• WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS OF MY DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY?• WHERE DO I GENERATE PROFITS? WHERE COULD I GENERATE PROFITS?5
  6. 6. RANCANGAN PEMASARAN Rancangan Rancangan Pemasaran Jualan Strategi Pemasaran Rancangan KeuntunganMatlamat Pemasaran 6
  7. 7. Target Marketing 7
  8. 8. Matlamat PerniagaanPTJ Pusingan Aset Gandaan Ekuiti • PTJ • PTA • PTE 8
  9. 9. Matlamat Pemasaran • untungPTJ • Jualan • JualanPTA • Jumlah Aset • AsetGE • Ekuiti 9
  10. 10. Profit Margin Management Sales Gross Margin Net Profit Net Profit Margin ÷ Cost of Goods Sold Sales Total Expenses10
  11. 11. Managing Assets: Inventory and Accts Rec. are the keys Inventory Sales Asset Accounts Turnover Current Assets Receivable ÷ Total Assets Fixed Other Current Assets Assets11
  12. 12. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PULANGAN TERHADAP Kurangkan kos tingkatkan JUALAN jualanPULANGAN PUSINGAN Jualan tunai dan belianTERHADAP ASET secara kredit EKUITI GANDAAN Sewa jangan beli EKUITI Jika beli dengan pinjaman bank 12
  13. 13. PEMASARAN Strategi PerletakanSegmentasi 13
  14. 14. Rancangan Pemasaran 14
  15. 15. Maximising ROS strategies 15
  16. 16. Maximising ROA strategies 16
  17. 17. Maximising ROE strategies 17
  18. 18. Pulangan terhadap ekuiti Gandaan Pusingan Ekuiti Pulangan Aset terhadap Jualan 18
  19. 19. KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS A/E = J/A = GANDAAN PUSINGAN HUTANG MODALU/J = UNTUNG BERSIH 19
  20. 20. Pulangan Prestasi Utama PTE PTA PTJ 20
  21. 21. P Which segments / customers will we CUSTOMER TARGETS O concentrate on ? S I T Whom will we COMPETITOR I challenge for these customers? TARGETS O N I N What incentives will we provide to get them to CORE STRATEGY G buy from us… rather than from competitors?21
  22. 22. THE ACCOUNT PORTFOLIO Strong Weak High Selectively Invest / Grow Invest ACCOUNT ATTRACTIVENESS Manage for Maintain Cash /• Size Withdraw• Growth Low• Profitability BUSINESS STRENGTHS• Location• Purchasing criteria and processes • Product range• Current suppliers • Product efficacy• Status of customer • Service quality (prestige) • Price • Technical services • Reputation/image • Past experience • Quality of sales staff • Quality of relationships 22
  23. 23. ACCOUNT PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS Strong Strength of Position Weak High KEY TARGET Attractiveness: Attractiveness: Accounts are very attractive since they Accounts are potentially attractive offer high opportunity and sales since they offer high opportunity, but organization has strong position. sales organization currently has weak position with accounts. Sales call strategy: Sales call strategy: Accounts should receive a high level of Selected accounts should receive a sales calls since they are the sales high level of sales calls to strengthen organization’s most attractive the sales organizations position. accounts. AccountOpportunity MAINTENANCE WHY BOTHER Attractiveness: Attractiveness: Accounts are somewhat attractive since Accounts are very unattractive since sales organization has strong position, they offer low opportunity and sales but future opportunity is limited. organization has weak position. Sales call strategy: Sales call strategy: Accounts should receive a moderate Accounts should receive no field sales level of sales calls to maintain the calls and a minimum of inside sales current strength of the sales resources. organization’s position. And, efforts should be made to replace field sales Low calls with telephone sales.23
  24. 24. ACCOUNT SEGMENTATION AND PRIORITIZATION High KEY ACCOUNTS TARGET ACCOUNTS (Your competition’s Key Accounts) • 10-20% of your account base • Gets very little attention ACCOUNT ATTRACTIVENESS • 80% of your GP$ • Receives less than 50% of your resources MAINTENANCE ACCOUNTS WHY BOTHER? ACCOUNTS • 40-45% of your account base • 30-40% of your account base • Less than 5% of your GP$ • 10-15% of your GP$ • Receives 20-30% of your • Receives 30-40% of your resources resources • Creates 90% of your Low ―headaches‖24 Strong YOUR STRENGTH OF POSITION Weak
  25. 25. STRATEGI PEMASARAN • Margin premium atau murah Harga • Kuantiti banyak x margin kecilProduk •Kualiti atau biasa •Faedah produk diterang dgn jelas • Media dan saluran yang sesuaiPromosi • Mesej yang sesuai • kesesuaianSaluran • Kos saluran 25
  26. 26. Interaksi Pemasaran PelangganOrganisasi Produk 26
  27. 27. Kehendak Pelanggan SELF ACTUALISATION EGO SOCIETY SECURITY BASIC 27
  28. 28. Cost-Volume-Profit Graph Total RevenueRevenue Profit Total Cost Y Loss X Unit sold X = Break-even point in units Y = Break-even point in revenue 28
  29. 29. Profit-Volume GraphProfit I = (P - V)X - F Slope = P - V Units Loss Break-Even Point In Units -F 29
  30. 30. Penetapan Harga 30
  31. 31. CashCREDITORS Working Stock capital debtors 31
  32. 32. PEMASARAN STRATEGIK1. Senario Ekonomi Malaysia2. Campuran Pemasaran3. Analisis Pemasaran (SWOT & Audit)4. Kajian Kes5. Penyediaan Pelan Pemasaran Strategik6. Pembentangan 32
  33. 33. PEMASARAN STRATEGIKSenario Ekonomi Malaysia• Perniagaan ialah 1 unit drpd satu sistem ekonomi• Perubahan dalam sistem yg besar beri kesan kpd unit-unit sekeliling• Kepekaan kpd senario ekonomi semasa beri kemampuan untuk bertindak ikut rentak sealiran dgn ekonomi 33
  34. 34. PEMASARAN STRATEGIKPetunjuk-petunjuk utama ekonomi (key economic indicators):1. KNK (GDP)2. Indeks Komposit BSKL3. Belanjawan Negara4. Polisi Fiskal5. Polisi Kewangan 34
  35. 35. PEMASARAN STRATEGIKSenario Ekonomi Malaysia1. Kepentingan Usahawan2. Dunia Tanpa Sempadan3. K-Ekonomi4. Islam5. AFTA 35
  36. 36. PEMASARAN STRATEGIKApa itu Pemasaran Strategik?• Suatu usaha untuk mempertahankan keuntungan dan kelebihan kompetitif melalui satu Strategi Pemasaran yang komprehensif dan terkini• 3 elemen pokok dlm Pemasaran Strategik ialah S.T.P (segmentation, targeting, & positioning) 36
  37. 37. Sales Force Management Fall 1999 37
  38. 38. Product Life Cycle Impact: The Value Added Wall for HPBA Companies Value AddedSales Services Price Product Profits 38 Time
  39. 39. Sales management - Outline• Role of the sales force in corporate strategy• Trends in personal selling and sales management• Functions of the salesperson and sales manager• Course overview 39
  40. 40. Strategic Leverage of the Sales Force• Customer focus• Enhances customer loyalty• Source of competitive advantage 40
  41. 41. Enhances Customer Focus• Allows a targeted market segment approach – one customer at a time – customize sales calls and presentations by needs – important source of market knowledge and customer needs assessment 41
  42. 42. Develops Customer Loyalty• Creates high switching costs – salesperson (knowledge, expertise, relationship) creates product/service differentiation, particularly when competitors’ products deliver the same basic benefits• Loyalty reduces the customers’ price sensitivity 42
  43. 43. Source of Competitive Advantage• Creates a barrier to entry – costs of creating a sales force – market access• Creates a medium-to-long term competitive advantage – unlike advertising (medium-term) or pricing (short-term) 43
  44. 44. Trends in Personal Selling• Nature of the sales job: – Informed consultant: • knowledge of customers, industries and applications – Process (rather than event) driven – Team player – Customer advocate/Market feedback – Integration of promotional mechanisms (e.g. DTC) 44
  45. 45. Trends in Personal Selling• Nature of the sales manager’s job: – Decentralized management; greater span of control – Automation – Database targeting/customer data – Evaluated on team performance (rather than individual performance) – Reward in many ways (not just $$) 45
  46. 46. Importance of Effective Sales Management• Expensive part of marketing strategy• Cost of call: – Overall average: $157 – ($239 for a value-added selling environment) 46
  47. 47. Sales and Marketing Management47
  48. 48. Drivers Of/Barriers to Change What’s driving you to What’s stopping you from making these make these changes? changes?48
  49. 49. DIFFERENTIATING CUSTOMER SEGMENTS Customer SegmentELEMENT OFSTRATEGY KEY / TARGET MAINTENANCE WHY BOTHER• Order Processing Top priority. Secondary priority. Lowest priority.• Technical Support Top priority Secondary priority. Not available.• Training Yes. Yes. Hourly fee. Not available.• Fill Rates X% Y% 100%. No backorders ship complete.• Returns Yes. No restocking Yes, restocking fee Only if over $Y, fee. of $X. restocking fee of $X.• On-time Stock items same Stock items same Stock items shipped Shipment day if order place day if order placed within 48 hours. by 4:00 p.m. before 1:00 p.m.• Product Mix Stock & non-stock Stock and non stock Stock, in stock only. from stock & non- from stocking stock suppliers. suppliers only.• Non-stock Yes. Yes, from stocking No non-stocks. Sourcing suppliers only.• Minimum Order No minimum. No min. on stock $200. Size 49 items; $200 minimum on non-stock items.
  50. 50. Perspectives on the Sales Management Function Traditional View New View Manager of Scarce Do-er Resources Responsible for Volume Profit Planning Long Term and Short Short Run Term Customer Types and Individual Customers Segment Differences Field Work Rather Systems for Market Than Desk Work Analysis, Planning and Control Driver Leader Developer of Sales Developer of People50
  51. 51. Changing Business Environment TheLeads to Selling Changing Selling Ballgame EnvironmentResulting in  Better Understanding of Customer’s Needs Harder to Get and Hold Customers and It Costs  Better Selectivity More!  Better Selling Strategies  Better Time & Territory Implications Management 51
  52. 52. THE INTEGRATED MODEL Sales Force Drivers People and Culture Sales Force Activity Customer Results Company Results52
  53. 53. PURPOSE OF A BUSINESS• Purpose of a business is to create a customer.• Profit is only a test of management decision making.• Profit is required to maintain the customer.• A business only has two primary functions, sales and innovation, everything else is just cost. INNOVATION MARKETING The world according to Peter Drucker53
  54. 54. THE LOGIC Clarifying and Translating the Focus and Strategy  Clarifying the focus  Gaining consensusCommunicating and Strategic Feedback andLinking Learning  Communicating and Clarifying the Focus  Articulating the focus and educating  Setting goals BALANCED SALES TEAM strategy  Facilitating strategy  Linking rewards to review and learning performance measures Planning and Target Setting  Setting targets  Aligning strategic initiatives  Allocating resources  Establishing milestones 54
  55. 55. STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT Strategic Value Customers Extrinsic Value Customers (leveraging supplier’s (buying beyond product value) enterprise competencies) Create Create new extraordinary value through value for a few INCREASE sales efforts very large BENEFITS customers REDUCE Lessen cost COST and effort of acquisition Intrinsic Value Customers55 (buying on product value alone)
  56. 56. Functions of the Salesperson• Prospecting• Communicating: two-way• Allocating & coordinating: company resources, time• Servicing• Helping define marketing strategy 56
  57. 57. Functions of the Sales Manager• Communicate expectations: tell salespeople what you expect them to do• Make the work doable: an important component o the SM role here is removing obstacles to performance• Evaluate and give feedback: reward successful behavior, apply corrective actions for behavior that is not acceptable 57
  58. 58. PEMASARAN STRATEGIKPetunjuk-petunjuk utama ekonomi (key economic indicators):1. KNK (GDP)2. Indeks Komposit BSKL3. Belanjawan Negara4. Polisi Fiskal5. Polisi Kewangan 58
  59. 59. Marketing Pyramid Metrics 59
  60. 60. Course Overview• Effective Personal Selling• Strategic Issues• Tactical Issues• Industrial Settings – informed buyers – discipline of repeat purchase – often genuine differentiation is possible 60
  61. 61. Course Overview (continued)• Effective Personal Selling – What is effective personal selling? – Business to business selling and the Buyclass Framework (Case: Lawford Electric) 61
  62. 62. Course Overview (continued)• Strategic Issues – Vertical Integration (Case: Jamestown) – Control Systems – Structuring the Sales Force(Cases: Wright Line & Siebel Systems – Sales Force Allocation: Deployment & Organization (Case: Syntex) – Territory Assignment & Design – Strategy for Optimal Sales Productivity 62
  63. 63. Course Overview (continued)• Tactical Issues – Sales Analysis (Case: Milford A) – Performance Evaluation (Case: Milford B) – Compensation (Case:Mary Kay Cosmetics) & Motivation (Case: IMAGE) – Selection (Case: IDS) & Training – Information Systems/Sales Force Automation (Case: Profiling at National Mutual) – Sales Force Automation 63
  64. 64. Personal Selling“Everybody lives by selling something.” Robert Louis StevensonCareers in Sales High demand but not a career for everybody, but, good experience early in any career… Negative perceptions $…$…$ 64
  65. 65. Personal Selling 7 stepsSelling Process 1. Prospecting 2. Customer Profile 3. Approaching 4. Presenting/Demonstration 5. Handling Objections and Questions 6. Closing 7. Follow-up 65
  66. 66. Personal SellingSales force activities – Cultivating new clients – Communication – Selling – Servicing – Information gathering – Allocating scarce resources 66
  67. 67. Personal SellingObjectives Units or $ sold Market share by territory Target profit per sale Maximize sales per $ cost Maximize number of sales calls per period …but these mostly conflict…? 67
  68. 68. Personal SellingSalary versus Commission control…incentive security…fairness simplicity…flexibility 68
  69. 69. Personal Selling4 E’s 1. Energy for long hours 2. Enthusiasm for job, product 3. Empathy for customer 4. Ego, victory, desire to win 69
  70. 70. Blowing in the Wind VideoAnnoying Sales Promotion Works 70
  71. 71. Example 3The Rapid Meal has two restaurants that are open 24hours per day. Fixed costs for the two restaurantstogether total $450,000 per year. Service varies from acup of coffee to full meals. The average sales check foreach customer is $8.00. The average cost of food andother variable costs for each customer is $3.20. Theincome tax rate is 30%. Target net income is $105,000. 71
  72. 72. Total Capital 72
  73. 73. Financial Leverage: Assets Liabilities73
  74. 74. Harga Kilang 74
  75. 75. Harga Produk 75
  76. 76. Value Chain 76
  77. 77. Strategy Map: Capture a Cause Effect Relationship from the Bottom Up Stakeholder Improved More rapid and Returns on accessible Investments services Internal Process Economic Reduce Re-Activities Establish Web Model Process thru ABC/M Based Self Services& GrowthLearning Expand Global Leadership Knowledge Facility Reach Development Management Investments Facilities and IT Human Capital Fixed Assets Infrastructure 77
  78. 78. Perspektif BSC 78
  79. 79. Perspektif BSC 79
  80. 80. Perspektif BSC Kewangan Pelanggan Proses DalamanPekerja dan Kemahiran 80
  81. 81. KOS DAN HARGA 81
  82. 82. Strategi PemasaranPerspektif KPIs 82
  83. 83. Produk isi Intangible Jaminan Bungkusan 83
  84. 84. Kualiti Produk keselamatan economy 84
  85. 85. Marketing Plan Marketing Product Place Price Promotion Objectives Have web Increase Reduce Price of New Product Penang basedMarket Share product A promotion Gain New Add benefits Direct selling Higher margin networking Customers Market Better Existing klang Reducing Price CRM Penetration brochures valle channel by 3% Using webImprove Sales Reduce Change packing Increase Price based Margin marketing costs marketing 85
  86. 86. Strategi Pemasaran perspektif BSC • Tingkatkan • Tambah Pulangan Pelanggan • Syer pasaran • Nilai Jualan Matlamat Kepuasan Kewangan Pelanggan Pekerja & Proses Latihan Dalaman • Kompetensi • Masa • Teknologi penyampaian baru • Kos menurun 86
  87. 87. Rancangan Pemasaran• Analisis kos, volum dan untung.• Belian atau harga kilang• Tunai + penghutang + stok• Kos Penghantaran• Overhead Pemasaran 87
  88. 88. COMPTENCY DEVELOPMENT Identified Assessment Areas of Role competencies result improvement Action planDr. MG Jomon, XIMB
  89. 89. “Bottom Line” A business can no longer rely on the uniqueness of their products to retain customers or grow new sales revenue. Customers will align their business with strategic suppliers who understand their business and bring a unique offering which adds value by impacting their ―bottom line‖ through increased sales revenue or reduced costs89
  90. 90. Inadequate Sales Performance Aware of what No How can goals and standards was expected be made clear? Yes Aware of own No How can the salesperson performance be sensitized? Yes Uncontrollable Yes How to avoid, eliminate, negative factors or ignore? No Yes Lack of ability How to train? No Yes Lack of want-to How to motivate?90
  91. 91. Evaluating Sales Performance Data Analysis Information Observation Sources Interview91
  92. 92. Possible Situations... Fix the Causes of the problem problem are fixable (ROTI) Causes of the problem Forget the are fixable, but problem not work fixing or Terminate Causes of the problem the person are not fixable92
  93. 93. THE SALES REPRESENTATIVE THINKS…1. What is expected of me?  The Planning Process Priorities Programs Processes The Numbers2. How am I doing? 3. How do I need to change? The Feedback Process The Adjustment Process Metrics Corrective actions Performance Appraisals Continuous Improvement Field coaching KIP’s, PIP’s Meetings  New planning for the Compensation future93
  94. 94. QUOTES FROM PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS• ―This individual has talents but has kept them well hidden.‖• ―Combs his hair to one side and appears rustic.‖• ―A quiet, reticent, neat appearing individual— industrious, tenacious, diffident, careful, and neat. I do not wish to have this person as a member of my staff at any time.‖• "His leadership is outstanding except for his lack of ability to get along with his subordinates.‖• ―He hasn’t any mental traits.‖• ―He needs careful watching since he borders on the brilliant.‖• ―Believes sincerely in the power of prayer and it is astonishing to note how many times his prayers are answered.‖• ―He never makes the same mistake twice but it seems to me that he has made them all once.‖• ―Gives the appearance of being fat due to the tight clothes he wears.‖ 94
  95. 95. QUOTES FROM PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS–2 • ―Is keenly analytical and his highly developed mentality could best be used in the research and development field. He lacks common sense.‖ • ―An independent thinker with a mediocre mentality.‖ • ―Recently married and devotes more time to this activity than to his current assignment.‖ • ―Tends to create the impression of unpositive personality through needless and undiscerning gentility and soft spokenness.‖ • ―Of average intelligence except for lack of judgment on one occasion in attempting to capture a rattlesnake for which he was hospitalized.‖95
  96. 96. The Key Challenge G.M. Sales Productivity = C.O.S. Where: G.M. = Gross Margin Dollars C.O.S. = Cost of Sale in Dollars Implications 1. Less discounting. 2. Selling higher margin products. 3. Selling more product lines to each customer (cross-selling). 4. Being more selective and discriminating in qualifying potential buyers. 5. Better use of selling time (deployment).96
  97. 97. SUMMARY Sales Efficiency Sales EffectivenessDefined Getting in front of Using skills and abilities customer at minimum to maximize sales cost potentialMechanisms Working harder: Working smarter:for improving – time management – coaching – incentives – skills training – call reports – account strategies – territory designMeasures – penetration – success rates – call rates – repeat business – cost / call – sustainable margins97
  98. 98. MOVING TO ACTION • Efficiency: – Can be driven top down • Effectiveness: – Acting differently – Hard to drive top down – Salespeople and managers do it Source: The Klompmaker Consulting Group98
  99. 99. Logistics – A Strategic Perspective• Measured by Cost• Technology allows firms to manage inventory they cannot see and sometimes do not own• Disintermediation• Creating wholesaler value99
  100. 100. Two Views of Inventory Management Velocity Level100
  101. 101. Inside the Buyer’s Mind• What do you offer?• What do you offer that no one else has?• What do you offer of value?• Does it really fill my need?• Is it real world?• Will it work?• Will it work in our environment?• How will it impact our people?• How could it impact our success?• Will senior management buy in?• Will my people use it?• How will we produce as a result of the purchase?• How will we profit as a result of the purchase?• Do I trust the people I’m buying from both as people and for their ability to deliver what they promise?• How will it come together?• How do we buy it?• Do I have the comfort to sign off now?101
  102. 102. ABC Analysis Based on Annual Dollar Volume Annual Dollar Volume Percentages 1 2 3 4 Item Annual Usage Annual Usage % of Total Unit Cost (units) (dollars) Dollar Usage 1 4.00 1,000 2 2.50 1,500 3 3.00 5,000 4 30.00 4,000 5 31.00 10,000 6 1.20 8,000 7 25.00 1,500 8 20.00 100 9 8.00 625 10 6.00 2,000 Total 100% 1. Now rank the answers from the highest annual dollar usage to the lowest: 1 2 3 4 Item Annual Usage % of Total Cumulative % Classification (dollars)102
  103. 103. Example 3 Cont’dCompute the total dollar sales needed to obtain thetarget net income.How many sales checks are needed to break even?Compute net income if the number of sales checksis 150,000 103
  104. 104. Multiple-Product ExampleAssume the following: Regular Deluxe Total PercentUnits sold 400 200 600 ----Sales price per unit $ 500 $750 ---- ----Sales $200,000 $150,000 $350,000 100.0%Less: Variable expenses 120,000 60,000 180,000 51.4Contribution margin $ 80,000 $ 90,000 $170,000 48.6%Less: Fixed expenses 130,000Net income $ 40,000 =======1. What is the break even point?2. How much sales revenue of each product must be generated to earna before tax profit $50,000? 104
  105. 105. Costs plus profitVariable Fixed Profit Price costs costs 105
  106. 106. Harga Pengilang 106
  107. 107. Harga Jual 107
  108. 108. Kos Overhead Syarikat 108
  109. 109. Overhead Kilang 109
  110. 110. OVERHEAD JUALAN 110
  111. 111. Soalan soalan jika ada 111

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