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    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .....................................................................................8 PROJECT AT A GLANCE .................................................................................. 13 1 NEED AND JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PROJECT ....................................15 1.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 15 1.2 POWER SCENARIO IN INDIA .......................................................................................................... 16 1.3 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PROJECT .................................................................................................. 22 2 DETAILS ABOUT THE PROPOSED PROJECT LOCATION IN ANANTAPUR DISTRICT ............................................................................................ 25 2.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 25 2.2 AREA AND POPULATION IN ANANTAPUR DISTRICT ................................................................... 25 2.3 RAINFALL AND CLIMATE ............................................................................................................. 26 2.4 TEMPERATURE.............................................................................................................................. 26 2.5 PROPOSED PROJECT LOCATION.................................................................................................. 27 2.6 LAND REQUIREMENT AND LAYOUT OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT .............................................. 29 2.7 LAND AVAILABILITY AND ACQUISITION FOR THE PROJECT ....................................................... 30 3 RADIATION DATA AND PROJECTED POWER GENERATION FROM THE PROJECT ACTIVITY .............................................................................31 3.1 SIMULATION REPORT OF THE POWER PLANT ............................................................................. 33 4 SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGY ..............................................................37 4.1 EXISTING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES .................................................................. 37 4.2 THIN FILM MODULES ................................................................................................................... 38 4.3 COMPARISON BETWEEN CRYSTALLINE, THIN FILM AND CPV.................................................. 38 TECHNOLOGIES ........................................................................................................................... 38 4.4 CONCLUSION ON SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGY ......................................................................... 39 5 POWER PLANT DESIGN CRITERIA .......................................................40 5.1 DESIGN AND SIMULATION PROJECTIONS BY PVSYST ............................................................ 40 5.2 PV POWER PLANT ENERGY PRODUCTION ................................................................................. 41 5.3 PV POWER PLANT CAPACITY FACTOR ......................................................................................... 41 5.4 SELECTION OF INVERTER AND COMPONENTS ........................................................................... 42 5.5 SELECTION OF MONITORING SYSTEM ....................................................................................... 42 5.6 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR CABLES AND JUNCTION BOXES AND ................................................... 43 6 DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONETS OF THE POWER PLANT ............44 6.1 SOLAR PV MODULES ................................................................................................................... 45 6.2 CENTRAL INVERTORS .................................................................................................................. 45 6.1 MODULE MOUNTING SYSTEM ...................................................................................................... 47 6.1 GRID CONNECTED EQUIPMENTS ................................................................................................. 48 6.2 MONITORING SYSTEM ................................................................................................................ 48 6.3 CABLES AND CONNECTORS......................................................................................................... 49 6.4 BUILDINGS HOUSING FOR ELECTRONICS (POWER HOUSE) ..................................................... 50 6.5 OTHER FACILITIES INCLUDING WATER ...................................................................................... 51 7 SPECIFICATION OF MAIN PLANT AND EQUIPMENT .............................52 8 POWER EVACUATION AND INTERFACING WITH GRID ........................58 8.1 POWER EVACUATION SYSTEM .................................................................................................... 58
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 8.2 TRANSFORMERS........................................................................................................................... 59 8.3 HT, LV & 11KV METERING PANEL .......................................................................................... 60 8.4 CABLES ........................................................................................................................................ 61 8.5 LT POWER CABLES ..................................................................................................................... 61 8.6 CONTROL CABLES ........................................................................................................................ 61 8.7 POWER EVACUATION CABLE ...................................................................................................... 62 8.8 GRID SYNCHRONIZATION SCHEME............................................................................................ 62 9 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS ...............................63 9.1 DC SIDE OF THE POWER PLANT ................................................................................................. 63 9.2 AC SIDE OF THE POWER PLANT .................................................................................................. 63 9.3 MODE OF OPERATION ................................................................................................................. 64 9.4 MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................. 65 9.5 SPARE PARTS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ......................................................................................... 65 9.6 MAINTENANCE OF O & M MANUALS.......................................................................................... 66 9.7 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION OF THE PLANT ................................................. 66 9.8 TRAINING ..................................................................................................................................... 67 10 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT ...............68 11 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION OF THE POWER PLANT… 70 11.1 TRAINING ..................................................................................................................................... 71 11.2 PLANT OPERATION ORGANIZATION CHART .............................................................................. 72 11.3 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY ...................................................................................... 73 11.4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................................. 73 11.5 FINALIZATION OF THE EQUIPMENTS AND CONTRACTS ............................................................ 73 11.6 PROCUREMENT AND CONSTRUCTION......................................................................................... 74 11.7 ERECTION AND COMMISSIONING PHASE .................................................................................. 75 12 PROJECT COST ESTIMATE AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS ........................76 12.1 PLANT OPERATION ...................................................................................................................... 77 12.2 SALABLE ELECTRICITY ................................................................................................................ 78 12.3 SALE PRICE OF ELECTRICITY...................................................................................................... 78 12.4 SALE PRICE OF CARBON CREDITS .............................................................................................. 78 LIST OF TABLES: Table 1-1: Installed Capacity in MW in India at the End of 10th Plan ___________________17 Table 1-2: Installed Capacity in MW in India as of 31 Mar 2010 _______________________17 Table 1-3: Actual Power Supply Position _______________________________________________18 Table 1-4: Capacity Addition during 11th Plan (As Per Planning Commission) __________18 Table 1-5: Likely Power Supply Position at the End of 2010-12 ________________________18 Table 1-6: Installed capacity of all states as on 31.03.2010 (in MW) __________________19 Table 1-7: Installed Capacity in MW in Andhra Pradesh at the End of 10th Plan ________19 Table 1-8: Installed Capacity in MW in Andhra Pradesh as of 31 Mar 2010 ____________20 Table 1-9: Actual Power Supply Position _______________________________________________20 Table 1-10: Projects planned for 11th Plan _____________________________________________20 Table 1-11: Likely Power Supply Position at the End of 2010-12 _______________________21 Table 1-12: Likely Capacity Addition During 11th Plan __________________________________21 Table 1-13: Peak & Energy Table ______________________________________________________21 Table 3-1: Temperature details considered for design: ________________________________32 Table 7-1: Bill of materials _____________________________________________________________52 Table 7-2: Technical specification of proposed solar modules at STC __________________53 Table 7-3: Specifications of module mounting structure _______________________________53 Table 7-4: Cables speficification _______________________________________________________54 Table 7-5: Invertors specification ______________________________________________________54 Table 7-6: Transformer specification at 33 kV side ____________________________________55
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table 7-7: Transformer specification for grid interfacing at 33/132 kV _________________56 Table 7-8: Monitoring system specification ____________________________________________57 Table 12-1: Project Cost Estimate _____________________________________________________76 Table 12-2: Assumptions supporting financial projections _____________________________80 Table 12-3: Estimation of Depreciation ________________________________________________82 Table 12-4: Projected Profitability,Balance Sheet,CF, IRR ands WC ____________________84 Table 12-5: Project Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) ______________________________88 List of Figures: Figure 1: Location map of Anatapur district in India: ............................................................. 28 Figure 2: Map showing proposed project site within Anantapur ......................................... 28 Figure 3: Typical module mounting structure: .......................................................................... 47 Figure 4: Grid-Connect equipments ............................................................................................... 48 Annexure 1 Project site Photographs 2 Land ownership details of the proposed project 3 Contour map of the project site 4 Schematic diagram showing 5MWp Solar PV Plant Layout 5 Schematic of Control Room Layout 6 Schematic of earthing layout 7 Power Evacuation Scheme 5MWp to 33/132 kV substation 8 Incorporation certificate of Saisudhir Energy Limited 9 Memorandum and Articles of Association of Saisudhir Energy Limited
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh ABBREVIATIONS General AB Air Breaker ACB Air Circuit Breaker AC Alternate current ACSR Aluminum Conductors Steel Reinforced BOS Balance of the System CO2 Carbon Dioxide CIS Copper Indium Selenium CT Current Transformer DAS Data Acquisition System DC Direct Current DP Double Pole DPR Detailed Project Report APTRANSCO Andhra Pradesh Transmission Corporation HT High Tension LT Low Tension LV Low Voltage MNRE Ministry of New and Renewable Energy kWh Kilo Watt Hour NO2 Nitrous Oxide Main Combiner Box / Miniature Circuit MCB Breaker MFM Multi Function Meters PLF Plant Load Factor PFC Power Finance Corporation PPA Power Purchase Agreement PV Photo Voltaic PT Power Transformer SEB State Electricity Board 4
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh SO2 Sulphur Dioxide SP Single Pole VCB Vacuum Circuit Breaker XLPE Cross Linked Polyethylene Units % Percentage ˚C Degree Centigrade H Hour Ha Hectare Kg Kilogram kV Kilo-Volt kW kilo Watt kWe kilo Watt electrical kWp kilo Watt peak Lt Liter M Meter m2 Square meter m3 Cubic meter Mg milli gram Mm milli meter MW Mega Watt MWe Mega Watt electrical Tons Tons 5
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh INTRODUCTION As the world broadens its portfolio of power options to meet growing energy demands and increasingly stringent environmental concerns, solar power is emerging as an attractive option. Of all the routes for conversion of solar into useful energy, direct conversion of sunlight to electricity through solar photovoltaic technology is well accepted. Solar photovoltaic has been recognized as an important route for generation of substantial quantities of grid quality power by utilizing the light energy of solar radiation. SAISUDHIR Energy Limited (SSEL) a group company of SAISUDHIR Infrastructures Limited is intent to develop solar photovoltaic power plant of (SPV) power project at Veerapuram village of Anatapur district, in the State of Andhra Pradesh. SSEL intend to setup grid interactive solar power project based on Copper Indium Selenium (CIS) modules also called as thin film modules. The project activity is to install grid connected 5 MW solar power project. The full power rating of the solar power plant shall be 5.0 +5% and -0% MW DC at standard test conditions (STC) of 1000 W/sq meter sunlight and 25 degree centigrade. The project is selected to install CIS modules which comply with IEC 61646 for quality and IEC 61730 safety standards. The project site proposed is in Veerapura village of Anatapur district in Andhra Pradesh. The total land area required for the project is about 25 acres. The company already acquired the land required for the project. 6
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh The project envisages an investment of approx. Rs 650 million for the installation of 5 MW solar power plant which would provide quantity power with a power purchase price signed with NTPCs Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd or NVVN which is the designated Nodal Agency under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) for procuring the solar power by entering into a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with Solar Power Generation Project Developers. In addition, the Power Project would generate direct and indirect employment opportunities; create of civic facilities for establishment of ancillary industries. 7
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. The average per capita consumption of energy in India is around 612 kW, which is much lower than that of the developed countries like USA, Europe, Australia, Japan etc. However, this figure is expected to rise sharply due to high economic growth and rapid industrialization. Energy is a necessity and sustainable renewable energy is a vital link in industrialization and development of India. A transition from conventional energy systems to those based on renewable resources is necessary to meet the ever increasing demand for energy and to address environmental concerns. 2. Thus, the present scenario needs for addition of major renewable energy sources of energy for overall economic development of the country. 3. Solar Photovoltaic Power plant operates on the principle of the photoelectric phenomenon - direct conversion of light to electricity. The solar radiation incident upon a silicon-based semiconductor photovoltaic cell produces direct electric current. 4. Photovoltaic cells are integrated into modules with a voltage of 6 - 12 V; the electrically interconnected modules form solar systems with an output voltage of 230 V. 5. Saisudhir Energy Limited (SSEL) is an SAISUDHIR Infrastructures group company. Saisudhir Infrastructures Limited is one of the fastest growing ISO 9000 infrastructure companies having nationwide network for its 8
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Construction services in the field of Water, Power, Buildings Infrastructures, Solid Waste Management and Irrigation etc., 6. SAISUDHIR builds the high-voltage electric transmission system that helps to keep the lights on, business running and communities strong. The company has played a major role in the complete preparation, analysis, design, construction management and inspection of energy structures, high voltage transmission lines and distribution systems across the country. 7. SAISUDHIR has an in-house capability for designing Transmission Line Towers & Switchyard Structures. 8. SAISUDHIR energy proposed to install a 5 MW Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) power plant under phase I of Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) of new grid connected projects. The generated electricity will be sold to NVVN with a long term Power Purchase Agreement (PPA). The company has already entered into a PPA agreement with NVVN. 9. This report highlights the details of the proposed power generation scheme, site facilities, solar radiation in the proposed site location and water, evacuation of generated power, features of main plant and equipment including the inverter system, electrical systems, environmental aspects, estimate of capital cost and the financial analysis and the schedule for project implementation. 10. The proposed 5 MW power plant would require about 25 acres of land. The company already acquired the land required for the project. 9
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 11. The plant is designed with an availability factor of 100%. The plant will generate about 9.63 million units per year at the module array terminals, after the losses in the system about 9.32 million units will be available at the grid terminals which will amount to a plant load factor of about 21.28 %. The project site was selected on the basis of: • Availability of good solar insulation • Availability of uninhabited land at a reasonable cost • Availability of stable grid near to the project site • High Power Demand in the State • Availability of good infrastructural facility including road and rail connection 12. The power generated at 11kV from the power plant will be stepped-up to 33 kV level and connected to APPCL sub-station at Raydurg, which is about 10 km from the project site. The total power produced is envisaged as 9.63 million units at the PV array. After the losses the net available energy for supplying to the grid is about 9.32 million units. Thus, the net salable electricity to the grid works out to 9.32 million units. The plant is envisaged to operate 365 days at a plant load factor (PLF) of 21.28%. The transmission line required from the SSEL 5 MW plant site to the substation will be laid by the project promoters. 13. The power plant will comprise of IEC 61646 modules of CIS thin film modules with aluminum frame of 41,600 no’s , which will work out to 5 MW +5% and -0% for accounting the DC losses (each module of 130 Wp capacity), 5200 nos of PV system mounting structures (strings) made out 10
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh of MS galvanized steel with 8 module structure, fixed tilt type, 80 nos of array junction boxes, Power conditioning unit (inverter) 10 nos of 500 kVA, 1.25 MVA transformer 5 nos, 6.5 MVA transformer 1 no for interfacing with grid, LT and HT Panel and protection and metering, cables and earthing system set. 14. The net energy sales from the plant workout 9.32 million units. The entire energy will be sold to NVVN through APTransco grid. The financial analysis is made with a levelised power purchase price of Rs. 12.00 / kWh. 15. The total cost of generation includes the insurance cost, repairs and maintenance, cost of administration, salaries and wages, cost of utilities. 16. The total installed project cost including civil, mechanical and electrical, preoperative expenses and the contingency works out to Rs 650 million. 17. The solar power plant reduces contribution to atmospheric carbon-di- oxide vis-à-vis fossil fuel generation. The project helps solar radiation into useful electricity, adding to the sustainability of the project and the local environment. Thus, the project meets the UNFCCC norms set to qualify for obtaining CDM benefits. The project is envisaged to register with UNFCCC for availing the CDM benefits. 18. The term loan requirement from the financial institution works out to 455.00 (70% of the project cost) million. It is assumed that the term loan will be repaid in 13 years in quarterly installments, with an initial 11
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh moratorium period of 1 year. The equity from SSIL will be Rs 195.00 million. The interest rate for the term loan is considered as 11.50 %. 19. The depreciation computed is on straight line basis. 20. Income tax at the rate of 32.45% % is considered in the financial analysis. The benefits available under Section 80 IA, for power projects have been taken into consideration in the financial analysis while calculating the income tax liability. The post tax Project Internal Rate of Return (IRR) works out to 13.63% and Post tax Equity IRR works out to 18.89%. 21. The project also generates Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) revenue with reduction at 1% in the subsequent years. If we consider the revenue from sale of carbon credits with a minimum price of € 12 per CER, the project generates additional revenue of about INR 7.5 million, which will add to the profitability of the project. 22. Minimum Project Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) will work out to 1.35 and average DSCR will work out to 1.65. 12
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh PROJECT AT A GLANCE 1 Project Authority SAISUDHIR Energy Limited 5 MW +5% and –0% Solar Photovoltaic 2 Project Installed Capacity Power Plant T.Veerapuram Village, Anantapur 3 Selected Location District. 4 Nearest Major Towns Anantapur 5 Seismic Zone Zone-4 as per IS 1893-1984. Well Connected, buses are Operated by 6 Access by Bus Andhrapradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) 7 Nearest Airport Bangalore International Airport (BIAL) Anantapur Railway Station is on the 8 Access by Rail Bangalore-Hydrabad line. Copper Indium Selenium (CIS) Thin film 9 Solar module type modules 10 Capacity of each module 130 Wp 11 No. of modules 41,600 Nos 12 PV System Mounting Structure type MS Galvanised(> 70 micron) 13 Module mounting structure type 8 Module mounting structure 14 No. of module mounting structures 5,200 Nos. 15 No. of Array junction boxes 80 Nos. Power conditioning Unit (Invertor) 16 500 kVA capacity 17 Power conditioning Unit specifications Input voltage range 450-900V 18 No. of invertors 10 Nos. 19 Invertors make AEG or equivalent 20 1.25 MVA Transformer 5 Nos 21 6.5 MVA Transformer 1 No. 13
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 22 LT Panel with protection & metering 5 Nos. 23 LT Panel with protection & metering 2 Nos 24 Cables and earthing systems 1 set 25 Gross Power Generation (kW) 5000 +5% and -0% Net exportable power at 33 kV to 27 9.32 million units nearest grid substation(kW) 28 Power Purchase tariff with NVVN in ` 12.00 29 Plant Load Factor 21.28% 30 Total Project cost (Rs. In millions) 650 Preliminary and pre-operative 31 30.00 expenses (Rs. In millions) Equity from Promoters 32 195.00 (Rs. In millions) Term loan from Financial Institutions 33 455.00 (Rs in millions) 34 Interest on term loan 11.50% 35 Project IRR (post tax) 13.63 % 36 Equity IRR (post tax) 18.89 % 37 Plant Commissioning Date Dec 2011 Land requirement 25 Acres 38 • Module area 51,089 m2 The entire station will be laid at a 39 Land Development uniform level. TECHNICAL FEATURES Through 33/132kV Transmission lines 40 Power Evacuation Raydurg substation located 10km from project site. OTHER FACILITIES Through EPC (Engineering, Procurement 41 Mode of Implementation and Construction) or thru split contracts. Twelve (12) months from the date of 42 Project Time Frame signing PPA with NVVN PROJECT COST Present day cost including, financing Project Cost charges and margin money. 43 Rs.650 million. 14
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 1 NEED AND JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PROJECT 1.1 Introduction India with 17 percent of the world population and just 0.8 per cent of the world’s known oil and natural gas resources is going to face serious energy challenges in the coming decades. Besides energy independence, the devastating impact of climate change has become an issue of critical importance. Energy production using fossil fuels is the major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, transition to a low-carbon energy economy is the real solution for mitigating the impact of climate change. India has huge potential for producing electricity from renewable sources. The achievement so far is about 17,222 (as on 31.03.2010) MW, as against global installed capacity of approximately 2,00,000 MW of renewable electricity generation. While India’s achievement is commendable, it is necessary for us to keep pace with the fast growth in developed countries. There are three imperatives that necessitate a transition to a sustainable energy system in the 21st century: They are Climate change and its potentially disastrous consequences. Peaking of production, depletion and extinction of fossil fuels and Energy Autonomy and Independence. The single biggest reason for global warming is the burning of fossil fuels. So the solution lies in effecting an accelerated transition to a low carbon energy economy, which means large scale development of renewable energy. Fortunately there are several emerging technologies that will facilitate this. 15
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Peaking of production of all fossil fuels (viz. oil, gas and coal) in the next two decades and gradual extinction of these resources is an accepted scientific fact. Even assuming that they would be available, India, which is already dependent on their import, would become more and more import dependent. The financial implications of large scale imports would destroy our economy and necessitate strategies to move towards energy autonomy or independence. The conversion of solar energy to electricity displaces an equivalent amount of grid power, which would otherwise be produced by grid connected fossil fuel dominated power plants. Grid power is comprised of a large share of fossil fuel based generation systems. 1.2 Power Scenario in India As per Section73(a) of the Indian Electricity Act-2003, CEA has been carrying out periodic electric power survey to project state-wise and region-wise power plans together with assessment of peaking power and energy surpluses / deficits. The estimate prepared by the CEA is revised and updated from time to time taking into account the actual growth rates achieved. The Reports and National Electricity Plan prepared by CEA i.e. Report on (17th) Electric Power Survey of India published in August 2007, Draft National Electricity Plan- Transmission published in 2005 and Power Scenario at a glance published in April 2010 have been referred for carrying out demand analysis of the State of Andhra Pradesh and other regions. Load forecast/Availability of power for 2003-2012 for the State of Eastern, Northern, Western, Southern and North-Eastern region have been given below which shows that surplus amount of power will be available for the North-East 16
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh region while other regions i.e. Northern, Western and Southern will expect a shortage of power at the end of 11th Plan i.e. 2011-12. Actual power scenario of are as follows in terms of: • Installed Capacity • Actual Supply/Generation. • Likely capacity addition. Table 1-: Installed Capacity in MW in India at the End of 10th Plan INSTALLED CAPACITY (AT THE END OF 10TH PLAN) (FIGURES IN MW) Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear R.E.S. Total Coal Gas Diesel Total (MNRE) STATE 26,005.7 41,731.6 3,729.8 604.6 46,066 0.0 975.7 73,047.4 PRIVATE 1,230.0 4,241.4 4,183.0 597.1 9,021.5 0.0 6,784.8 17,036.3 CENTRAL 7,418 25,118.3 5,809.0 0.0 30,927.3 3,900.0 0.0 42,245.3 TOTAL 34,653.7 71,091.3 13,721.8 1,201.8 86,014.8 3,900.0 7,760.5 1,32,329 Table 1-: Installed Capacity in MW in India as of 31 Mar 2010 INSTALLED CAPACITY AS ON 31.03.2010 (FIGURES IN MW) Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear R.E.S Total Coal Gas Diesel Total (MNRE) STATE 27,065.00 44,977.00 4,046.12 602.61 49,625.73 0.00 2,701.12 79,391.85 PRIVATE 1,233.00 8,056.38 6,307.50 597.14 14,961.02 0.00 12,819.99 29,014.01 CENTRAL 8,565.40 31,165.00 6,702.23 0.00 37,867.23 4,560.00 0.00 50,992.63 TOTAL 36,863.40 84,198.38 17,055.85 1,199.75 1,02,453.98 4,560.00 15,521.11 1,59,398.49 17
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table 1-: Actual Power Supply Position ACTUAL POWER SUPPLY POSITION 9 Period Peak Peak Met Peak Peak Energy Energy Avail-Energy Energy Demand (MW) Deficit/ Deficit/ Requi- ability (MU) Deficit/ Deficit/ (MW) Surplus Surplus rment Surplus Surplus (MW) (%) (MU) (MU) (%) 9TH PLAN END 78,441 69,189 -9,252 -11.8 5,22,537 4,83,350 -39,187 -7.5 2002-03 81,492 71,547 -9,945 -12.2 5,45,983 4,97,890 -48,093 -8.8 2003-04 84,574 75,066 -9,508 -11.2 5,59,264 5,19,398 -39,866 -7.1 2004-05 87,906 77,652 -10,254 -11.7 5,91,373 5,48,115 -43,258 -7.3 2005-06 93,255 81,792 -11,463 -12.3 6,31,757 5,78,819 -52,938 -8.4 2006-07 1,00,715 86,818 -13,897 -13.8 6,90,587 6,24,495 -66,092 -9.6 2007-08 1,08,866 90,793 -18,073 -16.6 7,39,345 6,66,007 -73,338 -9.9 2008-09 1,09,809 96,685 -13,124 -12 7,74,324 6,89,021 -85,303 -11 APR,09 1,18,472 1,02,725 -15,748 -13.3 8,30,300 7,46,493 -83,807 -10.1 MAR ,2010 1,18,472 1,02,725 -15,748 -13.3 76,493 67,513 -8,980 -11.7 NOTE :- PEAK DEMAND - 121891 MW , ENERGY REQUIREMENT - 794561 MU FOR THE YEAR 2008-2009(AS PER 17TH EPS REPORT),OCCURENCE OF PEAK AS PER ACTUAL POWER SUPPLY POSITION IN THE MONTH(S) - MARCH & OCTOBER SOURCE:- DMLF DIVISION Table 1-: Capacity Addition during 11th Plan (As Per Planning Commission) CAPACITY ADDITION DURING 11TH PLAN (AS PER PLANNING COMMISSION TARGET) Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear Wind Total Coal Gas Diesel Total STATE 3,482.0 19,985.0 3,316.4 0.0 23,301.4 0.0 0.0 26,783.4 PRIVATE 3,491.0 9,515.0 2,037.0 0.0 11,552.0 0.0 0.0 15,043.0 CENTRAL 8,654.0 23,350.0 1,490.0 0.0 24,840.0 3,380.0 0.0 36,874.0 TOTAL 15,627.0 52,850.0 6,843.4 0.0 59,693.4 3,380.0 0.0 78700.4* NOTE :- * AS PER ACTUAL ORDERS , THE CAPACITY COMES TO 78900.4 MW Table 1-: Likely Power Supply Position at the End of 2010-12 LIKELY POWER SUPPLY POSITION AT THE END OF 2011-12 (DEMAND AS PER 17TH EPS) Period Peak Peak Peak Peak Energy Requi- Energy Energy Energy Demand Met Deficit/ Deficit/ rment (MU) Avail- Deficit/ Deficit/ (MW) (MW) Surplus Surplus ability Surplus Surplus (MW) (%) (MU) (MU) (%) 2011-12 1,52,746 1,42,765 -9,981 -6.5 9,68,659 9,48,836 -19,823 -2.0 18
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table 1-: Installed capacity of all states as on 31.03.2010 (in MW) S.No STATES HYDRO THERMAL NUCLEAR R.E.S TOTAL . COAL GAS DIESEL TOTAL 1 CHANDIGARH 46.74 27.09 15.32 0.00 42.41 8.84 0.00 97.99 2 DELHI 581.62 2,602.96 808.01 0.00 3,410.97 122.08 0.00 4,114.67 3 HARYANA 1,327.68 3,017.99 535.29 3.92 3,557.20 109.16 76.50 5,070.54 4 H.P. 1,539.94 118.30 61.88 0.13 180.31 34.08 275.83 2,030.16 5 J&K 1,480.53 263.70 304.14 8.94 576.78 77.00 129.33 2,263.64 6 PUNJAB 2,962.89 3,208.19 263.92 0.00 3,472.11 208.04 278.90 6,921.94 7 RAJASTHAN 1,454.80 4,149.48 665.03 0.00 4,814.51 573.00 926.15 7,768.46 8 U.P. 1,597.42 6,912.84 549.97 0.00 7,462.81 335.72 587.70 9,983.65 9 UTTRAKHAND 1,919.18 261.26 69.35 0.00 330.61 22.28 132.92 2,404.99 10 CHATTISGARH 120.00 4,383.00 0.00 0.00 4,383.00 47.52 218.95 4,769.47 11 GUJARAT 772.00 7,008.89 3,894.49 17.48 10,920.86 559.32 1,655.91 13,908.09 12 M.P. 3,223.66 4,282.10 257.18 0.00 4,539.28 273.24 287.86 8,324.04 13 MAHARASHTRA 3,331.84 11,203.05 3,715.93 0.00 14,918.98 690.14 2,437.97 21,378.93 14 GOA 0.00 277.03 48.00 0.00 325.03 25.80 30.05 380.88 15 D&D 0.00 19.04 4.20 0.00 23.24 7.38 0.00 30.62 16 D&N HAVAILI 0.00 22.04 27.10 0.00 49.14 8.46 0.00 57.60 17 A.P. 3,617.53 6,259.88 2,580.40 36.80 8,877.08 214.28 700.51 13,409.40 18 KARNATAKA 3,599.80 3,902.67 220.00 234.42 4,357.09 195.36 2,234.09 10,386.34 19 KERALA 1,781.50 765.38 533.58 256.44 1,555.40 78.10 138.76 3,553.76 20 T.N 2,108.20 5,519.81 1,026.30 411.66 6,957.77 478.50 4,865.51 14,409.98 21 P.CHURY 0.00 207.01 32.50 0.00 239.51 16.28 0.00 255.79 22 D.V.C 193.26 3,563.10 90.00 0.00 3,653.10 0.00 0.00 3,846.36 23 BIHAR 129.43 1,661.70 0.00 0.00 1,661.70 0.00 54.60 1,845.73 24 JHARKHAND 200.93 1,737.88 0.00 0.00 1,737.88 0.00 4.05 1,942.86 25 ORISSA 2,166.93 1,828.10 0.00 0.00 1,828.10 0.00 64.30 4,059.33 26 SIKKIM 75.27 68.10 0.00 5.00 73.10 0.00 47.11 195.48 27 W.BENGAL 1,116.30 6,756.34 100.00 12.20 6,868.54 0.00 164.70 8,149.54 28 ARP.P. 97.57 0.00 21.05 15.88 36.93 0.00 67.42 201.92 29 ASSAM 429.72 60.00 441.32 20.69 522.01 0.00 27.11 978.84 30 MANIPUR 80.98 0.00 25.96 45.41 71.37 0.00 5.45 157.80 31 MEGHALYA 230.58 0.00 25.96 2.05 28.01 0.00 31.03 289.62 32 MIZORAM 34.31 0.00 16.28 51.86 68.14 0.00 28.47 130.92 33 NAGALAND 53.32 0.00 19.19 2.00 21.19 0.00 28.67 103.18 34 TRIPURA 62.37 0.00 160.84 4.85 165.69 0.00 16.01 244.07 35 A&N ISLAND 0.00 0.00 0.00 60.05 60.05 0.00 5.25 65.30 36 LAKSHDEEP 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.97 9.97 0.00 0.00 9.97 Table 1-: Installed Capacity in MW in Andhra Pradesh at the End of 10th Plan INSTALLED CAPACITY (AT THE END OF 10th PLAN (FIGURES IN MW) Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear R.E.S. Total Coal Gas Diesel Total (MNRE) STATE 3,582.6 3,132.5 272.3 0.0 3,404.8 0.0 103.0 7,090.3 PRIVATE 3.8 0.0 1,603.4 36.8 1,640.2 0.0 283.4 1,927.4 CENTRAL 0.0 2,378.0 0.0 0.0 2,378.0 152.5 0.0 2,530.5 TOTAL 3,586.3 5,510.5 1,875.7 36.8 7,423.0 152.5 386.4 11,548.2 19
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table 1-: Installed Capacity in MW in Andhra Pradesh as of 31 Mar 2010 Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear R.E.S. Total Coal Gas Diesel Total (MNRE) STATE 3,617.53 3,882.50 0.00 0.00 3,882.50 0.00 188.43 7,688.46 PRIVATE 0.00 0.00 2,580.40 36.80 2,617.20 0.00 512.08 3,129.28 CENTRAL 0.00 2,377.38 0.00 0.00 2,377.38 214.28 0.00 2,591.66 TOTAL 3,617.53 6,259.88 2,580.40 36.80 8,877.08 214.28 700.51 13,409.40 Table 1-: Actual Power Supply Position Peak Peak Peak Peak Energy Energy Energy Energy Period Demand Met deficit/ Deficit/ Requi- Avail- Deficit/ Deficit/ (MW) (MW) Surplus Surplus ( rment ability Surplus Surplus ( (MW) %) (MU) (MU) (MU) %) 9TH PLAN END 8,585 6,873 -1,712 -19.9 48,394 44,302 -4,092 -8.5 2002-03 8,491 6,858 -1,633 -19.2 47,258 44,049 -3,209 -6.8 2003-04 8,679 7,769 -910 -10.5 48,080 46,680 -1,400 -2.9 2004-05 8,093 7,903 -190 -2.3 50,416 50,061 -355 -0.7 2005-06 8,999 8,542 -457 -5.1 53,030 52,332 -698 -1.3 2006-07 10,208 8,641 -1,567 -15.4 60,964 58,280 -2,684 -4.4 2007-08 10,048 9,162 -886 -8.8 64,139 61,511 -2,628 -4.1 2008-2009 10,823 9,997 -826 -7.6 71,592 66,754 -4,838 -6.8 APR,09-MAR10 12,135 10,880 -1,255 -10.3 79,014 73,784 -5,230 -6.6 MAR 2010 12,135 10,880 -1,255 -10.3 7,929 7,040 -889 -11.2 Table 1-: Projects planned for 11th Plan PROJECTS PLANNED FOR XITH PLAN (STATE/PRIVATE/CENTRAL SECTOR) INCLUDING BEST CAPACITY LIKELY YEAR / EFFORT PROJECT AGENCY STATUS TYPE (MW) DATE OF PROJECTS COMMISSIONIN G 1 SIMHADRI-EXT U-3,4 NTPC Under Construction COAL 1,000 2010-12 2 SUB TOTAL –Central sector 1,000 3 JURALA PRIYA U1,2 APGENCO Commissioned HYDRO 78 31.08.2008 4 JURALA PRIYA U,3 APGENCO Commissioned HYDRO 39 07.06.2009 5 JURALA PRIYA U 4-6 APGENCO Under Construction HYDRO 117 2010-11 6 NAGARJUNA SAGAR TR APGENCO Under Construction HYDRO 50 2010-12 7 PULICHINTALA APID Under Construction HYDRO 120 2010-12 8 RAYALSEEMA U4 APGENCO Commissioned COAL 210 2007-08 9 RAYALSEEMA ST III U5 APGENCO Under Construction COAL 210 2010-11 10 VIJAYWADA TPP ST-IV,U1 APGENCO Commissioned COAL 500 8.10.2009 11 KOTHAGUDEM ST-V APGENCO Under Construction COAL 500 2011-12 12 KAKTIYA TPP APGENCO Under Construction COAL 500 2010-11 13 SUB TOTAL –state sector 2,324 14 KONASEEMA OAKWELL Commissioned GAS/LNG 280 3.5.2009 15 KONASEEMA OAKWELL Under Construction GAS/LNG 165 2010-11 16 GAUTAMI GAUTAMI POW Commissioned GAS/LNG 464 3.5.2009 17 KONDAPALLI PH II LANCO Commissioned GAS 233 5.12.2009 18 KONDAPALLI PH II LANCO Under Construction LNG 133 2010-11 19 SUB TOTAL -private sector 1,275 20 TOTAL (AP) 4,719 20
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table 1-: Likely Power Supply Position at the End of 2010-12 LIKELY POWER SUPPLY POSITION AT THE END OF 2011-12* (DEMAND AS PER 17TH EPS) Period Peak Peak Peak Peak Energy Energy Energy Energy 2011- Demand 12,357 -2,364 Deficit/ 14,721 Met eficit/ -16.1 Requi- 89,032 Avail- 80,338 Deficit/ -8,694 Deficit/ -9.8 12 Table 1-: Likely Capacity Addition During 11th Plan LIKELY CAPACITY ADDITION DURING 11TH PLAN INCLUDING BEST EFFORT PROJECTS FOR THE STATE : - Ty St Installed Capacity Benefits Commissioned Last Unit ANDHRA PRADESH CENTRAL-SECTOR pe at Capacity Addition Shares of / Commissioning *SIMHADRI ST-II T U 1,000.00 1,000.00 384.00 (2010-2012) *ENNORE JV COST T U 1,000.00 1,000.00 129.00 (20110-2012) KAIGA U-3 & 4 N U 440.00 440.00 123.00 COMM 220.00 11.04.2007 *KALPAKKAM PFBR N U 500.00 500.00 142.00 (2010-2011) CENTRAL-SECTOR TOTAL:- 778.00 STATE-SECTOR NAGAR SAGAR TR H U 50.00 50.00 50.00 (2010-2012) VIJAYWADA TPP T U 500.00 500.00 500.00 COMM 500.00 ( 8.10.2009 ) KOTHAGUDEM ST-V T U 500.00 500.00 500.00 (2011-2012) JURALA PRIYA H U 234.00 234.00 234.00 COMM 27.06.2009 RAYALSEEMA 4&5 T U 420.00 420.00 420.00 117.00 210.00 20.11.2007 COMM PULICHINTALA H U 120.00 120.00 120.00 (2011-2012) KAKTIYA TPP T U 500.00 500.00 500.00 (2010-2011) STATE - SECTOR TOTAL:- 1,824.00 PRIVATE-SECTOR KONASEEMA CCGT G U 445.00 445.00 445.00 COMM 280.00 (3.5.2009) GAUTAMI CCGT G C 464.00 464.00 464.00 COMM 464.00 (3.5.2009) KONDAPALLI CCPP G U 233.00 233..00 233.00 COMM 233.00 (5.12.2009) KONDAPALLI CCPP T U 366.00 366.00 133.00 (2010-2011) PRIVATE-SECTOR TOTAL:- 1,275.00 GRAND-TOTAL:- 3,757.00 Note: U-Under Construction Project; C-Commissioned * Share from Central Sectors Projects for which M.O.P. Orders are yet to be issued is tentative. Table 1-: Peak & Energy Table PEAK AND ENERGY TABLE YEAR (As per 17th EPS Report vs Actual achieved) PEAK ENERGY Requirment Actual Requirement Actual 2004-05 as per 17th 8,093 8,168 Demand 48,928 17th as Per Require 50,416 2005-06 8,810 8,999 54,683 53,030 2006-07 9,597 10,208 59,311 60,964 2007-08 10,454 10,048 64,331 64,139 2008-09 11,388 10,823 69,775 71,592 2009-10 12,406 75,680 2010-11 13,514 82,085 2011-12 14,721 89,032 21
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh From the above tables i.e. Actual power Supply position for the state of Andhra Pradesh, it clearly indicates the consistent power deficit of around 8.5 % at the end of 9th Plan continuing till 2009-10 up to 11.2%. 1.3 Justification for the project For the state of Andhra Pradesh the projected peak load is 13,514 MW (2010- 11). Table above shows Installed capacity as on 31 Mar 2010 for the state of Andhra Pradesh, actual power supply position and capacity addition during 11th Plan for the state of Andhra Pradesh. As per present power scenario for the state of Andhra Pradesh the peak deficit during 2006-07 is around 4.4 %. As per table above power deficit for the state of Andhra Pradesh during 2011-12 will be around 1,255 MW (March 2010). Thus Considering projected power demand for the state of Andhra Pradesh, power generated from the proposed power plant may be utilized for the state of Andhra Pradesh. The proposed solar photovoltaic power plant (SPV) will contribute to bridge the gap between the demand and availability of power. As per the proposed transmission evacuation plan, the proposed power station shall be connected to APTransco 33/132 kV substation at Raydurng, in Anantapur district. Therefore it is considered that the proposed power plant will be able to contribute to the power requirement of the Andhra Pradesh, hence it is justified for construction of the Proposed 5 MW Power Plant at Veerapuram village, Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh. 22
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh The project activity will result in an annual average reduction of about 8000 tCO2e per year by replacing electricity generated from fossil fuel fired power plants. The project activity has been essentially conceived to generate GHG emission free electricity by making use of available Solar PV in the project area. The project - being a renewable energy project - leads to sustainable development through efficient utilization of naturally available sunlight and generation of additional employment for the local stakeholders. The Government of India in its Interim Approval Guidelines for CDM Projects has stipulated a set of indicators for describing the sustainable development of a project. According to these indicators, the sustainability of the described project is as follows: Social well being: The project activity is generating employment opportunities for professional, skilled and unskilled labour for development, engineering, procurement operation and maintenance of the project activity. The development of project specific infrastructure will result in employment and income generation activities for local personnel. In addition various kinds of maintenance work would generate employment opportunities for local contractor on regular and Economic well being: • The project activities will bring an additional permanent basis. The project activity would promote the application of solar energy based power generation investment to the tune of INR 650 million, which is a significant investment in a green field project in the region. 23
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh • The project activities will act as a nucleus for other economic activities such as setting up of cottage industries, shops, hotels etc. around the area, contributing to the economic development around the project area. • Proposed power plant will use solar radiation as resource for generation of power helps conserve foreign exchange by reducing the need to import fossil fuels to meet the country’s growing energy demand. Environmental well being: Solar energy based power generation system will be a robust clean technology involving latest state of the art renewable energy options to be used for the purpose of electricity generation. The project implementation will lead to reduction of SOx, NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. It therefore results in an improvement in air quality and human health. 24
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 2 DETAILS ABOUT THE PROPOSED PROJECT LOCATION IN ANANTAPUR DISTRICT 2.1 Introduction Anantapur district is situated in 13-40 and 15’-15 Northern Latitude and 76- 50 and 78-30 Eastern Longitude. It is bounded by Bellary, Kurnool District on the North, Cuddapah and Kolar Districts of Karnataka on South East and North respectively. The District is roughly oblong in shape, the longer side running North to South with a portion of Chitradurg District of Karnataka State intruding into it from west between Kundurpi and Amarapuram Mandals.The Distance of State capital Hyderabad from the district is of ~300 Kms. The District of Anantapur has a fairly good elevation which provides the District with tolerable climate throughout the year. It has a gradual fall from the South North towards the valley of the Pennar in Peddavadugur, Peddapappur and Tadipatri Mandals. There is a gradual rise in Hindupur, Parigi, Lepakshi, Chilamathur, Agali, Rolla and Madakasira Mandals in the South to join the Karnataka Plateau where the average elevation is about 2000 feet is above the mean sea level. 2.2 Area and population in Anantapur District There are 929 inhabited villages, out of 964 total Revenue villages of the District. The number of villages in size group of 500 to 1999 forms 36.71% of the total inhabited villages . The size group of 2000 to 4999 forms 38.64% and the size group of 5000 to 9999 forms 12.81% only out of total villages, while 84 villages ( 9.04%) of total inhabited villages are having population less than 500. There are 26 villages with more than 10,000 population excluding Towns. 25
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 2.3 Rainfall and Climate Anatapur district being far from the East coast, it does not enjoy the full benefits of North East Monsoons and being cut off by the high western Ghats, the South West Monsoon are also prevented from penetrating and punching the thirst of these parched soils. It is therefore seen, the district is deprived of both the monsoons and subjected to droughts due to bad seasons. The normal rainfall of the district is 553.0 MMs. by which it secures least rainfall when compared to Rayalaseema and other parts of Andhra Pradesh. The normal rainfall for the South West Monsoon period is 338.0 MMs. which forms about 61.2% of the total rainfall for the year. The failure of the rains in this South West monsoon period of June to September will lead the District to drought by failure of crops. The rainfall for North East monsoon period is 156.0 M.Ms. only, which forms 28.3% M.Ms. of the total rainfall for the year (October to December). 2.4 Temperature March, April and May are warm months when the normal daily maximum temperature ranges between 29.1 C to 40.3 C. November, December and January are cooler months when the temperature falls about 15.7 C, Hindupur, Parigi, Lepakshi, Chilamathur, Agali, Rolla and Madakasira Mandals being at High Elevation are more cooler than the rest of the Mandals in the District. 26
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 2.5 Proposed Project location The Proposed project site T Veerapuram is located in Raydurg Taluk of Anantapur district. Below figure shows the project location. The site selection for a Solar Power Plant is pre-dominantly determined by solar insulation availability & grid connectivity for exporting power. Equally important are other essential factors/considerations such as: • Availability of adequate land for Power Plant and green belt development • Soil condition like soil bearing capacity etc. • Proximity to State Electricity Grid enabling economic evacuation of power generated • Availability of water and power during construction • Availability of local work force in the proximity • Availability of load centres (towns) within vicinity • Easy accessibility of the site The proposed project site in Veerapuram village, Anatapur district of Andhra Pradesh State is found favoring all the above factors to a reasonable extent. 27
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Figure : Location map of Anatapur district in India: Figure : Map showing proposed project site within Anantapur Proposed Project site for 5 MW SPV Power Project at Veerapura 28
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 2.6 Land requirement and layout of the proposed Project The Power Plant will be located in the proposed site in Veerapuram village. The total land area required for the project is about 25 acres. The Power Plant layout can be divided into two sections as: 1. Module mounting area and 2. Control room The major portion of the site will be used for module mounting. As described in the Power Plant Scheme the module will be mounted in a steel structure which will be installed facing South direction for best efficiency & optimal power output. The steel structure will be grouted using RCC foundation. The proposed structure is designed to hold 8 modules per structure and which can withstand wind speed up to 100km/hr. The structure is designed in such a way that it will occupy minimum required space without sacrificing the performance. The interconnection cables are routed within the structure and the output cables from the modules are taken through proper size conduit to the smart connect box. The output cables from the junction boxes are routed under the ground through conduits or cable trenches. Man holes for regular maintenance and inspection will be provided at equal distances as required. Earthing for all the module mounting structures will be done using copper or GI conductors. The earth pits for module area will be provided as the electrical standards. In order to protect the modules from lightning, lightning protection will be provided in the module mounting area. Sufficient number of lightning arrestor will be 29
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh provided in this area alone for protection of modules. The proposed power plant layout is enclosed as annexure 5. 2.7 Land availability and acquisition for the project As mentioned in the previous section, solar power plant of 5 MW capacity requires about 25 acres of land. The land required by the project is already acquired on lease basis. 30
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh RADIATION DATA AND PROJECTED POWER GENERATION FROM THE PROJECT ACTIVITY Actual site of installation is T. Veerapuram village, Raydurg taluka, located in Anatapur district. The latitude and longitude of this site is 14.36 0N and 76.56 0 E respectively. Solar radiation available is for Anatapur in Andhra Pradesh is considered for simulation of project parameters. Latitude : 14.70 ºN Longitude : 77.60 ºE Below is the weather data for Anatapur district. The data is taken from surface metrology and solar energy data NASA earth science enterprise programme and is based on 22 years of yield data analysis. The irradiation and temperature details considered for the design purpose are as below: 31
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table -: Temperature details considered for design: Average annual solar insulation at horizontal angle taken for Anantapur based on the above chart: 5.34 KWh/m²/day. 32
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 2.8 Simulation report of the power plant 33
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 34
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 35
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh The above simulation analysis is carried out based on the fixed structures. Saisudhir energy and NVVN has entered into a power purchase agreement for the capacity of 5 MW +5% and -0% power plant capacity. The entire generated energy will be sold to NVVN on a long term basis. With this arrangement to optimize the power generation potential, it was envisaged to install PV modules of 5.250 MW capacity to take care of the DC side energy losses in the system. 36
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 3 SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGY The key components of a photovoltaic power system are the photovoltaic cells (sometimes also called solar cells) interconnected and encapsulated to form a photovoltaic module (the commercial product), the mounting structure for the module or array, the inverter (essential for grid-connected systems and) and charge controller (for off-grid systems only). 3.1 Existing Solar Photovoltaic Technologies Crystalline silicon technologies currently account for most of the overall cell production in the IEA PVPS countries. Single crystal PV cells are manufactured using a single-crystal growth method and have commercial efficiencies between 15 % and 18 %. Multicrystalline cells, usually manufactured from a melting and solidification process, are less expensive to produce but are marginally less efficient, with conversion efficiencies around 14 %. PV cells made from ribbons demonstrate an average efficiency around 14 %. Thin film cells, constructed by depositing extremely thin layers of photovoltaic semi-conductor materials onto a backing material such as glass, stainless steel or plastic, show stable efficiencies in the range of 7 % to 13 %. Thin film materials commercially used are amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) and Copper Indium Selenium (CIS) Thin film modules. 37
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 3.2 Thin film modules Thin film modules are potentially cheaper to manufacture than crystalline cells have a wider customer appeal as design elements due to their homogeneous appearance present. Disadvantages, such as low-conversion efficiencies and requiring larger areas of PV arrays and more material (cables, support structures) to produce the same amount of electricity. 3.3 Comparison between Crystalline, Thin film and CPV Technologies S.No. Parameter Crystalline Thin Film CPV Types of Materials Mono/ Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon, CdS, Triple Junction GaAs Cell & CdTe, CIGS, CIS etc. lens , tracker 1 Handling Better protec tion against Not Guaranteed Installation would be at site. breakage Not Guaranteed 2 Power Efficiency 12-16% 6-8% 20-25% 3 Technology Well Developed Under development Under development 4 Module Weight Light weight modules Heavier modules Heaviest System 5 Area utilization Higher power generated Less power per unit area Highest power per unit area per unit area due to high efficiency 6 Temperature Effects Temperature variations Lesser impact of Temperature High variation affect output variations 7 Irradiance Used particularly for Better performance with Diffuse Works only for Normal Normal radiations radiations radiations 8 Module quantity Lesser nos required due More modules required Lowest nos. of modules to high efficienc y required 9 Output per MW High Varies as per sunlight condtion Very High(due to tracking) installed and various locations 10 Transportation Cost Lower Transportation Higher cost High cost cost 11 Mounting Structure Fewer Mounting structure More Mounting structures Sophisticated mounting required per KW power required required 12 Land Requirement Lesser space required per Largest space requirement Lowest spac e required MW 13 Inverter High inverter flexibility Limited inverter flexibility Limited inverter flexibility 14 Cost High c ost per Watt Lower cost per Watt Highest cost per Watt 14 Environment Effects Less Sensitive Sensitive Sensitive 15 Stabilization Stable power output from Stability achieved after 4-6 Unknown at initial stages months 16 Availability Easily available Limited supply Limited supply 17 Health hazards Made from non toxic Toxic materials used for thin Unknown material (Si) films (CdS, CdTe) 18 Power Degradation Less degradation Highest degradation for initial 5- High Degradation 7 years 19 Plant Maintenance Less maintenance Highest maintenanc e required, High maintenanc e required, so required after installation so highest maintenance c ost high maintenance cost so lower cost 20 Repair Relatively easy Diffic ult due to complex Difficult due to complex structure struc ture 21 Cooling Requirement Not required Not required Requires active or passive cooling which could increase cost 22 Cabling Well known, and lower Well Understood but yet difficult Complex and under cabling losses due to higher number of arrays, development. Cabling losses along with high cabling losses expected to be high 23 Suitability for Grid Good Good Good Technology 38
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 3.4 Conclusion on selection of technology Each of the above technologies has their own particular strengths and weaknesses which have played a role in our decision making. We have decided to use Copper Indium Selenium (CIS) Thin film modules as our preferred technology. These advantages and disadvantages in addition with their market availability and costing are the key parameters on basis of which we have taken our technological decision. In the section 4.3 we have compared various technologies, and justification of why we have chosen a particular technology. In the below section we have compared the CIS, vis a vis Crystalline, Amorphous technologies. Characteristic CIS Crystalline Amorphous Remarks Module efficiency ++ +++ - cSi still higher than CIS, but the difference is getting narrow Appearance ++ - ++ CIS modules are all black, and therefore very compatible with roof settings High Temperature - - ++ CIS and cSi do not have anneal effect Light soaking effect ++ - - CIS has light soaking effect. Higher than nominal power output is expected. Degradation ++ ++ - Degradation rate is almost same as Crystalline. Production cost ++ + ++ Unit production cost of CIS modules expected to decrease by mass production but not in the case of crystalline module. Manufacturing process + - + Simple processes allow a smooth and efficient production overall Environmental + - + Environmentally friendly - CIS modules do contribution not include toxic or pollutant elements Energy payback time ++ + ++ Manufacture of CIS modules require only a small amount of energy Issue of raw materials ++ - + CIS products do not use silicon, thus less affected by market volatility 39
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 4 POWER PLANT DESIGN CRITERIA The Power Plant is sized on the following major criteria: • Solar Power (average insulation available) • Power evacuation facility in the vicinity of the proposed site along with Grid availability on 24 Hours a day basis. Details of the design process and are presented in the below sections. 4.1 Design and Simulation projections by PVSYST PVSYST tool is one of the most accepted design tool for the study, sizing, simulation and data analysis of complete PV systems. We have used this tool to generate the most realistic energy yield simulation results which are detailed in this report. Main features of PVSYST: 1) Detailed computation of the used components (modules, inverters, etc) 2) Simulation on hourly basis and detailed evaluation and consideration of different loss factors. 3) Calculation of arbitrary orientated module planes (fixed and tracking systems) 4) Most accepted and used tool to generate simulation results for big PV power plants, as the results are based on systematic and refined approach. 5) Program with the most accurate results and functions at the market. 40
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 4.2 PV Power Plant Energy Production The system lifetime energy production is calculated by determining the first- year energy generation as expressed in kWh (AC)/kWp (AC), then degrading output over the system life based on an annual performance degradation rate. System degradation (largely a function of PV panel type and manufacturing quality) and its predictability are important factors in lifecycle costs since they determine the probable level of future cash flows. This stream of energy produced is then discounted to derive a present value of the energy generated to make a levelized cost calculation. The first year kWh/kWp is a function of the: • The amount of sunshine the project site receives in a year. • The mounting and orientation of the system (i.e., flat, fixed-tilt, tracking, etc.). • The spacing between PV panels as expressed in terms of system ground coverage ratio (GCR). • The energy harvest of the PV panel (i.e., performance sensitivity to high temperatures, sensitivity to low or diffuse light, etc.). • System losses from soiling, transformers, inverters, and wiring inefficiencies. • System availability largely driven by inverter downtime. 4.3 PV power plant capacity factor The capacity factor, a standard methodology used in the utility industry to measure the productivity of energy generating assets, is a key driver of a solar power plant’s economics. 41
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh A PV power plant’s capacity factor is a function of the insulation at the project location, the performance of the PV panel (primarily as it relates to high- temperature performance), and the orientation of the PV panel to the sun, the system electrical efficiencies, and the availability of the power plant to produce power. 4.4 Selection of Inverter and Components For a complete reliable system and to ensure high energy yield from the plant, innovative components with latest technology are selected. The inverter that is selected is of very high efficiency over a wide range of load. The inverter operates in excess of 95.0% efficiency in comparison with the requested of 93% efficiency. Design lifetime of the inverter is at 35,000 hours with rated power at 40°C. This is approximately 4.8 hours at full load per day to estimate the lifetime of 20 years. 4.5 Selection of Monitoring System Monitoring system requirement for a large power plant like 5 MW with state of the art technology, monitoring and analysis of is carried out. Few features are of the monitoring system are presented as follows: • Monitors the performance of the entire power plant (string wise monitoring, junction boxes, inverters, etc) • Evaluates (strings, inverter, nominal/actual value), quantity of DC Power & AC Power produced. • Measures instantaneous irradiation level and temperature at site. It also measures the module back surface temperature. 42
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh • Alerts in case of error (discrepancy in normal operation of components, like module string/ diodes/ inverter/ junction box / loose contacts/ etc,) to facilitate recognition and correction of the fault with minimum downtime. • Visualizes nominal status of the connected components via Control Center PC Software (diagnosis on site or remote) • Logs system data and error messages for further processing or storing • Stores and visualizes energy yield data (for life of the plant) in the Portal from where the data can be accessed remotely. 4.6 Design criteria for Cables and Junction boxes and The power plant will adopt the best engineering practice for complete cable routing in the power plant by using minimal cable length while connecting in series string, using optimal size cables to ensure the entire plant cable losses are minimum. The junction boxes proposed are completely pre-wired to ensure ease of installation, maintenance and eliminates any installation hassles. These junction boxes not only combine the DC power from strings but also monitor each string performance and feed the same data to the central monitoring system. 43
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 5 DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONETS OF THE POWER PLANT The Solar electricity is produced when the Photons from the sun rays hit the electrons in the Solar PV panels, this will generate Direct Current (DC). The DC electricity from the panels passes through DC distribution network to a grid interactive inverter, which converts the DC electricity into 220V AC for single phase and 415V AC for 3 phase operation by using state of the art technology. In order to achieve a higher system voltage, modules are connected in Series, called a string. A higher system voltage has the advantage of less installation work (smaller conductor cross sections). Lower currents flow at the same efficiency so that cable losses are reduced. The strings are connected with the photovoltaic branch or the PV-distributor (Smart connect box). This distributor is connected with the Main Combiner Box (MCB) which acts as the main DC collecting unit which passes the power to be converted to the central inverters. Central inverters combine the various advantages of the other installation technologies. Thus the module fields are less sensitive towards partial darkening, as is the case with string inverters. This results in a very good MPP- matching of the inverters. Thanks to higher system voltages than is the case with module oriented inverters, central inverters reach a very high efficiency. Furthermore, installations can be expanded with additions of more modules without problems. Thus photovoltaic installations of greater efficiency can be constructed economically. 44
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh The AC power from the inverter are passed to Low voltage panel and then to the main transformer. From the transformer, the power is routed through the high voltage panel and eventually to other required measuring & protection devices before connecting to the grid. Grid connected solar power plant comprises of the main equipment and components listed below. 1. Solar PV Modules 2. Central inverters 3. Module mounting system 4. Grid connect equipments 5. Monitoring system 6. Cables & connectors 7. Buildings for housing the electronics (Power-house) 5.1 Solar PV modules A photovoltaic module is a packaged interconnected assembly of photovoltaic cells, which converts sunlight into energy. For this project, CIS Thin film PV technology solar module of 130 Wp is considered. The Tilt angle for the modules would be 15o (all the modules will be facing south). 5.2 Central Invertors Inverters are used for DC voltage to AC voltage conversion. According to output voltage form they could be rectangle, trapezoid or sine shaped. The most 45
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh expensive, yet at the same time the best quality inverters, output voltage in sine wave. Inverters connecting a PV system and the public grid are purposefully designed, allowing energy transfers to and from the public grid. Central inverters are used in large applications. Many times they can be connected according to the "master-slave" criteria, when the succeeding inverter switches on only when enough solar radiation is available or in case of main inverter malfunction. Inverters connected to module strings are used in wide power range applications allowing for more reliable operation. In the proposed project the invertors will connect 41600 modules (each 130Wp (+-3%)) in series. Such 5200 no of strings will be required for 5250.0 System The output of the strings will be connected to Central 500 kW PCU. Like this 10 PCU’s are required. The PCU is nothing but converting the DC Power into AC power and feeding into the grid. It is design with a high efficiency >97% with IGBT technology, It is delivering the max. Power generated through solar modules in to grid due to its inbuilt feature of MPPT operations. The PCU is having internal self protection in case of any fault in the grid. Also the PCU has inbuilt contactors/breakers with fuses for self protections. The PCU is having in-built microprocessor based controls. The Inverters is designed in such a way that it will synchronize with the utility (grid) power with respect to the Voltage and frequency of Grid and it gets corrected itself according to the grid parameters within its settable limits. The inverter is designed in such a way that it will sense the array power and grid power; if both are available it starts and stops automatically in the morning and evening respectively. Each PCU is having a remote and local data monitoring system with which we can monitor all the parameters and current energy generation & 46
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh past generation for the given period. The output voltage of the inverter is connected to the LT side of the grid through step-up transformer of 0.415/11/110KV or as per the requirement. 5.1 Module mounting system The module mounting structure is designed for holding suitable number of modules in series. The frames and leg assembles of the array structures is made of mild steel hot dip galvanized of suitable sections of Angle, Channel, Tubes or any other sections conforming to IS:2062 for steel structure to met the design criteria. All nuts & bolts considered for fastening modules with this structure are of very good quality of Stainless Steel. The array structure is designed in such a way that it will occupy minimum space without sacrificing the output from SPV panels at the same time. Figure : Typical module mounting structure: 47
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 5.1 Grid connected equipments A simple block diagram, related to the interconnection of various systems for gird connectivity, is shown below for reference. The Power from Modules is directed to the central inverters through the DC combiner boxes and from the inverters it is routed though the Low voltage panel to the transformer. From the transformer, the high voltage power is routed to the metering panel, LCB and eventually to grid through the High Voltage Panel. Figure : Grid-Connect equipments 5.2 Monitoring System System proposed will maintain and provide all technical information on daily solar radiation availability, hours of sunshine, duration of plant operation and the quantum of power fed to the grid. This will help in estimation of generation in kWh per MWp PV array capacity installed at the site. The system also enables diagnostic and monitoring functions for these components. Communication: Data modem (analogue/ethernet), few features are presented as follows. 48
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh • Monitors the performance of the entire power plant (string wise monitoring, junction boxes, inverters, etc) • Evaluates (strings, inverter, nominal/actual value), quantity of DC Power & AC Power produced. • Measures instantaneous irradiation level and temperature at site. It also measures the module back surface temperature. • Alerts in case of error (discrepancy in normal operation of components, like module string/ diodes/ inverter/ junction box / loose contacts/ etc,) to facilitate recognition and correction of the fault with minimum downtime. • Visualizes nominal status of the connected components via Control Center PC Software (diagnosis on site or remote) • Logs system data and error messages for further processing or storing • Stores and visualizes energy yield data (for life of the plant) in the Portal from where the data can be accessed remotely. 5.3 Cables and connectors The size of the cables between array interconnections, array to junction boxes, junction boxes to PCU etc shall be so selected to keep the voltage drop and losses to the minimum. The bright annealed 99.97% pure bare copper conductors that offer low conductor resistance, they result in lower heating thereby increase in life and savings in power consumption. These wires are insulated with a special grade PVC compound formulated. The skin coloration offers high insulation resistance and long life. Cables are flexible & of annealed electrolytic grade copper conductor and shall confirm to IS 1554/694-1990 and are extremely robust and resist high mechanical load and abrasion. 49
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Cable is of high temperature resistance and excellent weatherproofing characteristics which provides a long service life to the cables used in large scale projects. The connectors/lugs of copper material with high current capacity and easy mode of assembly are proposed. 5.4 Buildings housing for electronics (power house) The power house will be utilized for housing the inverters, Low Voltage Panels, High Tension Panels, Plant Monitoring system, Safety equipments, Office room etc. In order to avoid shading effect the power house is proposed to be constructed on the North side of the layout. The power house will be provided with air conditioning unit in order to maintain the desired temperature of the equipments like inverters for better performance. The office space will be provided inside the control room with basic amenities. The performance of the Power Plant can be monitored from the power house. The power house will be equipped with all necessary safety equipments as the safety rules. The equipments will be erected as per the Indian Electrical Standards. The cables will be routed through cables trenches or cable trays as required. Alarm system will be provided to alert the operator in case of emergency or plant break-down. The power house will also house the power evacuation system except the transformer. The proposed transformer will be installed in outdoor next to the control room. The civil engineering and building works shall include the design, detailing, and construction of all foundations, structures, buildings, installation and service of 50
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh facilities required for the installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of all equipment associated with the Power Plant. The civil works includes the following: preliminaries, additional survey, soil exploration, piling if needed, ground improvement, foundations, and all necessary site investigation associated with the operations. Site roads, site leveling and grading with boundary fences, and gates. In order to avoid flooding, rain water drainage system is provided all around the plant layout. 5.5 Other facilities including water The other important requirement for the Power Plant is Water, which will be used pre-dominantly for module cleaning. The water table is very good in the proposed site and bore-well for required depth will be erected to meet the requirement. An over-head tank / underground sump will be constructed as per the requirement for the water storage. A first-aid station will be located as part of the power house/office room. Sufficient space will be provided for vehicle parking near to the power house. Within the layout approach roads will be made for easy movement of man & machines. 51
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 6 SPECIFICATION OF MAIN PLANT AND EQUIPMENT Technical specification of major components and bill of materials are presented in this section. Table -: Bill of materials Sl System Components QTY Total Capacities No. SOLAR MODULE Solar Cell Type: CIS Thin film module Solar Module Type: Aluminum Framed Module 1 41,600 Nos. 5.408 MWp Module Wattage: 130Wp each Total PV modules rated power: 5250 kWp Certification: IEC 61646 PV SYSTEM MOUNTING STRUCTURE with single axis tracking Voc=750Volt 2 Material: MS Galvanized(>70 micron) 5200 Nos. i) Design of Solar Photovoltaic 20 module Vmax=600Volt Mounting Structure, Fixed tilt 06 Input 1 3 Array Junction boxes 80 Nos. output type. POWER CONDITIONING UNIT (Inverter) 500kVA, IP20 5 MAKE: AEG or equivalent 10 Nos. Specifications: Input Voltage range 450 - 900V 8 Modules connected in series; 5200 strings 6 1.25 MVA Transformer 5 Nos. ONAN with OLTC 7 6.5 MVA Transformer 1 No. 8 LT panel with Protection & metering 5 Nos. 9 HT Panel with protection Panel & metering 2 No. 11 KV & 33 KV 10 Cables 1 Set PVC Cu Cables 11 Lightning 1 Set Standard 9 Earthing System 1 Set Standard 10 Metering Metering panel Universal / Rema 11 Cables 1 Set Monocab/Finolex Accessories for 12 Accessories cable, Huber + Suhner interconnection 13 PC for monitoring PC in control room Standard Control Room 14 Control Room (Design and Standard construction) 52
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table -: Technical specification of proposed solar modules at STC Technical Specifications for a typical Solar Photovoltaic CIS Thin film module at Standard Test Conditons (STC) Output power –Pmax (Watts) 130 Wp +/-5% Warranted minimum Pmax 130 Wp +/-5% Voltage at Pmax 77.0 V Current at Pmax 1.82 A Open-circuit voltage 109 V Short circuit current 2.10 A Maximum system voltage (Volts) DC 600 V Fuse rating 15 A Type of solar PV cell CIS Thin film Suitability For grid connected system Module output Multi contact plug Certification IEC 61646 Fire rating Class C 10 year warranty on 90% of the Power warranty minimum output Table -: Specifications of module mounting structure Structure Technical Specification Parameters Specifications Type Single axis tracking system Configuration Each structure will hold 20 modules. Material MS Galvanized Overall As per design, please refer Attachment C & D dimension Coating Hot dip (galvanized) Minimum of 70 Micron size Wind rating 100 km/hr (Horizontal) Tilt angle Suitable to site Foundation PCC (1:2:4) Fixing type SS 304 fasteners 53
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table -: Cables speficification Cable Technical Specification Parameters Specifications Standard IS 1554/694-1990 Working voltage Up to 1100V Temperature range -15 Deg C to +70 Deg C Sizes Suitable sizes Table -: Invertors specification Inverter Technical Specifications Parameters Specifications Input Voltage range Vpmin=500 VDC to Voc=820 VDC Recommended solar power as 500-580 kWp input Output Voltage 510 VAC (Phase), 400 VAC (Line) AC outputs 5 Connectors (L1, L2, L3, N and PE) DC inputs 4 minimum Output power 500 kW or above Output current distortion Less than 2% MPP range at DC rated output 500- 820 VDC Mains frequency range 50 Hz +/- 0.4% Maximum Efficiency Greater than 95 % Maximum Power Point Tracking (>1% Operating mode accuracy) Power factor (Cosφ) 1 Ambient temperature range 0-40 °C Relative humidity 95% non-condensing Protection Type IP20 When sufficient solar generator power Automatic turn on is available Resetting time after AC Minimum 2 minutes deactivation Ground fault monitoring, Reverse Protection polarity protection, Over voltage protection. Solar generator / Grid decoupling Through high insulation transformer. 54
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table -: Transformer specification at 33 kV side Parameters Specifications Transformer 1.25 MVA, 415/33 KV, 5 Nos No. of Phases 3 Type Copper wounded transformer. Cooling type Oil cooled (ONAN) Installation Outdoor Primary voltage 415V HV 33000 volts LV 415 volts Vector Group Dyn 11 Percentage impedance 5% Secondary voltage 33 kV at 33kV panel Toppings and windings 33 kV side Regulation at unity power factor 1.32 % Regulation @ 0.8 power factor 4.68 % Max Efficiency @ 36% load >99% Efficiency (25~125% of load) @ 98.5~99% unity power factor Efficiency (25~125% of load) @ 98~98.9% 0.8 power factor Insulation class Class-A Welded steel tank and bolted cover Enclosure construction. First filling of oil Confirms to IS 335 Applicable standards IS2026 55
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table -: Transformer specification for grid interfacing at 33/132 kV Parameters Specifications Transformer 6.50 MVA, 33/132 KV, 1 No. No. of Phases 3 Type Copper wounded transformer. Cooling type Oil cooled (ONAN) Installation Outdoor Primary voltage 415V HV 33000 volts LV 11000 volts Vector Group Will match with the grid requirement Percentage impedance 5% System voltage 33kV at 33 kV panel Toppings and windings 11 kV side Regulation at unity power factor 1.32 % Regulation @ 0.8 power factor 4.68 % Max Efficiency @ 36% load >99% Efficiency (25~125% of load) @ 98.5~99% unity power factor Efficiency (25~125% of load) @ 98~98.9% 0.8 power factor Insulation class Class-A Welded steel tank and bolted cover Enclosure construction. First filling of oil Confirms to IS 335 Applicable standards IS2026 56
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table -: Monitoring system specification Monitoring system Technical Specifications The system is an innovative monitoring and analysis system for large PV plants. It is upgradeable with CAN bus compatible System components (like junction boxes). The system supports the diagnostic and monitoring functions for these components. Monitoring of central inverters and junction boxes to string level. Measurement & storage of the temperature, irradiation, string level current values, etc. Transmits the data required for monitoring, such Monitoring as yields and the system efficiency, to the Internet portal, where the Central data is converted into straightforward diagrams and stored. system A constant target/actual analysis should enable malfunctions to be detected in their initial stages and an immediate notification is sent to a definable group of people. Remote-controlled connection / disconnection should reduce service String monitoring outlay on site. The long-life electronic safety feature will optimize junction boxes system availability. Data modem (analogue/Ethernet), CAN open interface for Communication connecting the system components, RS 232 interface. 57
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 7 POWER EVACUATION AND INTERFACING WITH GRID It is important that the power plant is designed to operate satisfactorily in parallel with grid, under the voltage and frequency fluctuation conditions, so as to export the maximum possible units to the grid. It is also extremely important to safeguard the system during major disturbances like tripping, pulling and sudden over loading during the fluctuation of the grid loads on the generating unit in the island mode, under fault/feeder tripping conditions. 7.1 Power Evacuation System The Direct Current (DC) from modules is converted into Alternating Current (AC) by Inverters. The inverter outputs are given to a junction box which is connected (using 415V XLPE cable) to the LV Panel in the control room. The output from LV Panel is stepped up to 11kV by, Oil cooled, outdoor type transformer located near the control room. The HV side of transformer is connected to 11kV HT Panel in the control room (using 11kV XLPE cable). The LV and HT Panels have all necessary metering and protection as per Power Evacuation schematic. From the HT panel, 11kV XLPE cable runs to 11kV metering panel and then to Double Pole (DP) Structure. DP structure is connected to existing 33/132 kV grid by suitable Aluminum Conductors Steel Reinforced (ACSR) conductor. The Power evacuation system comprises of following major components: 1. Transformer – Oil immersed type with Off circuit tap changer with all accessories 2. 415V Low Voltage (LV) Panel 3. 11kV High Tension (HT) Panel 58
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 4. 11kV Metering Panel 5. LT & HT cables 6. Control & Power evacuation cables 7.2 Transformers The proposed transformer shall be installed outdoor suitable for hot, humid and tropical climate. The transformer will be free from annoying hum and vibration when it is in operation, even at 10% higher voltage over the rated voltage. The noise level will be in accordance with respective standards. The transformer will be designed and constructed so as not to cause any undesirable interference in radio or communication circuits. The oil filled transformer will be capable of operating continuously at its rated output without exceeding the temperature rise limits as given below over design ambient temperature of 50 deg C. • In oil by thermometer 50 deg C • In winding by resistance 55 deg C The transformer will be designed to withstand without injury, the thermal and mechanical effect of short circuit at its terminal with full voltage maintained behind it for a period of 1 second. The transformer will be capable of continuous operation at the rated output under voltage and frequency variation without injurious heating at that particular tap for all tap positions. Phase connections will be delta on LV side and star on HV side. HV side shall be resistance earthed. HV side shall be suitable for connection to 11kV HT panel. 59
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh LV side shall be suitable for connection to LV panel. Transformer will be designed for over fluxing withstand capability of 110% continuous and 125% for at least 1 minute. Further it shall be capable of withstanding 140% of rated voltage at the transformer LV terminal for a period of 5 seconds to take into account sudden load throw off conditions. Overloads will be allowed within conditions defined in the loading guide of applicable standard. Under these conditions, no limitations by terminal bushings, off circuit tap changers or other auxiliary equipment shall apply. 7.3 HT, LV & 11KV Metering Panel Under the normal climatic and earthquake conditions, the HT and LV panels will meet the following requirements: a) The physical alignment of 11kV and 415V switchgear panels along with incoming and outgoing feeder connections, supporting insulators & structures of bus bars will not get disturbed and there will not be any internal flashover and/or electrical fault. b) All relays, transducers, indicating instruments, devices in switchgear panels will not mal-operate. c) Current carrying parts, supporting structure, earth connection etc. will not get dislocated and /or will not break or distort. d) Co-ordination with other systems All equipments will have necessary protections. Each switchgear will be provided with necessary arrangement for receiving, isolating, distributing and fusing of 230V AC and 11OV DC supplies for various control, lighting, space 60
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh heating and spring charging circuits. DC supply for control shall be duplicated for each board which shall run through auxiliary bus wires. 11kV Lightning Arrestor will be of non-linear resistor type. Unless otherwise modified in this specification the lightning arrestor shall comply with IS 3070(Pt.1)1974 or the latest version thereof. 7.4 Cables 11kV cables will be unearthed grade suitable for use in medium resistance earthed system, with stranded & compacted aluminium conductors, extruded semi-conducting compound screen, extruded XLPE insulated, extruded semi- conducting compound with a layer of non- magnetic metallic tape for insulation screen, extruded PVC (Type ST-2) FRLS outer sheathed, multi-cored conforming to IS 7098 (Part II) IEC-60502 for constructional details and tests. 7.5 LT Power Cables LT Power Cable will be 1100V, unearthed grade, multi-core, stranded aluminium conductor, XLPE insulated with PVC outer sheath made on FRLS PVC compound. All other details will be as applicable. Minimum conductor cross section of power cables will be 4 Sq.mm 7.6 Control cables Control cables will be 1100V Grade, multi-core, minimum 2.5 Sq.mm cross section, stranded copper conductor having 7 strands, PVC insulated, and outer sheath made of FRLS PVC compound. In situations where accuracy of measurement is or voltage drop in control circuit is not warrant, higher cross 61
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh sections as required will be used. 4 sq.mm copper conductor cables will be used for CT circuits all other specifications remaining same. 7.7 Power Evacuation Cable 3 Core XLPE insulated, aluminium cable confirming to IS 7098 of required length shall be provided for power evacuation. 7.8 Grid Synchronization Scheme The output power from the LV panel is taken to set-up transformer, where the voltage is stepped up from 415V to 11kV. The output of the transformer is fed to HT panel and from the HT panel to Double Pole (DP) structure. From DP structure, ACSR conductors run to another DP structure located near the existing 33/132 kV grid at about 10 km from the project site. Single pole (SP) structures are provided at equal intervals. The number of single pole structures required is determined based on sag calculation. The location of DP and SP structures will be decided during detailed engineering. Air Breaker (AB) switch is provided near DP structure to facilitate isolation of the power plant from the grid during emergency. Jump conductors are used to connect the DP structure to the existing 33/132 kV grid. A single line diagram (SLD) for depicting the power evacuation scheme is enclosed as annexure 9. 62
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 8 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS Photovoltaic system consists out of two parts. 1. Direct current (DC) side 2. Alternating current (AC) side Solar PV array generates DC Power at a very high voltage and need to be handled carefully. 8.1 DC side of the power plant 1 PV modules convert Sun light into DC Power. 2 PV modules are connected in series & parallel to create necessary voltage & current. The series & parallel connections are done as per the design. 3 The output of PV array is connected to junction boxes and outputs of the several junction boxes are connected to main combiner box. 4 This generated DC power is passed through the Inverter to convert DC power into AC power. 8.2 AC side of the power plant 1 The output of the Inverter will be AC power at 415V. 2 This converted AC power at 415V is connected to LV panel and stepped up to 11kV using a step-up transformer. 3 From 11 kV the power is stepped up to 33 kV and is connected to HT panel and from HT panel to Double Pole conductor. 63
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 4 AC Power is transmitted through overhead line to the 33/132 kV substation located at about 10 km from the project site. 5 Both on DC side of generation as well as AC side of conversion, protection and safety devices are provided to ensure safe and reliable operation of the complete Solar Power Generating system. 6 Monitoring and Analysis system provided with the power plant will record, store and transfer data that are essential for the same purpose. 8.3 Mode of Operation The PV system basically consists of the following components: 1 PV arrays convert Sun light into DC Power. 2 This generated DC power is passed through the Inverter to convert DC power into AC power. 3 This converter AC power at 415V is stepped up to 33 kV using a step-up transformer. 4 AC power at 33 kV is connected to the Grid at the same voltage. 5 Both on DC side of generation as well as AC side of conversion, protection and safety devices are provided to ensure safe and reliable operation of the complete Solar Power Generating system. 6 Monitoring and Analysis system provided with the power plant will record, store and transfer data that are essential for the same purpose. 64
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 8.4 Maintenance requirements The main objectives of the maintenance section focus on keeping the plant running reliably and efficiently as long as possible with any break down. Reliability is impaired when a plant is thrown to forced and unforeseen outages. The following measures will help in reducing the break down maintenance and also help in planning for preventive maintenance. 1 Careful logging of operation data and periodically processing it to determine abnormal or slowly deteriorating conditions. 2 Careful control and supervision of operating conditions. Wide and rapid variations in voltage and frequency conditions do contribute to increased maintenance. 3 Regulate routine maintenance work such as keeping equipment clean, cleaning of module, proper maintenance of inverters etc. 4 Correct operating procedures. 5 Frequent testing of plant equipment by ‘Walk Down’ checks to internal condition of equipments such as module performance, inverter efficiency test, monitoring system testing etc. 6 Close co-ordination with the manufacture to effect improvements in plant layouts and design, use of better material, introduction of such facilities as lightning protection, etc. 8.5 Spare parts management system The primary objectives of spare parts management system will be to ensure timely availability of proper spare parts for efficient maintenance of the plant 65
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh without excessive build up on non-moving and slow moving inventory. A provision of 2% of equipment cost is kept for purchase of spare parts for smooth functioning of the plant. The spare parts management system for this project will cover the following areas: 7 Maintaining the proper condition of all spares and consumables. 8 Spare parts indenting and procurement policy. 9 Ordering of critical mandatory and recommended spares. 10 Judicious fixation of inventory levels and ordering levels for spare parts based on past experience. 8.6 Maintenance of O & M Manuals Operation and Maintenance (O&M) manual for the various sections of the plant in adequate number of copies shall be made available to the plant personnel. It is also proposed to have a sound and slide show for the education and training of the operators. The set points as per O&M manual will be reviewed and any revisions required at the pre-commissioning and commissioning stage will be incorporated for operator guidance. 8.7 Operation & maintenance Organization of the Plant The organization proposed ensures that the proposed power plant will be headed by the plant Engineer, holding the full charge of the power plant operations, reporting directly to the project promoters. The staffing 66
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh recommended here takes care of the operation, maintenance and the related record keeping. The plant Engineer should be a graduate engineer with relevant experience in a power plant. Generally, the power plant will be similar to unmanned type. However, two more technicians would be required for regular monitoring and few people will be engaged for regular cleaning of the Solar Modules. 8.8 Training During the commissioning of the plant training will be imparted to the Engineer and supervisors. This operational training shall cover the following: 1 The nature, purpose and limitations of all plant and equipment. 2 The detailed operating instructions on each section and equipment of the plant. 3 Normal startup and shutdown Program for the plant. 4 The emergency procedures and all related HSE issues according to the standards. 5 The basis for the training shall be the plants Operation and Maintenance Manual, Contract document and drawings provided by the manufacturer. 67
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 9 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have distinct environmental advantages for generating electricity over conventional technologies. The operation of photovoltaic systems does not produce any noise, toxic-gas emissions, or greenhouse gases. Photovoltaic energy not only can help to meet the growing worldwide demand for electricity, but it can do so without incurring the high economic and environmental costs of burning fossil fuels and installing power lines. Compared to burning coal, every giga watt-hour of electricity generated by photovoltaics would prevent the emission of about 10 tons of sulphur dioxide, 4 tons of nitrogen oxides, 0.7 tons of particulates, and up to 1000 tons of carbon dioxide. It has been proposed to use CIS Thin modules which does not contain toxic material (eg. Lead, cadmium). Independent studies and reports have confirmed PV Modules are safe to people, animal life and the environment during any anticipated application or use. • PV solar modules represent a 90% reduction in harmful air emissions when used to displace conventional energy generation technologies. Solar electricity is generated with no air emissions, no waste use and no waste production while preventing the environmental impacts associated with traditional fossil fuels. 68
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh • A 2006 Progress in Photovoltaic Research and Applications study showed that the active semiconductor material used within Solar PV Modules presents the best energy payback time of all existing solar technologies. • Solar PV Modules are classified as "waste for recovery" and non- hazardous in accordance with the German Waste Code, European Waste Legislation and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. As part of the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to be implemented for the Power Plant as a whole, monitoring of Noise level and water quality both at source and in the ambient at the plant site will be done regularly as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) guidelines after the plant is commissioned. 69
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 10 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION OF THE POWER PLANT The organization proposed ensures that the proposed power plant will be headed by the plant manager, holding the full charge of the power plant operations, reporting directly to the project promoters. The staffing recommended here takes care of the operation, maintenance and record keeping. The plant manager should be a graduate engineer with minimum of 10 years of experience out of which at least five years should have been worked in a power plant. Shift supervisors should be provided housing nearby the power plant premises. It is considered that these personnel will be available for 24 hours for meeting any emergency requirements of the operation of the plant. The plant manger will be in charge for both technical and administrative functions. The organization under plant manager shall be divided into operation and maintenance group. The plant operation team will work in three shifts per day. Each shift will be controlled by a shift supervisor. There will be an additional shift supervisor who will function as reliever. 70
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 10.1 Training During the commissioning of the plant training will be imparted to the operators and shift supervisors, this operational training shall be to acquaint the operators with the following: • The nature, purpose and limitations of all plant and equipment. • The detailed operating instructions on each section and equipment of the plant. • Normal startup and shutdown Program for the plant. • The emergency procedures. The basis for the training shall be the plants operating and maintenance manual, contract document, drawings which is provided by the manufacturer. 71
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 10.2 Plant Operation Organization Chart PLANT MANAGER 1 PLANT ADMIN HEAD 1 PLANT SUPERVISOR PLANT SUPERVISOR PLANT SUPERVISOR PLANT SUPERVISOR Shift No.1 – 1 No. Shift No.2 – 1 No. Shift No.3 – 1No. Reliever 1 No. PLANT HELPER PLANT HELPER PLANT HELPER PLANT OPERATOR Shift No.1 – 3 No. Shift No.2 – 3 No. Shift No.3 – 3 No. Reliever 3 No. PLANT HELPER Reliever 2 No. ACCOUNTANT 1 SECURITY SECURITY SECURITY SECURITY Shift No.1 – 1 No. Shift No.2 – 1No. Shift No.3 – 1 No. Reliever - 1 No. 72
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 10.3 Project Implementation Strategy It is envisaged that the project will have the below mentioned phase of activities. These phases are not mutually exclusive; to implement the project on fast track basis some degree of overlapping is envisaged. • Project Development • Finalization of the Equipment and Contracts • Procurement and Construction • Plant Commissioning and performance testing 10.4 Project Development In a power project, development of the project plays an important role. Almost 50 % of the work is done if one achieves power purchase agreement from the NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd (NVVN). Apart from the above the below listed tasks will be under project development: 1. Preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR) 2. Participation in RFQ/submission of application with documents for registration with NVVN 3. Expedite LOI from NVVN 4. Power purchase agreement (PPA) with NVVN 5. Financial closure 10.5 Finalization of the Equipments and Contracts In the power plant PV modules, invertors and transformers are the long lead items and the planning schedule for the project implementation should provide 73
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh adequate time period for the installation of these equipment. The specifications for major equipment like the Modules, Invertors and Transformer design shall be drawn up at an early stage of the project. Program of design information, from the equipment suppliers, that satisfies the overall project schedule shall be drawn up. Since, the project execution calls for closer coordination among the contractors, consultants and the company, proper contract co-ordination and monitoring procedures shall be made to plan and monitor the project progress. 10.6 Procurement and Construction The procurement is an important function of the implementation of the project. Once the purchase order is placed, the project team follows up regularly to ensure smooth and timely execution of the contract and for obtaining technical information for the inter-package engineering. When the contract for the equipment are awarded, detailed program in the form of network are tied up with the supplier to clearly indicate the owners obligations and the suppliers responsibilities. And upon placement of the purchase order, the project team follows up regularly to ensure smooth and timely execution of the contract and or obtaining technical information for the inter-package engineering. The procurement activity includes review of drawings, expediting, stage and final pre-delivery inspection, supervision of installation and commissioning. To expedite supplies from the manufacturers, regular visits to the suppliers works will have to be undertaken by the project engineers/consultants. The manufacturing program and quality plans finalized at the time of award of 74
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh contract. Regular reports shall be prepared indicating the schedule variations, if any, their likely impact on the delivery schedule, and the recommendations to meet with the schedules. During construction, the erection and commissioning phase of all the contracts proceed simultaneously. Adequate power and water shall be made available for the construction. Construction manager of Saisudhir Energy takes the overall responsibility of the site. 10.7 Erection and Commissioning Phase The commissioning phase in a project is one where design, manufacturing, erection and quality assurance expertise are put to test. The commissioning team will be from manufacturer of the equipment, consultant and the company. As discussed in the earlier section, staff identified to operate the plant will be involved in the commissioning phase of the project itself. When construction phase is complete, the check list designed to ensure that the plant has been properly installed with appropriate safety measures. The commissioning team will follow the operating instructions laid down by the plant and equipment manufacturer. The plant shall be subjected to a performance test, after the successful completion of the performance test of the plant, the plant will be taken over by the company. It is responsibility of the company to ensure that major civil work shall have to be planned in the non-monsoon period. All the statutory clearances like pollution control board clearance will be obtained much before of the start of the project commissioning. 75
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 11 PROJECT COST ESTIMATE AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS The cost of the power project is estimated, on the basis of the prevailing prices rates and the estimation is for the installation of power generation facilities described in the earlier sections of this report. The cost of the solar power plant, presented in this section of the report covers all the costs associated with the construction of the plant and included civil construction cost, cost of equipment for power generation, cost of auxiliaries and utilities. We have also taken the reference of CERC considered capital cost for approving the purchase tariff for solar photovoltaic based power plants in the country. Table -: Project Cost Estimate Particulars Rs. Mn Land 102.04 Civil Works 40.36 PV Modules 320.00 Module mounting Structures 50.00 BOS ( Balance of System ) including Combiner Box, 90.60 Invertors, data logging System etc. Transmission Line. 12 KM Length 10.00 Terminal equipments at evacuation point 7.00 Prel. & Pre Operative Expenses (Includes IDC – Rs. 26 Mn) 30.00 TOTAL 650.00 The Solar PV based power plant promoted by Saisudhir Energy Limited is planned as an IPP. This power plant will supply power through APTRANSCO Grid to NVVN on a long term power purchase agreement (PPA) as per the guidelines of Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM). 76
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 11.1 Plant Operation The Gross generation of power in the proposed power plant will be 5 MW. Solar power plants do not require any reactive power for its main plant components and auxiliary equipment. The estimated energy generation, considering the losses for 25 years (project life of the power plant) is depicted in the below table. Years Net Export to Grid (GWh) 2011-12 2.33 2012-13 9.32 2013-14 9.23 2014-15 9.14 2015-16 9.05 2016-17 8.95 2017-18 8.87 2018-19 8.78 2019-20 8.69 2020-21 8.60 2021-22 8.52 2022-23 8.43 2023-24 8.35 2024-25 8.26 2025-26 8.18 2026-27 8.10 2027-28 8.02 2028-29 7.94 2029-30 7.86 2030-31 7.78 2031-32 7.70 2032-33 7.62 2033-34 7.55 2034-35 7.47 2035-36 7.40 2036-37 7.32 77
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 11.2 Salable Electricity The Gross generation of power in the proposed power plant will be about 9.63 million units per annum at PV array in AC side after the PV array losses, the net energy exportable to the grid after the PV array losses is estimated to be about 9.32 million units. This surplus energy from the plant is connected to APTransco 33/132 kV substation located about 10 km from the project site and sold to NVVN on long term power purchase agreement as per the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) guidelines. 11.3 Sale Price of Electricity As per the financial analysis carried out, it is envisaged that a power purchase agreement would be entered into with NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Limited (NVVN). Saiduhir energy has signed a power purchase agreement with NVVN at a price of ` 12.00 per kWh. This tariff has been accepted by NVVN after a competitive bidding carried out to purchase solar power on long term basis. 11.4 Sale Price of carbon credits Certified Emissions Reductions or CERs are a "certificate" just like a stock. A CER is given by the CDM Executive Board to projects in developing countries to certify they have reduced green house gas emissions. Developed countries buy CERs from developing countries under the CDM process to help them achieve their Kyoto targets. The Kyoto protocol is defined by UNFCCC. 78
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh The existing protocol is defined up to 2012 i.e protocol expires by 2012. The European Union, the major buyer of the carbon credits from green energy projects from the developing countries restricted the use of CER’s if no agreement is reached on Kyoto protocol by 2012 by developing countries including US. There are many market uncertainties in selling CER’s generated, majority of which depends on the policy decisions of the developing countries and US to join the Kyoto protocol agreement for reducing carbon emissions. Keeping the above CER market uncertainties in view, the prices of CER’s are considered for the current project at € 12 per CER which works out to INR 7.5Mn. 79
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table -2: Assumptions for Financial Projections Assumptions Supporting Financial Projections Input value Data Source Installed Capacity MW 5.00 Proposed Average Working days / Annum Days 365.00 Industry norms Plant Load Factor % 21.28% As per the commitment from Vendor Tariff Rs / kWh 12.00 Already PPA Signed with NTPC NVVN O&M Expenses (on Project Cost) 0.53% CERC Tariff regulations 2009 (reference) Escalation in O&M 5.72% CERC Tariff regulations 2009 (reference) Interest on Term Loan 11.50% Assumed Loan repayment Period / years years 13 Assumed Moratorium From COD/Years years 1 Assumed Interest on Working capital 13.00% Assumed Income Tax ( Regular) 32.45% As per latest Budget 2011 Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) 18.50% As per latest Budget 2011 Incentives MNRE Subsidy ( Rs. Million) 0.00 MNRE Guidelines Tax holiday / years 10 As per Sec. 80IA of Income Tax Act,1961 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Revenue Carbon Emission Remittance (CRE) price Euro / ton 12 Assumed Exchange rate Rs / Euro 67 Assumed Outputs Generation GWh 9.32 80
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Means of Finance Rs. Mn Share Capital - 30% 195.00 Term Loan - 70% 455.00 TOTAL 650.00 Interest On Term Loan (Rs.million) Particulars / Years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Opening Term Loan 455.00 446.25 411.25 376.25 341.25 306.25 271.25 236.25 201.25 166.25 131.25 96.25 61.25 26.25 Repayment Quarter I 0.00 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 Quarter II 0.00 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 Quarter III 0.00 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 Quarter IV 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75 0.00 Loan Repayment 8.75 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 26.25 Outstanding Term Loan 455.00 446.25 411.25 376.25 341.25 306.25 271.25 236.25 201.25 166.25 131.25 96.25 61.25 26.25 Quarter I 455.00 437.50 402.50 367.50 332.50 297.50 262.50 227.50 192.50 157.50 122.50 87.50 52.50 17.50 Quarter II 455.00 428.75 393.75 358.75 323.75 288.75 253.75 218.75 183.75 148.75 113.75 78.75 43.75 8.75 Quarter III 455.00 420.00 385.00 350.00 315.00 280.00 245.00 210.00 175.00 140.00 105.00 70.00 35.00 0.00 Quarter IV 446.25 411.25 376.25 341.25 306.25 271.25 236.25 201.25 166.25 131.25 96.25 61.25 26.25 0.00 Interest Quarter I 13.08 12.83 11.82 10.82 9.81 8.80 7.80 6.79 5.79 4.78 3.77 2.77 1.76 0.75 Quarter II 13.08 12.58 11.57 10.57 9.56 8.55 7.55 6.54 5.53 4.53 3.52 2.52 1.51 0.50 Quarter III 13.08 12.33 11.32 10.31 9.31 8.30 7.30 6.29 5.28 4.28 3.27 2.26 1.26 0.25 Quarter IV 13.08 12.08 11.07 10.06 9.06 8.05 7.04 6.04 5.03 4.03 3.02 2.01 1.01 0.00 Total Interest on Term Loan 52.33 49.81 45.78 41.76 37.73 33.71 29.68 25.66 21.63 17.61 13.58 9.56 5.53 1.51 81
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table -3: Estimation of Depreciation Estimation of Depreciation Apportionment of Pre-operatives (Rs.million) Particulars Actual Cost Pre-Operative Exp Contingencies Total Cost Land 102.04 4.94 0.00 106.98 Civil Works 40.36 1.95 0.00 42.31 PV Modules 320.00 15.48 0.00 335.48 Transmission Line. 12 KM Length 157.60 7.63 0.00 165.23 Total 620.00 30.00 0.00 650.00 Calculation of Book Depreciation (SLM) (Rs.million) Particulars Cost Depreciation Residual Value Land 106.98 0.00 106.98 Civil Works 42.31 40.20 2.12 PV Modules 335.48 318.71 16.77 Transmission Line. 12 KM Length 165.23 156.96 8.26 Total 650.00 515.87 134.13 Deprectiaton per annum on SLM Basis 20.63 82
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Income Tax (Rs.million) Income Tax 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22 2022-23 2023-24 2024-25 as per MAT (18.5%) on profit 1.94 7.92 8.12 8.61 9.09 9.58 10.07 10.55 11.03 11.52 12.00 12.48 12.96 13.44 As per IT (30%+5%+3%) =32.45% on profit - - - - - - - - - - 21.05 21.89 22.73 23.57 Tax provision 1.94 - - - - - - - - - 21.05 21.89 22.73 23.57 Income Tax 2025-26 2026-27 2027-28 2028-29 2029-30 2030-31 2031-32 2032-33 2033-34 2034-35 2035-36 2036-37 as per MAT (18.5%) on profit 13.91 13.92 13.65 13.37 13.09 12.81 12.52 12.23 11.93 11.63 11.33 11.02 As per IT (30%+5%+3%) =32.45% on profit 24.40 24.42 23.94 23.45 22.96 22.46 21.96 21.45 20.93 20.41 19.87 19.33 Tax provision 24.40 24.42 23.94 23.45 22.96 22.46 21.96 21.45 20.93 20.41 19.87 19.33 Note: Tax holiday as per Sec 80IA of IT Act, 1961 is considered for the first 10 years from commercial operation. However, tax is paid as per Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) at 18.50% on profits. The tax so paid is available for credit up to 10 years. The amount will be shown as asset in Balance Sheet. Since the tax paid in the first year cannot be utilized for adjustment in 11 year, it is charged to Profit and Loss statement. Subsequent payments of tax till 10th year are considered as asset and are adjusted to tax payable from 11th years onwards. 83
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table -4: Project Profit & Loss Statement, Balance Sheet, Cash Flow, Project IRR and Working Capital Summary of the Projections for 5 MW Factor Unit Value Project Cost Rs. Mn 650.00 Equity - 30% Rs. Mn 195.00 Debt - 70% Rs. Mn 455.00 Project IRR % 13.63% Equity IRR % 18.89% DSCR - Min times 1.35 DSCR - Avg times 1.65 Projected Profitability Statement Rs Mn Particulars 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22 2022-23 2023-24 2024-25 2025-26 2026-27 2027-28 2028-29 2029-30 2030-31 2031-32 2032-33 2033-34 2034-35 2035-36 2036-37 (3 months) Net Export to Grid(Units in Mn) 2.33 9.32 9.23 9.14 9.05 8.95 8.87 8.78 8.69 8.60 8.52 8.43 8.35 8.26 8.18 8.10 8.02 7.94 7.86 7.78 7.70 7.62 7.55 7.47 7.40 7.32 Tariff (Rs /KWh) 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 CDM Revenue 1.87 7.49 7.42 7.35 7.27 7.20 7.13 7.06 6.99 6.92 6.85 6.78 6.71 6.64 6.58 6.51 6.45 6.38 6.32 6.25 6.19 6.13 6.07 6.01 5.95 5.89 Power Revenue 27.97 111.86 110.75 109.64 108.54 107.46 106.38 105.32 104.26 103.22 102.19 101.17 100.16 99.15 98.16 97.18 96.21 95.25 94.29 93.35 92.42 91.49 90.58 89.67 88.78 87.89 Total Revenue 29.84 119.36 118.17 116.98 115.81 114.66 113.51 112.37 111.25 110.14 109.04 107.95 106.87 105.80 104.74 103.69 102.66 101.63 100.61 99.61 98.61 97.62 96.65 95.68 94.72 93.78 Expenses Direct Cost - O&M Expenses 0.87 3.46 3.66 3.87 4.09 4.33 4.58 4.84 5.11 5.41 5.72 6.04 6.39 6.75 7.14 7.55 7.98 8.44 8.92 9.43 9.97 10.54 11.14 11.78 12.45 13.16 Employee Cost 0.03 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.32 0.34 0.35 Administrative Expenses 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 Interest and Financial Charges 13.30 52.33 49.81 45.78 41.76 37.73 33.71 29.68 25.66 21.63 17.61 13.58 9.56 5.53 1.51 - - - - - - - - - - - Depreciation 5.16 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 Total Expenses 19.36 76.57 74.26 70.45 66.65 62.87 59.10 55.34 51.60 47.88 44.17 40.48 36.81 33.16 29.54 28.45 28.89 29.36 29.86 30.38 30.93 31.52 32.14 32.79 33.48 34.21 Profit Before Tax (PBT) 10.47 42.79 43.91 46.53 49.16 51.79 54.41 57.03 59.65 62.26 64.86 67.46 70.05 72.63 75.20 75.25 73.77 72.27 70.76 69.23 67.68 66.11 64.51 62.89 61.24 59.56 Income Tax 1.94 - - - - - - - - - 21.05 21.89 22.73 23.57 24.40 24.42 23.94 23.45 22.96 22.46 21.96 21.45 20.93 20.41 19.87 19.33 Profit After Tax (PAT) 8.54 42.79 43.91 46.53 49.16 51.79 54.41 57.03 59.65 62.26 43.82 45.57 47.32 49.06 50.80 50.83 49.83 48.82 47.80 46.76 45.72 44.65 43.58 42.48 41.37 40.24 EBDITA over Total Revenue 96.98% 96.98% 96.77% 96.56% 96.32% 96.08% 95.81% 95.53% 95.23% 94.91% 94.56% 94.20% 93.81% 93.39% 92.94% 92.47% 91.96% 91.42% 90.84% 90.22% 89.56% 88.85% 88.10% 87.29% 86.44% 85.52% PBT over Total Revenue 35.10% 35.85% 37.16% 39.78% 42.45% 45.17% 47.94% 50.75% 53.62% 56.53% 59.49% 62.50% 65.55% 68.65% 71.80% 72.57% 71.86% 71.11% 70.33% 69.50% 68.63% 67.71% 66.75% 65.73% 64.65% 63.52% PAT over Total Revenue 28.61% 35.85% 37.16% 39.78% 42.45% 45.17% 47.94% 50.75% 53.62% 56.53% 40.18% 42.22% 44.28% 46.38% 48.50% 49.02% 48.54% 48.04% 47.51% 46.95% 46.36% 45.74% 45.09% 44.40% 43.67% 42.90% 84
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra PradeshProjected Balance Sheet Rs. MnParticulars 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22 2022-23 2023-24 2024-25 2025-26 2026-27 2027-28 2028-29 2029-30 2030-31 2031-32 2032-33 2033-34 2034-35 2035-36 2036-37Share Capital 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00 195.00Reserves & Surplus 8.54 51.33 95.23 141.77 190.93 242.72 297.13 354.16 413.81 476.07 519.88 565.45 612.77 661.84 712.64 763.47 813.29 862.11 909.91 956.67 1,002.39 1,047.04 1,090.62 1,133.10 1,174.47 1,214.71Term Loan 455.00 446.25 411.25 376.25 341.25 306.25 271.25 236.25 201.25 166.25 131.25 96.25 61.25 26.25 - - - - - - - - - - - -Other Liabilities 24.40 24.42 23.94 23.45 22.96 22.46 21.96 21.45 20.93 20.41 19.87 19.33Total 658.54 692.58 701.48 713.02 727.18 743.97 763.38 785.41 810.06 837.32 846.13 856.70 869.02 883.09 932.04 982.88 1,032.23 1,080.56 1,127.87 1,174.14 1,219.35 1,263.49 1,306.55 1,348.51 1,389.34 1,429.03Fixed Assets 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00 650.00Less : Depreciation 5.16 25.79 46.43 67.06 87.70 108.33 128.97 149.60 170.24 190.87 211.51 232.14 252.78 273.41 294.05 314.68 335.32 355.95 376.59 397.22 417.86 438.49 459.13 479.76 500.40 521.03Net Block 644.84 624.21 603.57 582.94 562.30 541.67 521.03 500.40 479.76 459.13 438.49 417.86 397.22 376.59 355.95 335.32 314.68 294.05 273.41 252.78 232.14 211.51 190.87 170.24 149.60 128.97Debtors 20.52 20.52 20.33 20.00 19.67 19.34 19.02 18.70 18.38 18.06 17.75 17.45 17.14 16.84 16.54 16.24 15.95 15.66 15.37 15.09 14.81 14.53 14.25 13.98 13.71 13.44Other Assets - 7.92 16.04 24.65 33.74 43.32 53.39 63.94 74.97 86.49 65.44 43.55 20.82 0.00 24.40 24.42 23.94 23.45 22.96 22.46 21.96 21.45 20.93 20.41 19.87 19.33Bank Account (6.82) 39.94 61.54 85.44 111.47 139.64 169.94 202.38 236.94 273.63 324.44 377.85 433.84 489.66 535.14 606.90 677.66 747.40 816.12 883.80 950.43 1,016.00 1,080.49 1,143.88 1,206.15 1,267.29Total 658.54 692.58 701.48 713.02 727.18 743.97 763.38 785.41 810.06 837.32 846.13 856.70 869.02 883.09 932.04 982.88 1,032.23 1,080.56 1,127.87 1,174.14 1,219.35 1,263.49 1,306.55 1,348.51 1,389.34 1,429.03Cash Flow Statement Rs, MnParticulars 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22 2022-23 2023-24 2024-25 2025-26 2026-27 2027-28 2028-29 2029-30 2030-31 2031-32 2032-33 2033-34 2034-35 2035-36 2036-37Realisations 9.32 119.36 118.35 117.32 116.14 114.98 113.83 112.69 111.57 110.45 109.35 108.25 107.17 106.10 105.04 103.99 102.95 101.92 100.90 99.89 98.89 97.90 96.92 95.95 95.00 94.05Total Inflow 9.32 119.36 118.35 117.32 116.14 114.98 113.83 112.69 111.57 110.45 109.35 108.25 107.17 106.10 105.04 103.99 102.95 101.92 100.90 99.89 98.89 97.90 96.92 95.95 95.00 94.05 O&M Expenses 0.87 3.46 3.66 3.87 4.09 4.33 4.58 4.84 5.11 5.41 5.72 6.04 6.39 6.75 7.14 7.55 7.98 8.44 8.92 9.43 9.97 10.54 11.14 11.78 12.45 13.16 Employee Cost 0.03 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.32 0.34 0.35 Admin Cost 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 Interest on Longterm Debt 13.30 52.33 49.81 45.78 41.76 37.73 33.71 29.68 25.66 21.63 17.61 13.58 9.56 5.53 1.51 - - - - - - - - - - - Loan Repayment - 8.75 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 26.25 - - - - - - - - - - - Income Tax 1.94 7.92 8.12 8.61 9.09 9.58 10.07 10.55 11.03 11.52 - - - 2.75 24.40 24.42 23.94 23.45 22.96 22.46 21.96 21.45 20.93 20.41 19.87 19.33 Total Outflow 16.14 72.60 96.75 93.42 90.11 86.81 83.53 80.26 77.00 73.76 58.54 54.85 51.18 50.28 59.56 32.23 32.19 32.18 32.18 32.21 32.26 32.34 32.44 32.56 32.72 32.91 Net Cash Flow (6.82) 46.76 21.61 23.89 26.03 28.17 30.30 32.44 34.57 36.69 50.81 53.41 55.99 55.82 45.48 71.76 70.76 69.74 68.72 67.68 66.63 65.57 64.49 63.39 62.27 61.14 85
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra PradeshProject IRR and Equity IRR Rs. Mn Returns: Cost 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22 2022-23 2023-24 2024-25 2025-26 2026-27 2027-28 2028-29 2029-30 2030-31 2031-32 2032-33 2033-34 2034-35 2035-36 2036-37Project IRROutflow: (650.00)Inflow: PAT 8.54 42.79 43.91 46.53 49.16 51.79 54.41 57.03 59.65 62.26 43.82 45.57 47.32 49.06 50.80 50.83 49.83 48.82 47.80 46.76 45.72 44.65 43.58 40.2442.48 41.37 Depreciation 5.16 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.6320.63 20.63 Interest 13.30 52.33 49.81 45.78 41.76 37.73 33.71 29.68 25.66 21.63 17.61 13.58 9.56 5.53 1.51 - - - - - - - - - - - Salvage Value 134.13Total (650.00) 27.00 115.75 114.35 112.95 111.56 110.16 108.75 107.35 105.94 104.53 82.06 79.79 77.52 75.23 72.94 71.46 70.46 69.45 68.43 67.40 66.35 65.29 64.21 63.12 62.00 195.00Project IRR 13.63%Equity IRROutflow: (195.00)Inflow: PAT 8.54 42.79 43.91 46.53 49.16 51.79 54.41 57.03 59.65 62.26 43.82 45.57 47.32 49.06 50.80 50.83 49.83 48.82 47.80 46.76 45.72 44.65 43.58 40.2442.48 41.37 Depreciation 5.16 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.6320.63 20.63 Loan Repayment 0.00 8.75 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 26.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Salvage Value 134.13Total (195.00) 13.70 54.67 29.54 32.17 34.80 37.42 40.05 42.67 45.28 47.89 29.45 31.21 32.96 34.70 45.18 71.46 70.46 69.45 68.43 67.40 66.35 65.29 64.21 63.12 62.00 195.00Equity IRR 18.89% 86
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra PradeshWorking Capital Rs Mn Years 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14Month Ended Jan Feb Mar April May June Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar April May June Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb MarRealisations - - 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 16.82 9.32 9.32 9.23 9.23 9.23 9.23 9.23 9.23 9.23 9.23 9.23 16.65Total Inflow - - 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 9.32 16.82 9.32 9.32 9.23 9.23 9.23 9.23 9.23 9.23 9.23 9.23 9.23 16.65O&M Expenses 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31Employee Cost 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01Admin Cost 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Interest on Longterm Debt - - 13.30 - - 13.08 - - 13.08 - - 13.08 - - 13.08 - - 12.83 - - 12.58 - - 12.33 - - 12.08Loan Repayment - - - - - - - - - - - 8.75 - - 8.75 - - 8.75 - - 8.75 - - 8.75Income Tax 1.94 7.92 8.12Total Outflow 0.30 0.30 15.54 0.30 0.30 13.38 0.30 0.30 13.38 0.30 0.30 13.38 0.30 0.30 30.05 0.32 0.32 21.90 0.32 0.32 21.65 0.32 0.32 21.39 0.32 0.32 21.14Working Capital Requirement 0.30 0.30 6.22 (9.02) (9.02) 4.06 (9.02) (9.02) 4.06 (9.02) (9.02) 4.06 (9.02) (9.02) 13.23 (9.00) (9.00) 12.67 (8.91) (8.91) 12.42 (8.91) (8.91) 12.17 (8.91) (8.91) 4.49Cumulative WorkingCapital Requirement 0.30 0.60 6.82 (2.20) (11.22) (7.16) (16.18) (25.20) (21.14) (30.16) (39.19) (35.12) (44.15) (53.17) (39.94) (48.94) (57.94) (45.28) (54.19) (63.10) (50.68) (59.59) (68.50) (56.34) (65.25) (74.16) (69.66) 87
    • Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table -5: Project Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) Project Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) Rs Mn. Details 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22 2022-23 2023-24 2024-25 2025-26 2026-27A - SERVICENet Profit after Tax 8.54 42.79 43.91 46.53 49.16 51.79 54.41 57.03 59.65 62.26 43.82 45.57 47.32 49.06 50.80 50.83Depreciation 5.16 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63 20.63Interest on term Loan 13.30 52.33 49.81 45.78 41.76 37.73 33.71 29.68 25.66 21.63 17.61 13.58 9.56 5.53 1.51 -TOTAL - A 27.00 115.75 114.35 112.95 111.56 110.16 108.75 107.35 105.94 104.53 82.06 79.79 77.52 75.23 72.94 71.46B - DEBTInstallment on Term Loan - 8.75 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 35.00 26.25 -Interest on Term Loan 13.30 52.33 49.81 45.78 41.76 37.73 33.71 29.68 25.66 21.63 17.61 13.58 9.56 5.53 1.51 -TOTAL - B 13.30 61.08 84.81 80.78 76.76 72.73 68.71 64.68 60.66 56.63 52.61 48.58 44.56 40.53 27.76 -DSCR 2.03 1.90 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.51 1.58 1.66 1.75 1.85 1.56 1.64 1.74 1.86 2.63 -Min DSCR 1.35Avg DSCR 1.65 88