Open Data & Social Media: Recent Trends in e-Government


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Presented at "International Symposium on ICT Development" in Indonesia, Lombok , July 4-5, 2012 .
Presented by Abiyot Bayou Tehone

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Open Data & Social Media: Recent Trends in e-Government

  1. 1. 2012 International Symposium on ICT Development in Indonesia, Lombok , July 4-5, 2012 Open Data & Social Media: Recent Trends in e-Government By Abiyot Bayou (PhD Candidate) ( & Hangjung, Zo (Prof.) Global IT Technology Program Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
  2. 2. Content• Back Ground• Open Government & Open Data• Open Government Data (OGD)• Benefits of OGD• Conceptual Model• Trends in OGD• Social Media in Government• Open Data & Social media: Conclusion• Some Research Issues 2
  3. 3. Methodology• Desktop Research• Data Sources – UN 2012 e-Government Survey – Deloitte Analytics Research Document, 2011 – Pew Research, 2010 – US government Digital Government Strategy, May 2012 – Other recent literatures and websites• Objectives – Describing Open Data & Social Networking as current trends in e-government 3
  4. 4. Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and AgenciesMy Administration is committed to creating an unprecedented level of openness inGovernment…….I direct the Chief Technology Officer,…….., to coordinate thedevelopment ……, within 120 days, of recommendations for an Open GovernmentDirectiveBARACK OBAMA• Open Government Directive. – Government should be – Transparent: with information about agency operations and decisions available to the public online. How to achieve ? – participatory, tapping the collective expertise of the public in government decision-making processes. – collaborative, using technology to share and cooperate with other agencies, businesses and nonprofits, and the public at large.
  5. 5. • The Digital Government Strategy – Enable the people to access high-quality digital government information and services anywhere, anytime, on any device. – Unlock the power of government data to spur innovation across the Nation and improve the quality of services for the people. • Ensure that as the government adjusts to this new digital world, seize the opportunity to procure and manage devices, applications, and data in smart, secure and affordable ways.
  6. 6. L o o k i n g f o r g o v e r n me• “Government as a platform”, n t d a t a (P e w – Citizens can use open government data to Re s e a r c h , build their own tools and collaborate 2010) • directly in the process of governing Ci t i z e n s a r e (Tim O’Reilly ) g o i n g o n l i n e – For many good government t o s e e h o w advocates, providing citizens with f e d e r a l s t i mu l u s access to vast stores of previously- mo n e y i s b e i n g unavailable government data s p e n t a t Re c o v e r y represents the internet’s greatest .g o v (23 p e r c e n t promise for improving the relationship o f between the government and its s u r v e y e d I n t e r n e t constituents u s e r s ), r e a d o r d o wn l o a d t h e t e x t o f l e g i s l a t
  7. 7. Open data Data that can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone -subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and sharealike • The data must be available as a whole and at noAvailability more than a reasonable reproduction cost,and Access • preferably by downloading over the internet. • must also be available in a convenient and modifiable form • The data must be provided under terms that permit Reuse and reuse and redistribution including the intermixingRedistribution with other datasets. • everyone must be able to use, reuse and redistribute – Universal • there should be no discrimination against fields ofParticipation endeavor or against persons or groups (including commercial use) 7
  8. 8. What is open Government data?Public Sector information that has been madeavailable to the public as open data • Public data – help people understand how government works and how policies are made • Already available, – “Open” brings it together in one searchable website. • Making this data easily available • Example: The White House digital government strategy – it will be easier for people to make – explicitly embraces decisions and suggestions about releasing open data in APIs to enable more government policies based on accountability, civic utility detailed information. and economic value creation.
  9. 9. Public data – collected and– Objective – On which public generated in the– Factual service run and curse of public– No personal data – policy decision service delivery are based 9
  10. 10. Open Government Data Data Open Government data data Open Government Data Government Open Open-GovernmentAdapted from: Open Knowledge Foundation 2010 10
  11. 11. Open Government Data (OGD)• Open data is the idea that certain data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.• Open government applications seek to – empower consumers, – help small businesses, – or to create value in some other positive, constructive way.• Open government data helps – improving education, – improving government, and – building tools to solve other real world problems 11
  12. 12. How it helpsHow Open Data can help you• Excerpt from VanRoekel’s (Federal Chief Information Officer of the US) interview• For example real estate. When youre buying a home, why doesnt it manifest to you the myriad of data that the government has locked up about – school quality, – healthcare quality, – infrastructure investments, – broadband, everything else that people really care about when theyre picking a place to live?• We dont do that — we do roof composition and the number of bathrooms, and thats typically the extent of it. Some services are doing a better job with other government data but largely its pretty siloed and not very specific to what Americans really care about. Source:
  13. 13. Power of OGD Park ‘s recent interview with CNN on June 14 2012 about Obamas high-tech agenda, the power of big government data … Its the notion of government taking a public good, which is this data …… making it available in electronic, computable form and having entrepreneurs and innovators of all stripes turn it into an unbelievable array of products and services that improves lives and create jobs. ………… I think the key there is that if you make data available to everybody else, …… …..We are enabling entrepreneurs and innovators across all walks of life to tap into fields of Todd Park , a federal data sitting in the vaults of government in machine-readable form. technology officer, "We are sending a strong signal to administrations today. Your data is worth more if you give it away. So start releasing it now: use this framework to join the other smart leaders who are already gaining from embracing open data. Taxpayers have already paid for this information, the least we can do is give it back to those who want to use it in new ways that help people and create jobs and growth.” (European Commission - Press release IP/11/1524 )Commission Vice President NeelieKroes 13
  14. 14. Benefit of OGD• One direct benefit of OGD is richer governmental transparency: – citizens are now able to access Opaque the raw government data behind Raw Data the previously-opaque Application applications. – Rather than being merely “read- only” users, citizens can now participate in collaborative government data access, including Read Only Collaborative access • “mashing up” distributed government data from different agencies, • discovering interesting patterns, • customizing applications, and • providing feedback to enhance the quality of published government data. Reactive ProactiveDing, Li et al (2011) “TWC LOGD: A Portal for Linked Open Government Data Ecosystems”.Journal of Web Semantics 00 (2011) 1–10
  15. 15. Benefit of OGD• Promote Innovation• Promote Democracy • linking governments with app programmers . • Gov. From Data publisher to A development Platform Transactional Open Data e-Government - Cost + Time efficient - Increased Participation - Security - Increased Transparency - Service Delivery - Increased accountability - Data is owned by - Data is a public good government Customer Citizen
  16. 16. Technical Access to OGDTechnical & Legal access to OGD should,• Ensure no dependency on the original provider of the data by using bulk download,.• Allow anyone else that obtain a copy can redistribute it.• Facilitate others to develop their own services using the data, 16
  17. 17. Conceptual Model Customers & Citizens Citizens Employees Government Private Presentation Digital Digital Layer Services Services Platform Layer System Processes and WEB APIs Open Data and Content Information LayerAdopted From: Digital Government: Building 21st Century platform to better Serve the American People, 23 may 2012
  18. 18. Formats of Data Sets• Examples: • For Humans:• CSV/XLS Comma- web pages, Documents Separated Value Lists / Excel • For Download and Manipulation spreadsheet• TXT Raw Text files • Tabular eg CSV• XML eXtensible Markup • Geographical eg KML Language • For Machines• RDF Resource Description • For Application eg. XML Framework, used for modelling • Linked Data e.g information RDF, OWL, URIs• KML/KMZ Keyhole markup language, suitable for viewing in • Over the wb eg. Web Google Earth, Google Maps or Services, API other supported applications• ESRI shapefile overlays (spatial data)• etc
  19. 19. Data Format & Re-usability Open Data + URL+ Link your data to others to create context Open format + URL to identify data Reusability Use open non proprietary standard (CSV, XML) Structured data ( Ex. MS Excel instead of Scanned image Data available on the webAdapted from : Open Data White Paper, Unleashing the potential, June 2012 (UK Government) 19
  20. 20. More Open Innovative Responsive Government Government Government Make raw public data easy to access Drive innovation by letting user Increase responsiveness by and reuse design tuning into social networks• Make Data easily accessible online • Tap the creativity of citizens • Obtain real time feedback• Make online data in accessible • Break down government silos on policy formats • Generate healthy competition • Crowd source ideas• Encourage Collaboration between • Change the culture • Communicate faster and government departments better• Inform the public• Enhance accountability • Government wide strategy and • Recognize the power of user • Systematically monitor what policy of providing open access to designed application citizens are saying about data • Design strategies for policies and services • Promoting government openness capturing the potential of • Participate in social • Encouraging Citizen participation user designed application networks and engagement • Provide a much useful data as • Update regularly social possible based on user media marketing strategy of demand the government • Let users decide which data is useful
  21. 21. In General OGD• Creates Opportunity of – Stimulating growth and innovation in the private sector – Creating the potential to improve public outcomes in nearly limitless way• By Combining – The resourcefulness of online citizens & entrepreneurs, with – The power of factual data 21
  22. 22. Trends in OGD• It is a Global movement and collaboration, Supported by – The Open Government Partnership ( Founded by Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Norway, Philippines, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States & has other 47 member states) – US Government – The World Bank (World Bank Open Data Initiatives) – ( comprehensive list of open data) – , Open Data Commons, Legal tool for open Data – Open Knowledge Foundation – Others…(Useful Open Data Rsources@ 22
  23. 23. Open data websites in government (Examples) Website Government Lunch date 1 U.S. May 2009. 2 U.K. September 2009. 3 New Zealand Nov 2009. 4 Norwegian April 2010. 5 Australian March 2011. 6 Canadian March 2011. 7 Kenyan Jul 2011. 8 Dutch Oct 2011. 9 Chilean Sept 2011. 10 Italian October 2011. 11 Spanish October 2011. 12 Uruguayan November 2011. 13 French December 2011. 14 Brazilian April 2012 wikipedia 23
  24. 24. Source:
  25. 25. Source: 2012 UN e-Government Survey 25
  26. 26. Purposes of OGD websites Country Purpose/Example0 US to make government more transparent and is committed to creating an unprecedented level of openness in Government; l strengthen Nations democracy and promote efficiency and effectiveness in Government. Democracy1 Australia in order to promote greater participation in Australia’s democracy; Encourage public access to and reuse of government data2 New Make it easier and low cost for businesses, Zealand researchers, analysts and journalists and Economic anyone with an interest in information - to growth access the data they need and which can promote economic growth3 Canada to create socio-economic opportunities and promote informed participation by the public by expanding access to federal government data Transparency4 UK to help people understand how government works and how policies are made5 Kenya Foster an innovation eco-system around Government data Innovation6 Ireland to improve access to the Irish Government data and to esablish an innovative platform that can demonstrate to government how and why they should share data 26
  27. 27. Kenyan Open Data– Makes public government data accessible to the people of Kenya.– High quality national census data, government expenditure, parliamentary proceedings and public service locations etc– The data is key to improving • transparency; • unlocking social and economic value; • and building Government 2.0 in Kenya.
  28. 28. • Kenyan OpenData
  29. 29. • What is actually available? – various datasets available, from central government departments and a number of other public sector bodies and local authorities.• one can use the data in all sorts of ways. – Public: • analyze trends over time from one policy area, or to compare how different parts of government go about their work. – Technical users : • will be able to create useful applications out of the raw data files, which can then be used by everyone.
  30. 30. Challenges• Legacy IT architecture and Data Format• Long standing Laws and Policies• Existing public sector culture – Secrecy – New type of relationship• Privacy related issues – Personal data – Anonymized data & Di-anonymization – Pseudo-namized data• Cost of Data• Un-intended consequences 30
  31. 31. Government engagement using social media• Using Social Media – Helps people be more informed about what govt is doing (82%) – Makes government agencies and officials more accessible (78%) – Just delivers the same government information in different ways (72%) – (is a waste of government money (41/52%)
  32. 32. • Social Media • Through Social – Enable two way • Government media Agencies communication in agencies use real time – Inform citizens Social media to – Promote their – Citizens can be – improve public services engaged as co- services – Seek public producer of services – Reduce costs view and feed – (EX. 66 % of US – Increase back agencies use Social transparency – Monitor media satisfaction 32
  33. 33. Trends in Social Media in Government• UN e-government Survey 2012 – Government website of 78 member state (40%) provides statements “follow us on Facebook or twitter” – 14 governments web sites (7%) provides tools to obtain raw public opinion through chat rooms or an IM features• Social Media increase citizens usage of e-Service• Foster Social inclusiveness by reducing the e-service usage divide among different socio-economic groups• Indirect effect on e-Service=> greater social media usage may increase trust and increase take up of e- service
  34. 34. Trends in Social Media in Gov. 34
  35. 35. Trends in Social Media in Gov 35
  36. 36. • Open Data & Social Media: Beyond transparency and service improvement – Create possibility to users co-produce e- Government information and services – Collaboration with government to produce services that are in the interests of citizens – Collaboratively designing services – Emergency response, recruiting volunteers
  37. 37. Some Research Issues (?)• What are the best open data strategies for Central ( and State and regional) governments?• Public participation and collaboration will be key to the success of• How can open data policies contribute to increase citizens’ collaboration and participation in government and provide an economic spur?• How to integrate Open data strategies with e- government and digital divide strategies?• How to effectively leverage the opportunities that social media provide? 37
  38. 38. The Future will be Open! Thank you terima kasih 38