Aim: What is a cell?Do Now:On your paper.Notes are in blue.COOL FACT: What is the biggest singlecell on Earth?
COOL FACT: What is the biggestsingle cell on Earth?The nerve cells in a giraffe’s legs are theLONGEST single cells- each ...
Here are those big cells:Thiomargaritanamibiensis comparedto a fruit fly!
CELLSYou have already learned thatall living things perform theeight MRS. GONER lifeprocesses.You can now add one morethin...
Cell TheoryThe foundation of modern biologyCredit for the theory is given to threescientists: Theodor Schwann, MatthiasJ...
What is Cell Theory?All living things are made up of cellsThe cell is the structural andfunctional unit of organismsAll...
COMMON CELL TRAITSA cell is the smallest unit that is capable ofperforming life functions.
Two types of cellsProkaryotic: No nucleus or othermembrane-bound organelles.Example: bacteriaEukaryotic: Has a nucleus a...
Prokaryotic Cells(proh KAYR ee yah tihk)
Eukaryotic Cells(yew KAYR ee yah tihk)
How many cells do living things have?Organisms are made of one or morecells.Unicellular organisms are made of onecell.M...
How many cells do multicellularorganisms have?Multicellular organisms can have some orMANY cells.Human bodies contain ar...
Cells Alive Activity!http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm
Wrap-Up!Turn to the chapter 3 word wall on page 95.Record at least two “new to you” words that we used in class today.
Aim: How does acell function?Do Now: Onyour paper
Cell OrganellesOur bodies maintain homeostasisthrough their organ systems.Single cells need to maintainhomeostasis too....
1. CELL MEMBRANE Outer covering, protective layeraround ALL cells For cells with cell walls,the cellmembrane is inside t...
2. NUCLEUSDirects all cellactivitiesContainsinstructions foreverything the celldoes in the formof DNAAnalogy  yourbrain!
3. NUCLEOLUSAka “little nucleus”Found in thenucleusMakes ribosomes,which makeproteins.
4. RibosomesMake proteinsVery small, can be floating in thecytoplasm or attached to the roughendoplasmic reticulum.
5. Mitochondria A cell’s “power plant” Makes ATP, which is themain molecule that the celluses for energy. Analogy  you...
6. Endoplasmic ReticulumTWO TYPES:Rough E.R.Smooth E.R.Both types of E.R.move moleculesaround the cellAnalogy  yourc...
7. Golgi ApparatusResponsible for moving molecules tothe outside of the cell!Analogy  your sweat glands!
8. LysosomeTiny pockets where molecules arebroken down or storedAnalogy  your stomach!
Only in Plants: 9. CELL WALLProvides protection and stability forthe plant cell
Only in Plants: 10. CHLOROPLASTWhere photosynthesis takes placePlants make sugars here.
Only in Plants:11. A Large, Central VacuoleFull of water- makes plants rigidWhen vegetables get soft, they havehave lost...
Cell City AnalogyComplete the worksheet on page 98 of yourworkbook as a group.
Vocabulary Game!!Choose 8 vocab words from the list:Prokaryotes EukaryotesCell membrane CytoplasmCytoskeletonNucleusRiboso...
Wrap-Up!Turn to the chapter 3 word wall on page 95.Record at least two “new to you” words that we used in class today.
Aim: How do plantsobtain nutrients?Do Now: On your paperNotes are in yellow.
PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesisWhere does the energy thatsustains all life come from?The Sun!!(Well most of it anyway...)
PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesisA process that uses light energylight energy,,carbon dioxide (COcarbon dioxide (CO22)) and wat...
internal leaf structurechloroplastsouter membraneinner membranethylakoidPlant PhotosynthesisPlant PhotosynthesisPhotosynth...
Question:Question:• Why are plants green?• Chlorophyll, the chemical that capturesthe suns energy, is green!
PlantsPlants• Plants are Autotrophs:They produce their own food.• To do this, plants need:– Energy (from the sun)– Water (...
Roots Obtain Water• Roots obtain waterusing OSMOSIS• Water is immediatelypulled up to theleaves, so the insideof the roots...
Stoma Obtain Carbon Dioxide• A Plants Stoma arelike little mouths- theybreathe in and out!• Carbon dioxide comesin using d...
ChloroplastChloroplast• OrganelleOrganelle where photosynthesisphotosynthesis takes place.GranumThylakoidStromaOuter Membr...
Chlorophyll MoleculesChlorophyll Molecules• Chlorophyll moleculesChlorophyll molecules harvest energy byharvest energy bya...
Wavelength of Light (nm)Wavelength of Light (nm)400 500 600 700Short wave Long wave(more energy) (less energy)
Absorption of ChlorophyllAbsorption of ChlorophyllwavelengthwavelengthAbsorptionviolet blue green yellow orange red
Wrap-Up!Turn to the chapter 3 word wall on page 95.Record at least two “new to you” words that we used in class today.
Aim: How are cellularrespiration andphotosynthesis tomorrow?Do Now: On your paperNotes are in yellow
Cellular RespirationTwo Types:1. Anaerobic (Without Oxygen)– A. The Phosphagen System– B. Lactic Acid Fermentation– C. Alc...
Anaerobic RespirationThe Phosphagen system…A compound calledcreatine phosphate canmake ATP (energy)very rapidly.Allows mus...
Anaerobic RespirationLactic Acid Fermentationcauses...A BURNING SENSATIONIN YOUR MUSCLES.(What trainers are talkingabout w...
Anaerobic RespirationAlcohol Fermentation isused by yeastHappens when yeastcannot get oxygenHumans use it to makebread and...
Aerobic Cellular Respiration• Aerobic cellular respiration releasesenergy by breaking down glucoseusing oxygen.6O2 + C6H12...
Where Does AerobicRespiration Happen?• The cell organelle responsible formaking energy• Nicknamed the “powerhouse” of thec...
Compare Photosynthesis & Respiration• Photosynthesis:• Stores energy from the Sun• 6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2• Respiratio...
What do you notice?• Photosynthesis:• Respiration:Carbon dioxide + water = sugar + oxygenSugar + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide +...
Photosynthesis andRespiration areOPPOSITEREACTIONS!!
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
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  • Figure: 06-01 Title: An overview of photosynthetic structures. Caption: An overview of photosynthetic structures.
  • Biology a chapter three powerpoint

    1. 1. Aim: What is a cell?Do Now:On your paper.Notes are in blue.COOL FACT: What is the biggest singlecell on Earth?
    2. 2. COOL FACT: What is the biggestsingle cell on Earth?The nerve cells in a giraffe’s legs are theLONGEST single cells- each one is 2 meters (6½ feet) long!Eggs are single cells- so an ostrich egg is onehuge cell!The algae Caulerpa looks like a multicellularplant- but is actually only a single cell- and it cangrow to be a meter long (3 ¼ feet)!Thiomargarita namibiensis is the largestbacteria on Earth- it’s 0.75 mm in diameter- sobig you can see it with only your eye!!
    3. 3. Here are those big cells:Thiomargaritanamibiensis comparedto a fruit fly!
    4. 4. CELLSYou have already learned thatall living things perform theeight MRS. GONER lifeprocesses.You can now add one morething that all living things do.ALL LIVING THINGS AREMADE UP OF CELLS.
    5. 5. Cell TheoryThe foundation of modern biologyCredit for the theory is given to threescientists: Theodor Schwann, MatthiasJakob Schleiden, and Rudolf Virchow.
    6. 6. What is Cell Theory?All living things are made up of cellsThe cell is the structural andfunctional unit of organismsAll cells come from pre-existingcells.Today we can add:All cells contain DNA.
    7. 7. COMMON CELL TRAITSA cell is the smallest unit that is capable ofperforming life functions.
    8. 8. Two types of cellsProkaryotic: No nucleus or othermembrane-bound organelles.Example: bacteriaEukaryotic: Has a nucleus andother membrane-boundorganelles. Example: plants,fungi, and animals.
    9. 9. Prokaryotic Cells(proh KAYR ee yah tihk)
    10. 10. Eukaryotic Cells(yew KAYR ee yah tihk)
    11. 11. How many cells do living things have?Organisms are made of one or morecells.Unicellular organisms are made of onecell.Multicellular organisms are made of manycells.Prokaryotes are almost alwaysunicellular.Eukaryotes can be either unicellular ormulticellular.
    12. 12. How many cells do multicellularorganisms have?Multicellular organisms can have some orMANY cells.Human bodies contain around 50 trillionhuman cells.Human bodies contain around 500 trillionBACTERIA cellsYou are ten times more bacteria than “you”inside of YOU!
    13. 13. Cells Alive Activity!http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm
    14. 14. Wrap-Up!Turn to the chapter 3 word wall on page 95.Record at least two “new to you” words that we used in class today.
    15. 15. Aim: How does acell function?Do Now: Onyour paper
    16. 16. Cell OrganellesOur bodies maintain homeostasisthrough their organ systems.Single cells need to maintainhomeostasis too.Cells use organelles to maintainhomeostasis.Organelles are cell structures thatdo specific jobs.
    17. 17. 1. CELL MEMBRANE Outer covering, protective layeraround ALL cells For cells with cell walls,the cellmembrane is inside the cell wall Allows food, oxygen, & water into the cell & wasteproducts out of the cell. Analogy  Like your skin!
    18. 18. 2. NUCLEUSDirects all cellactivitiesContainsinstructions foreverything the celldoes in the formof DNAAnalogy  yourbrain!
    19. 19. 3. NUCLEOLUSAka “little nucleus”Found in thenucleusMakes ribosomes,which makeproteins.
    20. 20. 4. RibosomesMake proteinsVery small, can be floating in thecytoplasm or attached to the roughendoplasmic reticulum.
    21. 21. 5. Mitochondria A cell’s “power plant” Makes ATP, which is themain molecule that the celluses for energy. Analogy  your muscles!
    22. 22. 6. Endoplasmic ReticulumTWO TYPES:Rough E.R.Smooth E.R.Both types of E.R.move moleculesaround the cellAnalogy  yourcirculatory system
    23. 23. 7. Golgi ApparatusResponsible for moving molecules tothe outside of the cell!Analogy  your sweat glands!
    24. 24. 8. LysosomeTiny pockets where molecules arebroken down or storedAnalogy  your stomach!
    25. 25. Only in Plants: 9. CELL WALLProvides protection and stability forthe plant cell
    26. 26. Only in Plants: 10. CHLOROPLASTWhere photosynthesis takes placePlants make sugars here.
    27. 27. Only in Plants:11. A Large, Central VacuoleFull of water- makes plants rigidWhen vegetables get soft, they havehave lost water from their vacuoles.
    28. 28. Cell City AnalogyComplete the worksheet on page 98 of yourworkbook as a group.
    29. 29. Vocabulary Game!!Choose 8 vocab words from the list:Prokaryotes EukaryotesCell membrane CytoplasmCytoskeletonNucleusRibosomes Golgi ApparatusMitochondriaLysosomeEndoplasmic ReticulumCell Wall ChloroplastVacuole
    30. 30. Wrap-Up!Turn to the chapter 3 word wall on page 95.Record at least two “new to you” words that we used in class today.
    31. 31. Aim: How do plantsobtain nutrients?Do Now: On your paperNotes are in yellow.
    32. 32. PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesisWhere does the energy thatsustains all life come from?The Sun!!(Well most of it anyway...)
    33. 33. PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesisA process that uses light energylight energy,,carbon dioxide (COcarbon dioxide (CO22)) and waterwater(H(H22O)O) to produce glucoseglucose..6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2glucoseglucoseSUNLight energyLight energy
    34. 34. internal leaf structurechloroplastsouter membraneinner membranethylakoidPlant PhotosynthesisPlant PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesistakes place in thechloroplast
    35. 35. Question:Question:• Why are plants green?• Chlorophyll, the chemical that capturesthe suns energy, is green!
    36. 36. PlantsPlants• Plants are Autotrophs:They produce their own food.• To do this, plants need:– Energy (from the sun)– Water (from their ROOTS)– Carbon Dioxide (from their STOMA)Stoma
    37. 37. Roots Obtain Water• Roots obtain waterusing OSMOSIS• Water is immediatelypulled up to theleaves, so the insideof the roots isconstantlyhypertonic.
    38. 38. Stoma Obtain Carbon Dioxide• A Plants Stoma arelike little mouths- theybreathe in and out!• Carbon dioxide comesin using diffusion• Oxygen exits usingdiffusion• To prevent waterloss, stoma closeduring droughts!
    39. 39. ChloroplastChloroplast• OrganelleOrganelle where photosynthesisphotosynthesis takes place.GranumThylakoidStromaOuter MembraneInner Membrane
    40. 40. Chlorophyll MoleculesChlorophyll Molecules• Chlorophyll moleculesChlorophyll molecules harvest energy byharvest energy byabsorbingabsorbing certain lightcertain light wavelengthswavelengths((blue-420 nmblue-420 nm andand red-660 nmred-660 nm arearemost important).most important).• PlantsPlants areare greengreen because thebecause the greengreenwavelengthwavelength isis reflectedreflected,, not absorbednot absorbed..• In other words, plantsIn other words, plants DONT USEDONT USEgreen light!green light!
    41. 41. Wavelength of Light (nm)Wavelength of Light (nm)400 500 600 700Short wave Long wave(more energy) (less energy)
    42. 42. Absorption of ChlorophyllAbsorption of ChlorophyllwavelengthwavelengthAbsorptionviolet blue green yellow orange red
    43. 43. Wrap-Up!Turn to the chapter 3 word wall on page 95.Record at least two “new to you” words that we used in class today.
    44. 44. Aim: How are cellularrespiration andphotosynthesis tomorrow?Do Now: On your paperNotes are in yellow
    45. 45. Cellular RespirationTwo Types:1. Anaerobic (Without Oxygen)– A. The Phosphagen System– B. Lactic Acid Fermentation– C. Alcohol Fermentation2. Aerobic (With Oxygen)
    46. 46. Anaerobic RespirationThe Phosphagen system…A compound calledcreatine phosphate canmake ATP (energy)very rapidly.Allows muscles to workvery hard, but only fora very short time.Lasts for about 8-10seconds.
    47. 47. Anaerobic RespirationLactic Acid Fermentationcauses...A BURNING SENSATIONIN YOUR MUSCLES.(What trainers are talkingabout when they say,“FEEL THE BURN!!”)This happens when yourmuscles run out ofoxygen.
    48. 48. Anaerobic RespirationAlcohol Fermentation isused by yeastHappens when yeastcannot get oxygenHumans use it to makebread and beer
    49. 49. Aerobic Cellular Respiration• Aerobic cellular respiration releasesenergy by breaking down glucoseusing oxygen.6O2 + C6H12O6  6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPoxygen+glucosecarbon dioxide+water+energy
    50. 50. Where Does AerobicRespiration Happen?• The cell organelle responsible formaking energy• Nicknamed the “powerhouse” of thecell.• Mitochondria
    51. 51. Compare Photosynthesis & Respiration• Photosynthesis:• Stores energy from the Sun• 6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2• Respiration:• 6O2 + C6H12O6  6CO2 + 6H2O• Releases Energy from Sugars (ATP)• What do you notice?
    52. 52. What do you notice?• Photosynthesis:• Respiration:Carbon dioxide + water = sugar + oxygenSugar + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + water
    53. 53. Photosynthesis andRespiration areOPPOSITEREACTIONS!!

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