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Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
Biology a chapter three powerpoint
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Biology a chapter three powerpoint

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  • Figure: 06-01 Title: An overview of photosynthetic structures. Caption: An overview of photosynthetic structures.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Aim: What is a cell?Do Now:On your paper.Notes are in blue.COOL FACT: What is the biggest singlecell on Earth?
    • 2. COOL FACT: What is the biggestsingle cell on Earth?The nerve cells in a giraffe’s legs are theLONGEST single cells- each one is 2 meters (6½ feet) long!Eggs are single cells- so an ostrich egg is onehuge cell!The algae Caulerpa looks like a multicellularplant- but is actually only a single cell- and it cangrow to be a meter long (3 ¼ feet)!Thiomargarita namibiensis is the largestbacteria on Earth- it’s 0.75 mm in diameter- sobig you can see it with only your eye!!
    • 3. Here are those big cells:Thiomargaritanamibiensis comparedto a fruit fly!
    • 4. CELLSYou have already learned thatall living things perform theeight MRS. GONER lifeprocesses.You can now add one morething that all living things do.ALL LIVING THINGS AREMADE UP OF CELLS.
    • 5. Cell TheoryThe foundation of modern biologyCredit for the theory is given to threescientists: Theodor Schwann, MatthiasJakob Schleiden, and Rudolf Virchow.
    • 6. What is Cell Theory?All living things are made up of cellsThe cell is the structural andfunctional unit of organismsAll cells come from pre-existingcells.Today we can add:All cells contain DNA.
    • 7. COMMON CELL TRAITSA cell is the smallest unit that is capable ofperforming life functions.
    • 8. Two types of cellsProkaryotic: No nucleus or othermembrane-bound organelles.Example: bacteriaEukaryotic: Has a nucleus andother membrane-boundorganelles. Example: plants,fungi, and animals.
    • 9. Prokaryotic Cells(proh KAYR ee yah tihk)
    • 10. Eukaryotic Cells(yew KAYR ee yah tihk)
    • 11. How many cells do living things have?Organisms are made of one or morecells.Unicellular organisms are made of onecell.Multicellular organisms are made of manycells.Prokaryotes are almost alwaysunicellular.Eukaryotes can be either unicellular ormulticellular.
    • 12. How many cells do multicellularorganisms have?Multicellular organisms can have some orMANY cells.Human bodies contain around 50 trillionhuman cells.Human bodies contain around 500 trillionBACTERIA cellsYou are ten times more bacteria than “you”inside of YOU!
    • 13. Cells Alive Activity!http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm
    • 14. Wrap-Up!Turn to the chapter 3 word wall on page 95.Record at least two “new to you” words that we used in class today.
    • 15. Aim: How does acell function?Do Now: Onyour paper
    • 16. Cell OrganellesOur bodies maintain homeostasisthrough their organ systems.Single cells need to maintainhomeostasis too.Cells use organelles to maintainhomeostasis.Organelles are cell structures thatdo specific jobs.
    • 17. 1. CELL MEMBRANE Outer covering, protective layeraround ALL cells For cells with cell walls,the cellmembrane is inside the cell wall Allows food, oxygen, & water into the cell & wasteproducts out of the cell. Analogy  Like your skin!
    • 18. 2. NUCLEUSDirects all cellactivitiesContainsinstructions foreverything the celldoes in the formof DNAAnalogy  yourbrain!
    • 19. 3. NUCLEOLUSAka “little nucleus”Found in thenucleusMakes ribosomes,which makeproteins.
    • 20. 4. RibosomesMake proteinsVery small, can be floating in thecytoplasm or attached to the roughendoplasmic reticulum.
    • 21. 5. Mitochondria A cell’s “power plant” Makes ATP, which is themain molecule that the celluses for energy. Analogy  your muscles!
    • 22. 6. Endoplasmic ReticulumTWO TYPES:Rough E.R.Smooth E.R.Both types of E.R.move moleculesaround the cellAnalogy  yourcirculatory system
    • 23. 7. Golgi ApparatusResponsible for moving molecules tothe outside of the cell!Analogy  your sweat glands!
    • 24. 8. LysosomeTiny pockets where molecules arebroken down or storedAnalogy  your stomach!
    • 25. Only in Plants: 9. CELL WALLProvides protection and stability forthe plant cell
    • 26. Only in Plants: 10. CHLOROPLASTWhere photosynthesis takes placePlants make sugars here.
    • 27. Only in Plants:11. A Large, Central VacuoleFull of water- makes plants rigidWhen vegetables get soft, they havehave lost water from their vacuoles.
    • 28. Cell City AnalogyComplete the worksheet on page 98 of yourworkbook as a group.
    • 29. Vocabulary Game!!Choose 8 vocab words from the list:Prokaryotes EukaryotesCell membrane CytoplasmCytoskeletonNucleusRibosomes Golgi ApparatusMitochondriaLysosomeEndoplasmic ReticulumCell Wall ChloroplastVacuole
    • 30. Wrap-Up!Turn to the chapter 3 word wall on page 95.Record at least two “new to you” words that we used in class today.
    • 31. Aim: How do plantsobtain nutrients?Do Now: On your paperNotes are in yellow.
    • 32. PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesisWhere does the energy thatsustains all life come from?The Sun!!(Well most of it anyway...)
    • 33. PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesisA process that uses light energylight energy,,carbon dioxide (COcarbon dioxide (CO22)) and waterwater(H(H22O)O) to produce glucoseglucose..6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2glucoseglucoseSUNLight energyLight energy
    • 34. internal leaf structurechloroplastsouter membraneinner membranethylakoidPlant PhotosynthesisPlant PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesistakes place in thechloroplast
    • 35. Question:Question:• Why are plants green?• Chlorophyll, the chemical that capturesthe suns energy, is green!
    • 36. PlantsPlants• Plants are Autotrophs:They produce their own food.• To do this, plants need:– Energy (from the sun)– Water (from their ROOTS)– Carbon Dioxide (from their STOMA)Stoma
    • 37. Roots Obtain Water• Roots obtain waterusing OSMOSIS• Water is immediatelypulled up to theleaves, so the insideof the roots isconstantlyhypertonic.
    • 38. Stoma Obtain Carbon Dioxide• A Plants Stoma arelike little mouths- theybreathe in and out!• Carbon dioxide comesin using diffusion• Oxygen exits usingdiffusion• To prevent waterloss, stoma closeduring droughts!
    • 39. ChloroplastChloroplast• OrganelleOrganelle where photosynthesisphotosynthesis takes place.GranumThylakoidStromaOuter MembraneInner Membrane
    • 40. Chlorophyll MoleculesChlorophyll Molecules• Chlorophyll moleculesChlorophyll molecules harvest energy byharvest energy byabsorbingabsorbing certain lightcertain light wavelengthswavelengths((blue-420 nmblue-420 nm andand red-660 nmred-660 nm arearemost important).most important).• PlantsPlants areare greengreen because thebecause the greengreenwavelengthwavelength isis reflectedreflected,, not absorbednot absorbed..• In other words, plantsIn other words, plants DONT USEDONT USEgreen light!green light!
    • 41. Wavelength of Light (nm)Wavelength of Light (nm)400 500 600 700Short wave Long wave(more energy) (less energy)
    • 42. Absorption of ChlorophyllAbsorption of ChlorophyllwavelengthwavelengthAbsorptionviolet blue green yellow orange red
    • 43. Wrap-Up!Turn to the chapter 3 word wall on page 95.Record at least two “new to you” words that we used in class today.
    • 44. Aim: How are cellularrespiration andphotosynthesis tomorrow?Do Now: On your paperNotes are in yellow
    • 45. Cellular RespirationTwo Types:1. Anaerobic (Without Oxygen)– A. The Phosphagen System– B. Lactic Acid Fermentation– C. Alcohol Fermentation2. Aerobic (With Oxygen)
    • 46. Anaerobic RespirationThe Phosphagen system…A compound calledcreatine phosphate canmake ATP (energy)very rapidly.Allows muscles to workvery hard, but only fora very short time.Lasts for about 8-10seconds.
    • 47. Anaerobic RespirationLactic Acid Fermentationcauses...A BURNING SENSATIONIN YOUR MUSCLES.(What trainers are talkingabout when they say,“FEEL THE BURN!!”)This happens when yourmuscles run out ofoxygen.
    • 48. Anaerobic RespirationAlcohol Fermentation isused by yeastHappens when yeastcannot get oxygenHumans use it to makebread and beer
    • 49. Aerobic Cellular Respiration• Aerobic cellular respiration releasesenergy by breaking down glucoseusing oxygen.6O2 + C6H12O6  6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPoxygen+glucosecarbon dioxide+water+energy
    • 50. Where Does AerobicRespiration Happen?• The cell organelle responsible formaking energy• Nicknamed the “powerhouse” of thecell.• Mitochondria
    • 51. Compare Photosynthesis & Respiration• Photosynthesis:• Stores energy from the Sun• 6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2• Respiration:• 6O2 + C6H12O6  6CO2 + 6H2O• Releases Energy from Sugars (ATP)• What do you notice?
    • 52. What do you notice?• Photosynthesis:• Respiration:Carbon dioxide + water = sugar + oxygenSugar + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + water
    • 53. Photosynthesis andRespiration areOPPOSITEREACTIONS!!

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