Figure: 06-01 Title: An overview of photosynthetic structures. Caption: An overview of photosynthetic structures.
1. Aim: What is a cell?Do Now:On your paper.Notes are in blue.COOL FACT: What is the biggest singlecell on Earth?
2. COOL FACT: What is the biggestsingle cell on Earth?The nerve cells in a giraffe’s legs are theLONGEST single cells- each one is 2 meters (6½ feet) long!Eggs are single cells- so an ostrich egg is onehuge cell!The algae Caulerpa looks like a multicellularplant- but is actually only a single cell- and it cangrow to be a meter long (3 ¼ feet)!Thiomargarita namibiensis is the largestbacteria on Earth- it’s 0.75 mm in diameter- sobig you can see it with only your eye!!
3. Here are those big cells:Thiomargaritanamibiensis comparedto a fruit fly!
4. CELLSYou have already learned thatall living things perform theeight MRS. GONER lifeprocesses.You can now add one morething that all living things do.ALL LIVING THINGS AREMADE UP OF CELLS.
5. Cell TheoryThe foundation of modern biologyCredit for the theory is given to threescientists: Theodor Schwann, MatthiasJakob Schleiden, and Rudolf Virchow.
6. What is Cell Theory?All living things are made up of cellsThe cell is the structural andfunctional unit of organismsAll cells come from pre-existingcells.Today we can add:All cells contain DNA.
7. COMMON CELL TRAITSA cell is the smallest unit that is capable ofperforming life functions.
8. Two types of cellsProkaryotic: No nucleus or othermembrane-bound organelles.Example: bacteriaEukaryotic: Has a nucleus andother membrane-boundorganelles. Example: plants,fungi, and animals.
9. Prokaryotic Cells(proh KAYR ee yah tihk)
10. Eukaryotic Cells(yew KAYR ee yah tihk)
11. How many cells do living things have?Organisms are made of one or morecells.Unicellular organisms are made of onecell.Multicellular organisms are made of manycells.Prokaryotes are almost alwaysunicellular.Eukaryotes can be either unicellular ormulticellular.
12. How many cells do multicellularorganisms have?Multicellular organisms can have some orMANY cells.Human bodies contain around 50 trillionhuman cells.Human bodies contain around 500 trillionBACTERIA cellsYou are ten times more bacteria than “you”inside of YOU!
14. Wrap-Up!Turn to the chapter 3 word wall on page 95.Record at least two “new to you” words that we used in class today.
15. Aim: How does acell function?Do Now: Onyour paper
16. Cell OrganellesOur bodies maintain homeostasisthrough their organ systems.Single cells need to maintainhomeostasis too.Cells use organelles to maintainhomeostasis.Organelles are cell structures thatdo specific jobs.
17. 1. CELL MEMBRANE Outer covering, protective layeraround ALL cells For cells with cell walls,the cellmembrane is inside the cell wall Allows food, oxygen, & water into the cell & wasteproducts out of the cell. Analogy Like your skin!
18. 2. NUCLEUSDirects all cellactivitiesContainsinstructions foreverything the celldoes in the formof DNAAnalogy yourbrain!
19. 3. NUCLEOLUSAka “little nucleus”Found in thenucleusMakes ribosomes,which makeproteins.
20. 4. RibosomesMake proteinsVery small, can be floating in thecytoplasm or attached to the roughendoplasmic reticulum.
21. 5. Mitochondria A cell’s “power plant” Makes ATP, which is themain molecule that the celluses for energy. Analogy your muscles!
22. 6. Endoplasmic ReticulumTWO TYPES:Rough E.R.Smooth E.R.Both types of E.R.move moleculesaround the cellAnalogy yourcirculatory system
23. 7. Golgi ApparatusResponsible for moving molecules tothe outside of the cell!Analogy your sweat glands!
24. 8. LysosomeTiny pockets where molecules arebroken down or storedAnalogy your stomach!
25. Only in Plants: 9. CELL WALLProvides protection and stability forthe plant cell
26. Only in Plants: 10. CHLOROPLASTWhere photosynthesis takes placePlants make sugars here.
27. Only in Plants:11. A Large, Central VacuoleFull of water- makes plants rigidWhen vegetables get soft, they havehave lost water from their vacuoles.
28. Cell City AnalogyComplete the worksheet on page 98 of yourworkbook as a group.
29. Vocabulary Game!!Choose 8 vocab words from the list:Prokaryotes EukaryotesCell membrane CytoplasmCytoskeletonNucleusRibosomes Golgi ApparatusMitochondriaLysosomeEndoplasmic ReticulumCell Wall ChloroplastVacuole
30. Wrap-Up!Turn to the chapter 3 word wall on page 95.Record at least two “new to you” words that we used in class today.
31. Aim: How do plantsobtain nutrients?Do Now: On your paperNotes are in yellow.
32. PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesisWhere does the energy thatsustains all life come from?The Sun!!(Well most of it anyway...)
33. PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesisA process that uses light energylight energy,,carbon dioxide (COcarbon dioxide (CO22)) and waterwater(H(H22O)O) to produce glucoseglucose..6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2glucoseglucoseSUNLight energyLight energy
34. internal leaf structurechloroplastsouter membraneinner membranethylakoidPlant PhotosynthesisPlant PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesistakes place in thechloroplast
35. Question:Question:• Why are plants green?• Chlorophyll, the chemical that capturesthe suns energy, is green!
36. PlantsPlants• Plants are Autotrophs:They produce their own food.• To do this, plants need:– Energy (from the sun)– Water (from their ROOTS)– Carbon Dioxide (from their STOMA)Stoma
37. Roots Obtain Water• Roots obtain waterusing OSMOSIS• Water is immediatelypulled up to theleaves, so the insideof the roots isconstantlyhypertonic.
38. Stoma Obtain Carbon Dioxide• A Plants Stoma arelike little mouths- theybreathe in and out!• Carbon dioxide comesin using diffusion• Oxygen exits usingdiffusion• To prevent waterloss, stoma closeduring droughts!
39. ChloroplastChloroplast• OrganelleOrganelle where photosynthesisphotosynthesis takes place.GranumThylakoidStromaOuter MembraneInner Membrane
40. Chlorophyll MoleculesChlorophyll Molecules• Chlorophyll moleculesChlorophyll molecules harvest energy byharvest energy byabsorbingabsorbing certain lightcertain light wavelengthswavelengths((blue-420 nmblue-420 nm andand red-660 nmred-660 nm arearemost important).most important).• PlantsPlants areare greengreen because thebecause the greengreenwavelengthwavelength isis reflectedreflected,, not absorbednot absorbed..• In other words, plantsIn other words, plants DONT USEDONT USEgreen light!green light!
41. Wavelength of Light (nm)Wavelength of Light (nm)400 500 600 700Short wave Long wave(more energy) (less energy)
42. Absorption of ChlorophyllAbsorption of ChlorophyllwavelengthwavelengthAbsorptionviolet blue green yellow orange red
43. Wrap-Up!Turn to the chapter 3 word wall on page 95.Record at least two “new to you” words that we used in class today.
44. Aim: How are cellularrespiration andphotosynthesis tomorrow?Do Now: On your paperNotes are in yellow
45. Cellular RespirationTwo Types:1. Anaerobic (Without Oxygen)– A. The Phosphagen System– B. Lactic Acid Fermentation– C. Alcohol Fermentation2. Aerobic (With Oxygen)
46. Anaerobic RespirationThe Phosphagen system…A compound calledcreatine phosphate canmake ATP (energy)very rapidly.Allows muscles to workvery hard, but only fora very short time.Lasts for about 8-10seconds.
47. Anaerobic RespirationLactic Acid Fermentationcauses...A BURNING SENSATIONIN YOUR MUSCLES.(What trainers are talkingabout when they say,“FEEL THE BURN!!”)This happens when yourmuscles run out ofoxygen.
48. Anaerobic RespirationAlcohol Fermentation isused by yeastHappens when yeastcannot get oxygenHumans use it to makebread and beer
50. Where Does AerobicRespiration Happen?• The cell organelle responsible formaking energy• Nicknamed the “powerhouse” of thecell.• Mitochondria
51. Compare Photosynthesis & Respiration• Photosynthesis:• Stores energy from the Sun• 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2• Respiration:• 6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O• Releases Energy from Sugars (ATP)• What do you notice?
52. What do you notice?• Photosynthesis:• Respiration:Carbon dioxide + water = sugar + oxygenSugar + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + water