World wars compared


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World wars compared

  1. 1. World Wars Compared What do you know?
  2. 2. The Great War / World War I / The War to end all wars
  3. 3. World War II – “Theaters” in Europe, the Pacific, N. Africa, etc.
  4. 4. What do you know about World War I and World War II? <ul><li>Create a chart of some kind showing World War I and World War II differences / similarities </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Sides of the war: </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics/Key Events: </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>You have 5 minutes. GO! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Remember : Wars cause economic & social changes
  6. 6. Remember: Wars have political results . (For example . . . ) British soldiers from India in WWI= Indian Independence? African-American tank corps in WWII= Civil Rights Movement? Some governments gained power as they controlled the war effort. Some governments fell at the end of the war.
  7. 7. Remember: War has a significant impact on civilians & governments
  8. 8. World Wars Compared An overview
  9. 9. The Great War / World War I 1914-1918 U.S. was directly involved: 1917-1918
  10. 10. World War II 1937 to 1945 in Asia 1939 to 1945 in Europe U.S. was directly involved: 1941-1945
  11. 11. World War I - overview <ul><li>Global conflict between the “Central Powers” and the “Allies.” </li></ul><ul><li>The first global modern war. </li></ul>
  12. 12. World War I - overview <ul><li>Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Allies: France, Russia, Great Britain, Japan, Italy, Belgium (and later the U.S.) and others </li></ul>The Western Front
  13. 13. World War II - overview <ul><li>Global conflict between the “Axis Powers” and the “Allies.” Most extensive of all wars. </li></ul>
  14. 14. World War II - overview <ul><li>Axis Powers: Germany, Japan, and Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Allies: France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, the U.S. and others </li></ul>
  15. 15. World Wars Compared CAUSES
  16. 16. Causes of World War I (interpretations anyone?)
  17. 17. The Environment for the Great War was created by <ul><li>ALLIANCES </li></ul><ul><li>In order to balance power and “protect” themselves, the nations of Europe had joined in military alliances with other nations. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>NATIONALISM </li></ul><ul><li>Patriotism and loyalty were on the rise among many groups in Europe. </li></ul>War was in the air?
  19. 20. <ul><li>MILITARISM </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialized nations were building up their militaries. </li></ul><ul><li>The military and war was often glorified. </li></ul><ul><li>(Germany was especially aggressive.) </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>Nations now had the technology to produce war material in mass quantities. New technology led to more destructive weapons. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>IMPERIALISM </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions increased between nations as they competed for control of territory around the world. </li></ul>
  22. 23. There were of course many other contributing factors to the outbreak of WWI, for example: <ul><li>List of Events: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1870-1871: Franco-Prussian War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1899-1900: Boer War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1900: German Navy Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1905-6:First Moroccan Crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1908: Daily Telegraph article </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1908-9:Bosnian Crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1911:Agadir Affair (Second Moroccan Crisis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1912: First Balkan War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1913: Second Balkan War </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These are examples of conflicts and increased tensions between major European powers prior to the outbreak of the First World War. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Game on! <ul><li>Assassination of Archduke of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist – the incident that sparked the conflict? </li></ul>
  24. 26. Game on! <ul><li>Germany assured Austria-Hungary of full assistance in a war. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany declared war on Russia and France. </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia and the other Allies in hopes of regaining land it had lost. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany moved troops into Belgium to invade France. Belgians resisted. </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Belgium and Great Britain declared war on Germany and the other Central Powers. </li></ul><ul><li>AUGUST, 1914 – The Great War began! </li></ul>
  27. 29. WWI - “A Family Feud” <ul><li>Central Powers: </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm II - the Kaiser of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Franz Joseph - the Emperor of Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Allies: </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholas II - the Tsar of Russia </li></ul><ul><li>George V - King of England </li></ul><ul><li>Albert - King of Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm II, Nicholas II, and George V were COUSINS </li></ul><ul><li>Albert was their SECOND COUSIN </li></ul><ul><li>Franz Joseph was their GREAT UNCLE </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO: </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandra, Nicholas II’s wife, was a cousin of Wilhelm II, George V, and her husband Nicholas II. </li></ul><ul><li>She was a German princess. </li></ul>
  28. 31. “ The War was decided in the first twenty days of fighting, and all that happened afterwards consisted in battles which, however formidable and devastating, were but desperate and vain appeals against the decision of Fate.” Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965), British statesman, writer. Preface to E. L. Spears, Liaison 1914 (1930).
  29. 32. <ul><li>In 1917, Russia withdrew because of revolution/civil war in Russia </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. joined the Allies because of the “Rape of Belgium,” German unrestricted submarine warfare, & the Zimmerman telegram. </li></ul>
  30. 34. World War II <ul><li>(same song, second verse?) </li></ul>
  31. 35. The Environment for World War II was created by: <ul><li>Resentment about the Treaty of Versailles – in the peace treaty that ended WWI, Germany was severely punished, and Italy & Japan didn’t gain the territory they thought they deserved. </li></ul>
  32. 36. Environment for WAR: <ul><li>Global Economic Depression – the most severe and widespread economic crisis of history took place in the 1930s. </li></ul>
  33. 37. Environment for WAR: <ul><li>Economic problems allowed leaders with radical ideas to gain a following in Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, and elsewhere. </li></ul>
  34. 38. Environment for WAR: <ul><li>Industrialization, militarism, and nationalism fueled the Nazi German, Japanese, Italian, (& Soviet Russia) desires for expansion. </li></ul>
  35. 39. Aggressors March! <ul><li>Germans moved into the Rhineland, annexed Austria, and part of Czechoslovakia. </li></ul>
  36. 41. The Italians invaded Ethiopia
  37. 42. The Japanese invaded China from Manchuria and then French Indochina
  38. 44. Britain, France, and the U.S. did NOT want war again (for economic, political, social reasons).
  39. 45. World leaders and World Opinion included ideas that . . . <ul><li>Germany was wronged in the Treaty of Versailles. Germans should be united. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler was better than Stalin. Maybe they’ll destroy each other? </li></ul><ul><li>Some thought, “It’s a European problem / Asian problem”. </li></ul><ul><li>War is being pushed by capitalists who want to make money. </li></ul>
  40. 46. And then war came to them . . . <ul><li>Japan invaded China in force in 1937. </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1939. </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi Germany and Italy invaded France and everywhere else they could. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 and everywhere else they could. </li></ul>
  41. 49. Propaganda was used by all governments to secure support for the wars. Was this a good thing to do or is it bending the truth?
  42. 52. World Wars Compared WARFARE
  43. 53. Both WARS <ul><li>Global conflicts with huge costs </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production of mass destruction! </li></ul><ul><li>New weapons and technology </li></ul><ul><li>More men, more material, meant more victories. </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL WAR </li></ul>
  44. 54. World War I - Warfare <ul><li>Trench warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Stalemate along the Western Front </li></ul><ul><li>War of attrition – neither side gaining ground but war casualties very high. </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics were old-school. </li></ul>
  45. 58. World War I - Warfare <ul><li>Chemical Weapons – mustard gas and chlorine gas </li></ul><ul><li>New Weapons of war – machine guns, airplanes, tanks, submarines, flamethrowers </li></ul>
  46. 61. World War II Warfare <ul><li>Fast moving air, sea, and land tactics – new school </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise attack and covert communications & operations </li></ul>
  47. 65. World War II Warfare <ul><li>Truly global approach to offensive operations </li></ul>
  48. 68. World War II Warfare <ul><li>Amphibious warfare (D-Day and Island Hopping) </li></ul>
  49. 70. World War II Warfare <ul><li>More new “weapons” </li></ul>
  50. 73. World War II Warfare <ul><li>No surrender? </li></ul>
  51. 74. World War II Warfare <ul><li>The Holocaust </li></ul>
  52. 75. World Wars Compared RESULTS
  53. 76. RESULTS of both WARS <ul><li>Chaos and destruction – lives, property, economies, & governments </li></ul>
  54. 77. <ul><li>“ Losers” lost territory and colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Maps redrawn </li></ul>1914
  55. 78. 1946
  56. 79. <ul><li>Changed political structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New governments took power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded power of government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christianity lost its influence in Western Europe. </li></ul>
  57. 80. <ul><li>Changed societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women and minorities pushed for changes </li></ul></ul>
  58. 81. <ul><li>International organizations – League of Nations, UN, NATO, Warsaw Pact </li></ul><ul><li>New superpowers emerged – the U.S. in both wars, Japan after WWI, Soviet Union after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>WAR! World War II and the Cold War? </li></ul>
  59. 82. <ul><li>New technology and inventions </li></ul>
  60. 83. Western European superiority was questioned <ul><li>Nationalism and Independence movements grew in European colonies – India, SE Asia, and Africa </li></ul>
  61. 85. Results of WWI <ul><li>1918 Influenza Pandemic </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Weapons were outlawed. </li></ul>
  62. 86. Results of WWI <ul><li>Russian Revolution and Civil War </li></ul>
  63. 87. Results of WWI <ul><li>Germany punished severely (reparations) </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and German Empire fell. </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Depression? </li></ul>
  64. 88. Results of WWII <ul><li>Trials for War Crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Migration of </li></ul><ul><li>people </li></ul>
  65. 89. Results of WWII <ul><li>U.S. prosperity . . . that lasted </li></ul>
  66. 90. Results of WWII – The Cold War <ul><li>Division of the world into U.S. and its allies against the U.S.S.R. and its allies. </li></ul>
  67. 91. Results of WWII <ul><li>Tension remained between Japan and China </li></ul><ul><li>Continued Arms race – nuclear weapons </li></ul>