World wars compared
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  • 1. World Wars Compared What do you know?
  • 2. The Great War / World War I / The War to end all wars
  • 3. World War II – “Theaters” in Europe, the Pacific, N. Africa, etc.
  • 4. What do you know about World War I and World War II? In your notebooks, brainstorm what you know about • Causes: • Sides of the war: • Who won: • Why the winners won: • Results: • You have 5 minutes . . .GO!
  • 5. Remember : Wars cause economic & social changes
  • 6. Remember: Wars have political results. (For example . . . ) British soldiers from India in WWI= Indian Independence? African-American tank corps in WWII= Civil Rights Movement? Some governments gained power as they controlled the war effort. Some governments fell at the end of the war.
  • 7. Remember: War has a significant impact on civilians, economies, and governments.
  • 8. World Wars Compared An overview
  • 9. The Great War / World War I 1914-1918 U.S. was directly involved: 1917-1918
  • 10. World War II 1937 to 1945 in Asia 1939 to 1945 in Europe and Africa U.S. was directly involved: 1941-1945
  • 11. World War I - overview • Global conflict between the “Central Powers” and the “Allies.” • The first global modern war.
  • 12. World War I - overview • Central Powers: Germany, Austria- Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire • Allies: France, Russia, Great Britain, Japan, Italy, Belgium (and later the U.S.) and others The Western Front
  • 13. World War II - overview • Global conflict between the “Axis Powers” and the “Allies.” Most extensive of all wars.
  • 14. World War II - overview • Axis Powers: Germany, Japan, and Italy • Allies: France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, the U.S. and others
  • 15. World Wars Compared CAUSES
  • 16. Causes of World War I (interpretations anyone?)
  • 17. The Environment for the Great War was created by • ALLIANCES In order to balance power and “protect” themselves, the nations of Europe had joined in military alliances with other nations.
  • 18. • NATIONALISM Patriotism and loyalty were on the rise among many groups in Europe. War was in the air?
  • 19. • MILITARISM Industrialized nations were building up their militaries. (Germany was especially aggressive.)
  • 20. • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Nations now had the technology to mass produce war material in mass quantities.
  • 21. • IMPERIALISM caused tension, too.
  • 22. There were of course many other contributing factors to the outbreak of WWI, for example: List of Events:  1870-1871: Franco-Prussian War  1899-1900: Boer War  1900: German Navy Law  1905-6:First Moroccan Crisis  1908: Daily Telegraph article  1908-9:Bosnian Crisis  1911:Agadir Affair (Second Moroccan Crisis)  1912: First Balkan War  1913: Second Balkan War  These are examples of conflicts and increased tensions between major European powers prior to the outbreak of the First World War.
  • 23. Game on! • Assassination of Archduke of Austria- Hungary by a Serbian nationalist – the incident that sparked the conflict?
  • 24. Game on! • Germany assured Austria-Hungary of full assistance in a war. • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. • Russia declared war on Austria- Hungary. • Germany declared war on Russia and France.
  • 25. • The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia and the other Allies in hopes of regaining land it had lost. • Germany moved troops into Belgium to invade France. Belgians resisted.
  • 26. • Belgium and Great Britain declared war on Germany and the other Central Powers. • AUGUST, 1914 – The Great War began!
  • 27. WWI - “A Family Feud” Central Powers: • Wilhelm II - the Kaiser of Germany • Franz Joseph - the Emperor of Austria- Hungary Allies: • Nicholas II - the Tsar of Russia • George V - King of England • Albert - King of Belgium • Wilhelm II, Nicholas II, and George V were COUSINS • Albert was their SECOND COUSIN • Franz Joseph was their GREAT UNCLE ALSO: • Alexandra, Nicholas II’s wife, was a cousin of Wilhelm II, George V, and her husband Nicholas II. • She was a German princess.
  • 28. “The War (WWI) was decided in the first twenty days of fighting, and all that happened afterwards consisted in battles which, however formidable and devastating, were but desperate and vain appeals against the decision of Fate.” Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965), British statesman, writer. Preface to E. L. Spears, Liaison 1914 (1930).
  • 29. • In 1917, Russia withdrew because of revolution/civil war in Russia • The U.S. joined the Allies because of the “Rape of Belgium,” German unrestricted submarine warfare, & the Zimmerman telegram.
  • 30. World War II (same song, second verse?)
  • 31. The Environment for World War II was created by: • Resentment about the Treaty of Versailles – in the peace treaty that ended WWI, Germany was severely punished, and Italy & Japan didn’t gain the territory they thought they deserved.
  • 32. Environment for WAR: • Global Economic Depression – the most severe and widespread economic crisis of history took place in the 1930s.
  • 33. Environment for WAR: • Economic problems allowed leaders with radical ideas to gain a following in Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, and elsewhere.
  • 34. Fascism
  • 35. Fascism
  • 36. Fascism • What does Fascism mean? An extreme-right totalitarian political regime ideologically based on centralized government, violently repressing any criticism or opposition of the regime. A leader cult and exalting nation-state and/or religion above individual rights. Originally applied (usually capitalized) to Benito Mussolini's Italy. By vague analogy, any system of strong autocracy or oligarchy usually to the extent of bending and breaking the law, race- baiting and violence against largely unarmed populations.
  • 37. Environment for WAR: • German, Japanese, Italian, (& Soviet Russia) militarism, nationalism, and desire for territory.
  • 38. m_vs_Fascism
  • 39. Aggressors March! • Germans moved into the Rhineland, annexed Austria, and part of Czechoslovakia.
  • 40. The Italians invaded Ethiopia
  • 41. The Japanese invaded China from Manchuria and then French Indochina
  • 42. Britain, France, and the U.S. did NOT want war again (for economic, political, social reasons).
  • 43. World leaders and World Opinion included ideas that . . . • Germany was wronged in the Treaty of Versailles. Germans should be united. • Hitler was better than Stalin. Maybe they’ll destroy each other? • Some thought, “It’s a European problem / Asian problem”. • War is being pushed by capitalists who want to make money.
  • 44. And then war came to them . . . • Japan invaded China in force in 1937. • Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1939. • Nazi Germany and Italy invaded France and everywhere else they could. • Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 and everywhere else they could.
  • 45. In BOTH WARS, Propaganda was used by all governments to secure support for the wars.
  • 46. World Wars Compared WARFARE
  • 47. Both WARS • Global conflicts with huge costs • Mass production of mass destruction! • New weapons and technology • More men and more material meant more victories. • TOTAL WAR – attacks on civilians, use of media and propaganda, government control of economy for war
  • 48. World War I - Warfare • Trench warfare • Stalemate along the Western Front • War of attrition – neither side gaining ground but war casualties very high. • Tactics were old-school.
  • 49. World War I - Warfare • Chemical Weapons – mustard gas and chlorine gas • New weapons of war – machine guns, airplanes, tanks, submarines, flamethrowers, l o n g range artillery
  • 50. World War II Warfare • Fast moving air, sea, and land tactics – new school • Surprise attack and covert communications & operations
  • 51. World War II Warfare • Truly global approach to offensive operations
  • 52. World War II Warfare • Amphibious warfare (D-Day and Island Hopping)
  • 53. World War II Warfare • More new “weapons”
  • 54. World War II Warfare • No surrender?
  • 55. World War II Warfare • The Holocaust
  • 56. World Wars Compared RESULTS
  • 57. RESULTS of both WARS • Chaos and destruction – lives, property, economies, & governments
  • 58. • “Losers” lost territory and colonies • Maps redrawn 1914
  • 59. 1946
  • 60. • Changed political structures – New governments took power – Expanded power of government • Christianity lost its influence in Western Europe.
  • 61. • Changed societies – Women and minorities pushed for changes
  • 62. • International organizations – League of Nations, UN • New powers emerged – the U.S. in both wars, Japan after WWI, Soviet Union after WWII • WAR! World War II and the Cold War?
  • 63. • New technology and inventions
  • 64. Western European superiority was questioned • Nationalism and Independence movements grew in European colonies – India, SE Asia, and Africa
  • 65. Results of WWI • 1918 Influenza Pandemic • Chemical Weapons were outlawed.
  • 66. Results of WWI • Russian Revolution and Civil War
  • 67. Results of WWI • Germany punished severely (reparations) • Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and German Empire fell. • The Great Depression?
  • 68. Results of WWII • Trials for War Crimes • Migration of people
  • 69. Results of WWII • U.S. prosperity . . . that lasted
  • 70. Results of WWII – The Cold War Division of the world into U.S. and its allies against the U.S.S.R. and its allies.
  • 71. Results of WWII • Tension remained between Japan and China • Continued Arms race – nuclear weapons