Vocabulary to Know Monarchy-undivided rule or absolute sovereignty by a single person Political Revolution-the overthrow of one government and its replacement with another Political Philosophy-a theory or set of theories regarding how a government should be run Sovereignty-freedom from external control
More Vocabulary Absolute Monarchy-king or Queen who has absolute power and seeks to control all aspects of society (Louis XIV France) Limited Monarchy-laws limit the power of a ruler (constitutional monarchy) (England after the Glorious Revolution) Absolute monarchies may be stable and powerful but rarely do they recognize the importance of individual rights!
Enlightenment-Age of Reason Scientific Revolution-promotes application of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society, including government Social Contract Theory (2 Views) Hobbes-people create government, but give up their rights to a strong ruler in exchange for law and order-men should put faith in their government to provide stability since life is “cruel, nasty, and short.” Locke-people have the natural ability to govern their own affairs-natural rights of life, liberty, and property; people can overthrow a government that does not protect these rights! (Heavily influenced Thomas Jefferson)
Enlightenment-Age of Reason Philosophes-apply reason to all aspects of life including truth, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty. Montesquieu-separation of powers-three branches of government and checks and balances on these powers Rousseau-individual freedom-general will (majority) should decide the laws of the nation Mary Wollstonecraft-women deserve the same rights as men William Wilberforce-British politician who successfully led the movement to abolish slavery in Britain in 1807
Impact of the Enlightenment European monarchies make reforms American and French Revolutions Belief in progress through social equality and improvements in education More secular outlook-questioned religious beliefs and the teaching of the Church Importance of the individual
Enlightenment leads to Revolution! Separation of Powers: power should not rest in the hands of one or the few Checks and Balances: measures designed to prevent one branch of government from becoming too powerful Liberty: Freedom, the ability to make choices, no oppression (social or economic) Equality: all MEN are equal Democracy: people make the political decisions (direct or republic)
Enlightenment leads to Revolution! Popular Sovereignty: political power rests with the people-voting and participation in government Human Rights: inalienable rights/individual rights Constitutionalism: basic principles and laws of a government should be organized into a written document Nationalism: devotion to the interests or culture of one’s nation-independence from foreign domination- emphasizing national rather than international goals
American Revolution (1775-1783)-Causes Glorious Revolution(limited monarchy) and Enlightenment(natural rights) “Rights as Englishmen” were violated “No taxation w/o representation” British policies towards the colonies (taxes) Declaration of Independence (grievances against King George III)
American Revolution-Characteristics Started by merchant class Protest against taxation Many remained loyal to Britain Success due to alliances with France and Spain British overconfidence and fighting a long-distance war
American Revolution-Consequences Independence U.S. Constitution (1789) Bill of Rights (1st 10 Amendments) Inspired French Revolution (as well as Haitian and Latin American)
French Revolution(1789-1795)-Causes Enlightenment and American Revolution Inequality in the class system (1st, 2nd, and 3rd Estates) Abuses by nobility and kings Debt and high taxes Crop failures cause price of bread to rise above the price that peasants can pay (famine)
French Revolution-Characteristics Originates with lower classes (as opposed to merchants in America) Extreme violence-Reign of Terror, guillotine, execution of nobility including King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
French Revolution-Consequences Declaration of the Rights of Man Parliament established Peasants freed Chaos in government results in Napoleon and the Army coming to power and creating the French Empire
Impact of Napoleon-France Restored order after the Reign of Terror Efficient tax collection and a national bank improved the economy Lycees set up as government run public schools to train students as potential government officials Roman Catholic Church-majority church of France- rejected church control over national affairs Napoleonic Code-uniform set of laws-limited freedoms of speech and press, as well as women’s rights
Impact of Napoleon-Europe Annexed Austrian Netherlands and parts of Italy Puppet government in Switzerland War against Third Coalition (Britain, Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Prussia) Britain retains naval supremacy-Battle of Trafalgar Continental System-economic blockade against Britain unsuccessful Invades Spain-brother Joseph named King Attempts to invade Russia, but fails (winter) Defeat at Leipzig-exiled to Elba Returns to power, but defeated at Waterloo-exiled to St. Helena Congress of Vienna-restore balance of power to Europe
Impact of Napoleon-Latin America Establishment of Haiti as an independent republic after the first successful slave revolt in history Napoleon’s troops decimated in Haiti due to yellow fever Independence movements in Spanish colonies begin when Napoleon conquers Spain in 1808 Spanish creoles had no loyalty and argue that power shifts to the people
American and French Revsinfluence Latin America American Rev showed that colonies could win independence Both had written declarations that address natural rights American allowed a free market to flourish French was the uprising of the common man Enlightenment influenced Simon Bolivar in Colombia and Venezuela Both inspire revs in Argentina (Jose de San Martin), Chile, Peru, and Mexico (Miguel Hidalgo)
Influential Documents English Bill of Rights Limited the monarch No suspension of Parliament’s laws No taxes w/o consent of Parliament No suspension of freedom of speech in Parliament Citizens have the right to petition the king with grievances
Influential Documents Declaration of Independence Unalienable rights-life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness Governments established to protect these rights People have the right to change or abolish a government that does not protect these rights
Influential Documents U.S. Constitution Three branches-Separation of Powers Checks and Balances Federal System (power divided between states and national government) Limits on power of government Popular election of executive and legislators Bill of Rights to protect personal freedoms
Influential Documents Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (France) Men are born and remain free and equal Rights include liberty, property, security, and freedom from oppression Governments should preserve these rights “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
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