The Persian Wars<br />Greece vs. The Persian Empire<br />
Danger of a helot revolt led to Sparta becoming a military state.<br />Danger of a revolution among the poor farmers of Athens led to it becoming a democracy.<br />The danger of invasion by the Persian army led to glory for both Sparta and Athens!<br />
The Persian Wars<br />Persians attacked Greek city-states in Ionia (Anatolia)<br />Athens sent ships and soldiers to help the Ionian Greeks.<br />Persian King Darius vowed to destroy Athens in revenge!<br />Athenians defeat Persians AND defend their city-state. Legend of Marathon!<br />
The Persian Wars<br />Ten years later. . . King Darius is dead-his son Xerxes vows to CRUSH Greece!<br />Sends ENORMOUS invasion force to Greece by way of the Hellespont.<br />Greek city-states divided. They are scared of Xerxes and some want to sacrifice Athens to the Persians.<br />
The Persian Wars<br />300 Spartans lead the way along with 7000 other Greek soldiers against the Persians.<br />All 300 were killed at the Battle of Thermopylae, but the set an example for ALL Greeks.<br />Persians headed for Athens. . .<br />
The Persian Wars<br />The citizens of Athens followed the advice of Themistocles and evacuated the city to fight at sea.<br />Xerxes burned Athens and then met the Greek navy in a narrow channel off the island of Salamis .<br />The Greek triremes battered the Persian warships and 1/3 of fleet was lost.<br />The Spartans defeated the rest of the Persian army at Platea.<br />
The Persian Wars-Results<br />Persian threat is ended.<br />Greek city-states have a new sense of confidence and freedom.<br />Athens THRIVES!<br />Delian League-led by Athens (140 city-states)<br />Drove Persians from surrounding territory<br />Athens enters its GOLDEN AGE<br />Complete # 2 on page 119<br />
Athens’ Golden Age<br />A time when Drama, Poetry, Art, Philosophy, Architecture, and Science ALL reached new heights!<br />Age of Pericles 461-429 B.C.<br />
Was also stoic, aloof, handsome, and engaging.
Also had a large, oddly shaped head, which is why all his portrayals have that helmet on.</li></li></ul><li>Athens’ Golden Age-Pericles<br />Three Goals for Athens<br />To strengthen Athenian Democracy<br />To hold and strengthen the empire<br />To glorify Athens<br />
Athens’ Golden Age-Pericles<br />Three Goals for Athens<br />To strengthen Athenian Democracy<br /> increased the number of paid public officials-even the poorest could serve if elected or chosen by lot<br />Direct Democracy-citizens rule directly, not through a representative<br />Look at the chart on p. 120-Answer questions 1 & 2 with your partner.<br />
Athens’ Golden Age-Pericles<br />Three Goals for Athens<br />2) To hold and strengthen the empire<br />Pericles wanted to build wealth and power of Athens<br />Built powerful navy for safety and trade.<br />
Athens’ Golden Age-Pericles<br />Three Goals for Athens<br />To glorify Athens<br />Pericles used money from Delian League to buy gold, ivory, and marble.<br />Built Parthenon-all without the approval of the Delian League.<br />
<ul><li>Read “A Voice from the Past on page 121.
Discuss this question with your partner. . . How accurate do you consider Pericles’ statement that Athenian democracy was in the hands of “the whole people”?
THEN complete #2 of the section assessment on page 125.</li></li></ul><li>Pericles invested a great deal of money into the glorification of Athens. . .<br />Theatre<br /><ul><li>It was during the golden age that the great playwrights lived
Tragedy: Serious drama-love, hate, war, betrayal.
Tragedy: Always featured a HERO with a tragic flaw.
Comedy: Satires-made fun of almost everyone in Classical Greece.</li></ul>Greek Theatre<br />
Greek Art<br />Greek sculptors during the golden age aimed to create figures that were graceful, strong, and perfectly formed.<br />Faces showed neither laughter nor anger, only serenity.<br />Also tried to capture grace of human body in motion.<br />Order, balance, and proportion-Classical Art<br />
Greek Philosophy<br />Socrates<br />Plato<br />Aristotle<br />Pages 124 & 125<br />“Lovers of Wisdom”<br />Who was he? What is he known for? What were his views about government? Lasting contribution? Famous quote?<br />
The Peloponnesian Wars<br />Athens vs.Sparta<br />
The Peloponnesian Wars<br />Tensions had been building for years as Athens had grown. Leaders in both city-states wanted war b/c they believed they would win.<br />Sparta had land advantage<br />Athens had sea advantage<br />Pericles’ strategy was to avoid land battles and wait to strike from the sea.<br />
The Peloponnesian Wars<br />Spartans march into Athenian territory.<br />They burned the local food supply<br />Athenians were safe inside walls of city-state<br />Ships could still bring food from other colonies.<br />Two events spelled eventual disaster for Athens. . . <br />
Sparta gains the edge. . .<br />A PLAGUE! A plague killed between 1/3 and 2/3 of the population.<br />Pericles also died from the plague.<br />Assembly sends huge fleet of 27,000 soldiers to Syracuse, one of Sparta’s wealthiest allies.<br />Suffered TOTAL destruction.<br />Athens surrendered in 404 B.C.E<br />
War brings change. . .<br />Athens loses its short-lived empire, power, and wealth<br />People began to lose confidence in democratic governments<br />Weak, corrupt, traitorous rulers<br />