The persian wars pericles-theatre-philosophy
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The persian wars pericles-theatre-philosophy The persian wars pericles-theatre-philosophy Presentation Transcript

  • Greece vs. The Persian EmpireTHE PERSIAN WARS
  • Danger of a helot revolt led to Sparta becoming a militarystate.Danger of a revolution among the poor farmers of Athensled to it becoming a democracy.The danger of invasion by the Persian army led to glory forboth Sparta and Athens!
  • The Persian Wars Persians attacked Greek city-states in Ionia (Anatolia) Athens sent ships and soldiers to help the Ionian Greeks. Persian King Darius vowed to destroy Athens in revenge! Athenians defeat Persians AND defend their city-state. Legend of Marathon!
  • The Persian Wars Ten years later. . . King Darius is dead-his son Xerxes vows to CRUSH Greece! Sends ENORMOUS invasion force to Greece by way of the Hellespont. Greek city-states divided. They are scared of Xerxes and some want to sacrifice Athens to the Persians.
  • The Persian Wars 300 Spartans lead the way along with 7000 other Greek soldiers against the Persians. All 300 were killed at the Battle of Thermopylae, but the set an example for ALL Greeks. Persians headed for Athens. . .
  • The Persian Wars The citizens of Athens followed the advice of Themistocles and evacuated the city to fight at sea. Xerxes burned Athens and then met the Greek navy in a narrow channel off the island of Salamis . The Greek triremes battered the Persian warships and 1/3 of fleet was lost. The Spartans defeated the rest of the Persian army at Platea.
  • The Persian Wars-Results Persian threat is ended. Greek city-states have a new sense of confidence and freedom. Athens THRIVES! Delian League-led by Athens (140 city-states) Drove Persians from surrounding territory Athens enters its GOLDEN AGE Complete # 2 on page 119
  • Athens’ Golden Age A time when Drama, Poetry, Art, Philosophy, Architecture, and Science ALL reached new heights! Age of Pericles 461-429 B.C.
  • Pericles• Athens’ leading citizen. • 495-429 BC • Politician, orator, general • Was also stoic, aloof, handsome, and engaging. • Also had a large, oddly shaped head, which is why all his portrayals have that helmet on.
  • Athens’ Golden Age-Pericles Three Goals for Athens1) To strengthen Athenian Democracy2) To hold and strengthen the empire3) To glorify Athens
  • Athens’ Golden Age-Pericles Three Goals for Athens1) To strengthen Athenian Democracy increased the number of paid public officials-even the poorest could serve if elected or chosen by lot Direct Democracy-citizens rule directly, not through a representative Look at the chart on p. 120-Answer questions 1 & 2 with your partner.
  • Athens’ Golden Age-Pericles Three Goals for Athens2) To hold and strengthen the empire Pericles wanted to build wealth and power of Athens Built powerful navy for safety and trade.
  • Athens’ Golden Age-Pericles Three Goals for Athens3) To glorify Athens Pericles used money from Delian League to buy gold, ivory, and marble. Built Parthenon-all without the approval of the Delian League.
  • The Parthenon
  • Its main function was to house the grand statue of Athena
  • • In 1687, the Venetians were fighting the Ottoman Empire in Athens. • Unsurprisingly, the Ottomans had fortified the acropolis and were holding out there. • They used the Parthenon to store gunpowder (great idea!). A Venetian cannonball hit the Parthenon, detonated the gunpowder, and blew up a good chunk of the temple. • Most of the temple lay in ruins. • In 1806, Lord Elgin brought many of the sculptures to London (he sawed them off). They’re now known as the Elgin Marbles.
  • •Read “A Voice from the Past onpage 121.•Discuss this question with yourpartner. . . How accurate do youconsider Pericles’ statement thatAthenian democracy was in thehands of “the whole people”?•THEN complete #2 of the sectionassessment on page 125.
  • Greek TheatrePericles invested a great deal of money into the glorification of Athens. . .Theatre• It was during the golden age that the great playwrights lived• Tragedy: Serious drama-love, hate, war, betrayal.• Tragedy: Always featured a HERO with a tragic flaw.• Comedy: Contained slapstick and crude humor.• Comedy: Satires-made fun of almost everyone in Classical Greece.
  • Greek Art Greek sculptors during the golden age aimed to create figures that were graceful, strong, and perfectly formed. Faces showed neither laughter nor anger, only serenity. Also tried to capture grace of human body in motion. Order, balance, and proportion-Classical Art
  • Greek Art
  • Greek Philosophy Socrates Plato Aristotle Pages 124 & 125 “Lovers of Wisdom” Who was he? What is he known for? What were his views about government? Lasting contribution? Famous quote?
  • Athens vs.SpartaTHE PELOPONNESIAN WARS
  • The Peloponnesian Wars Tensions had been building for years as Athens had grown. Leaders in both city- states wanted war b/c they believed they would win. Sparta had land advantage Athens had sea advantage Pericles’ strategy was to avoid land battles and wait to strike from the sea.
  • The Peloponnesian Wars Spartans march into Athenian territory. They burned the local food supply Athenians were safe inside walls of city-state Ships could still bring food from other colonies. Two events spelled eventual disaster for Athens. . .
  • Sparta gains the edge. . . A PLAGUE! A plague killed between 1/3 and 2/3 of the population. Pericles also died from the plague. Assembly sends huge fleet of 27,000 soldiers to Syracuse, one of Sparta’s wealthiest allies. Suffered TOTAL destruction. Athens surrendered in 404 B.C.E
  • War brings change. . . Athens loses its short-lived empire, power, and wealth People began to lose confidence in democratic governments Weak, corrupt, traitorous rulers