What is a Cold War?
A period of Diplomatic hostility among nations
without direct armed conflict
• Starting in the 19th century, groups affiliated
with communism gained power throughout
regions of the world.
• Russia, China, Korea, Vietnam, and Cuba
eventually become communist.
• (Like democracy spread beginning in the 18th
Cold War begins
• 1. During the communist revolution in Russia,
the US worked to defeat the communists.
• 2. In WWII, the Soviet army drove the
Germans back across Eastern Europe. Other
Allies raced to beat the Soviet Army to Berlin.
• 3. USSR occupied several countries along its
western border and considered them a
necessary buffer or wall of protection from the
• 4. Stalin installed Communist governments in
Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia,
Romania, Poland, and Yugoslavia.
• 5. Early in 1946 Stalin declared that
communism & capitalism could not exist in the
same world. War between the U.S. & U.S.S.R.
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron
curtain has descended across the continent.”
• - Winston Churchill March 5, 1946
• A promise made by U.S.
President Truman to
provide military and
economic support to all
countries that rejected
• This policy of stopping
any further spread of
known as the policy of
THE U.S. RESPONSE
1948 - The Truman Doctrine
1948 - The Truman Doctrine
1. In what way would the continuation of chaos in Western Europe be
beneficial to the Soviet Union?
2. What country does the cartoonist see as the savior of Western Europe?
1947 -The Marshall Plan
What was it?
•A U.S. program of economic aid to European
countries to help them rebuild after WWII.
•Provided food, machines, and
other materials to European
nations to help stabilize Europe.
Which country received the most aid from the United States?
Why would Great Britain and France receive the most aid?
The Marshall Plan
Evaluate the two photos. What significant changes have occurred in the second photo?
The Marshall Plan
closed all road and
rail links to Berlin.
The Western allies
began a massive
airlift to feed the
How do you Fight a Cold War?
• Have the threat of force and power – Arms,
technology, & influence
– NATO (US) & Warsaw Pact (USSR) were the
two main military alliances
• Use Propaganda – create hatred and
paranoia of the other side
• Send economic aid to weaker nations to
spread influence and gain allies
• Support allied nations in conflicts to protect
interests or agitate other side (sponsor wars)
COMMUNIST CHINA 1949
Mao and the
founded the People’s
Republic of China
(not recognized by
KOREAN WAR 1950 - 1953
After World War II Korea was
divided, along the 38th parallel,
into North Korea, occupied by
Soviet forces, and South Korea,
occupied by American forces.
North Korean forces, seeking to
unify the country under
communist rule, invaded the
south in 1950. Commanded by
General Douglas MacArthur, UN
forces prevented a northern
takeover of South Korea. An
Armistice was signed in 1953.
1959 - CUBAN REVOLUTION
BAY OF PIGS INVASION 1961
In 1959 Fidel Castro seized power in
Cuba. He nationalized businesses and
executed opponents, transforming
Cuba into a Communist state.
He threatened to spread Communism
to other Latin American countries.
In 1961 U.S. trained Cuban exiles
unsuccessfully invaded Cuba at the Bay
Berlin Wall 1961
• The East German
Government built a
dividing wall in Berlin
to separate East and
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS 1962
In 1962 the United States discovered
that Cuba was secretly building bases
to install Soviet missiles with nuclear
warheads. After President Kennedy
ordered a naval blockade of Cuba and
threatened and invasion, Khrushchev
agreed to withdraw the missiles for a
pledge that the U.S. would not invade
VIETNAM WAR 1954-1975
When the French withdrew from
Indochina in 1954, Vietnam was
divided. Ho Chi Minh founded
Communist North Vietnam, while
South Vietnam established ties to the
Communists known as Vietcong began a
guerrilla war in South Vietnam with
North Vietnamese support.
The U.S. entered the conflict to resist
communism. Although the U.S. had
superior technology, and used 500,000
soldiers it could not defeat the North
Vietnamese (and its aid from USSR).
In 1973 U.S. troops withdrew under the
Paris Peace Accords. In 1975 the
South fell to the North.
The United States developed the Atomic Bomb during WWII.
Soviet scientists developed one in 1949.
For 40 years the superpowers spent huge amounts of money to
develop more & more powerful weapons. This raised the
tensions between the two countries. It also raised the fears
among many people that the superpowers might become
involved in a conflict that would destroy the world.
Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What?
HISTORY OF NUCLEAR WARHEAD STOCKPILES --
NOTE: Totals are estimates. Lists include strategic and non-strategic warheads, as well
as warheads awaiting dismantling
1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995
UNITED STATES 6 3,057 31,265 26,675 22,941 14,766
SOVIET UNION 0 200 6,129 19,443 39,197 27,000
BRITAIN 0 10 310 350 300 300
FRANCE 0 0 32 188 360 485
CHINA 0 0 5 185 425 425
Source: National Resources Defense Council
In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, a satellite, into orbit around the
Soon after the United States established NASA. The race was on.
In 1958 the U.S. launched its own first satellite. In 1961, the Soviets sent the
first man into space.
In 1969 the U.S. was the first nation to put a man on the moon. Both the
Soviets and Americans explored the use of satellites for military purposes.
Who won the Cold War?
Beginning in the late 1980s, the Soviet
Union began to fall apart.
Its satellites and republics became
A “new” government took control of
Why did the U.S. win?
The Soviet Union’s economy suffered
as the government spent money to keep
up with the U.S.
Lack of freedom and opportunity
within the Soviet Union and Soviet
People in the USSR pushed for change.
Positive Results of the Cold War
The US and USSR competed in space
exploration and military technology which
had some attached results.
The US and USSR kept part of the world
“stable” with their alliances.
Some sectors of the US and USSR gained
economically from Cold War spending.
Alliances with US and USSR gave some
economic benefits to other nations-
economic and military aid
Negative Results of the Cold War
caused the Red Scare and anti-Americanism
Possibility of nuclear war
Civil wars and other conflicts were made
worse by US and USSR involvement.
The US and USSR supported BAD
governments & leaders who opposed their
Money spent on the Cold War was money
not spent on US and Soviet problems.