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Staar wh

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    Staar wh Staar wh Presentation Transcript

    • African Salt/GoldTradeSahara Desert merchantcaravans exchanged saltfor gold
    • Al-QaedaFormed by Osama bin Laden
    • Alliance SystemSought topreservebalance ofpower butdraggedtheirmembersintoWorld War I
    • ArchimedesGreek who studiedlevers and pulleys
    • ArmeniansChristians inthe OttomanEmpire whofacedgenocide inWorld War I
    • Thomas AquinasNatural laws based on reason
    • Arms RaceRace to developbetter weapons –U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.
    • Atlantic Slave Trade
    • Atomic BombHiroshima and Nagasaki
    • Aztec CivilizationHighly complexsociety inCentral MexicoUsed uniqueagriculturaltechniques –includingfloating gardens
    • BalkansSpark thatignited WorldWar I; and,ethniccleansing bySerbs in1990’s
    • Black DeathDiseasecarried byfleas onrats thatkilledmillions ofpeople inEurope
    • William BlackstoneRights of Individual
    • Símon BolivarIndependence in South America
    • Bolsheviks“Peace, Bread and Land” – Russian Revolution
    • Napoleon BonaparteFrench general whoseized power, declaredhimself emperor andconquered much ofEurope.
    • Robert Boyle“Father of Chemistry”
    • BuddhismFour Noble Truths and Eightfold Path
    • Byzantine EmpireEastern Roman Empire - Constantinople
    • John Calvin• New Protestant Church• Predestination• Faith as key to salvation• Strict moral code
    • ChristianityBased on teachings of Jesus as the Son of GodForgiveness, Mercy, Sympathy for Poor
    • Winston ChurchillBritish PrimeMinister duringWorld War II –“We shall neversurrender.”
    • Cold War20th Century conflictbetween U.S. andU.S.S.R. – never directlyengaged each other inopen warfare
    • Columbian ExchangeExchange of products and ideas between NativeAmericans and Europe
    • Commercial RevolutionFrom local economies to Mercantilism
    • ConfucianismFilial Piety = Respect for elders and order
    • Nicolas CopernicusBelieved Earth orbited the Sun – Banned by The Church
    • CrusadesWar to recapture the HolyLand from Muslims –Led to increased trade betweenEurope and the Middle East.
    • Marie CurieFirst woman towin Nobel Prize -radioactivity
    • DarfurSudan – acts of genocide
    • Declaration of theRights of ManFrench Revolution –consent of the governed andprotection of rights.
    • Thomas EdisonAmerican Inventor – light bulb, phonograph and motion pictures.
    • Albert EinsteinTime andSpace areRelative
    • Elizabeth I• Shared powerbetweenmonarchy andParliament• Defeated theSpanish Armada
    • English Bill of RightsSigned by William andMary agreeing to manyrights for Englishsubjects
    • English Civil WarWarbetweenParliamentandCharles Ioversupremacy
    • EnlightenmentThinkersquestionedhereditaryprivilege andabsolutism
    • EratosthenesGreek who showed thatthe Earth was round andcalculated itscircumference
    • European ImperialismEuropean economic control of Africa, Asia and the Pacific
    • FascismIntense nationalism andbelief in an all-powerfulmilitaristic leader
    • Wilson’s 14 Points• Goals announced by U.S.President Woodrow Wilson• Created the League ofNations
    • Free EnterpriseSystemFree actions ofproducers andconsumers – supply anddemand – determineeconomic questions
    • French RevolutionOverthrew monarchy and ended hereditary privilege
    • Galileo Galilei• Confirmed the Earthtraveled around the Sun• Was tried and convictedby The Church
    • Indira GandhiFirst Woman IndianPrime Minister -- wasassassinated in 1984.
    • Mohandas Gandhi• Leader of Indianindependence movement• Non-violent• Passive resistence
    • GenocideMurder of anentire group ofpeople ornationality –Holocaust,Rwanda,Darfur,Kosovo
    • GlobalizationGlobal economy through communications, transportationand trade
    • Glorious RevolutionOverthrow ofJames II of Britainand the placementof William andMary on thethrone. Theyagreed to a Bill ofRights.
    • Mikhail GorbachevSoviet reformer ledto the election ofnon-Communistgovernments inEastern Europeand dissolution ofthe U.S.S.R.
    • Great DepressionDevastating economic downturn in the 1930’s
    • Great SchismSplit in CatholicChurch with twoPopesCaused many toquestion theauthority ofThe Church
    • Greek CivilizationMajorcontributions toart, architecture, philosophy, literature,drama, and history
    • Gupta EmpirePeace, Prosperityand Trade – TheGolden Age ofHindu Culture
    • Hammurabi’s CodeEarliest written lawcode of theBabylonians –promoted justice, buttreated social classesdifferently
    • Han DynastySilk RoadCivil service examinationsPaper and CeramicsBeginning of Pax Sinica
    • Hinduism• Reincarnation• Many gods andgoddesses• Karma and Dharma
    • Adolph HitlerNazi Party leader ofthe Germantotalitarian stateprior to and duringWorld War II
    • Thomas HobbesMan is “nasty andbrutish” and need anauthority to keeporder – WroteLeviathan
    • HolocaustGenocide of Jews and others by Nazis in World War II
    • Human RightsRights that all people possess
    • Hundred Years’ War• War betweenEngland andFrance oversuccession tothe Frenchthrone• Brought an endto feudalism
    • Inca CivilizationPre-Columbian civilization in Andes Mountains
    • Industrial RevolutionBegan in EnglandMoved production fromhome to factoryand from hand tomachine
    • IslamFounded by MuhammadFive Pillars of FaithOne God – AllahShare wealth between richand poor
    • IsraelIn 1948, theU.N.partitionedPalestine into 2states – Israeland Palestine.FiveneighboringArab nationsdeclared war onIsrael.
    • John Paul II• Popular 20th CenturyPope• Helped end Communismin Eastern Europe
    • Justinian’s Code ofLawsIn Byzantium,Justinian collected allRoman laws andorganized them into asingle code
    • Korean War1950’s –CommunistNorth KoreainvadedSouth Korea– UnitedStates andUnitedNationsintervened
    • Las Madres de la Playasde MayoArgentine mothers whodemanded the government revealthe whereabouts of children whomysteriously disappeared in the1980’s.
    • League of Nations• Proposed byWoodrow Wilson• Created by theTreaty ofVersailles• Failed to stop war
    • Limited MonarchyMonarch shares power with Parliament
    • John Locke• Power comes fromconsent of thegoverned• People have the rightto overthrow abusivegovernment• Two Treatises ofCivil Government
    • Magna CartaIn 1215, King John ofEngland guaranteed rightto a trial by jury andconsent of a council ofnobles needed for anynew taxes.
    • Nelson Mandela• Imprisoned for speaking outagainst apartheid• South Africa’s first blackPresident
    • ManorialismEconomic system of feudal Europe –self-sufficient manors
    • Karl MarxBelieved workerswould eventuallyoverthrow theircapitalist bosses.
    • Mauryan EmpireEmperor Asokaconverted toBuddhismImprovedroads, buildhospitals, andencouragededucation.
    • Mayan CivilizationPre-Columbian civilization in Guatemala and YucatanBuilders and creators of a numbering system
    • Golda MeirFirst woman Prime Minister of Israel
    • MilitarismCivilians adopt military values and goals and become over-relianton military advisors – led to the outbreak of World War I
    • Ming Dynasty• Followed theMongols• Moved China’scapital toBeijing• Ruled for 300years of peaceand prosperity
    • MonarchySystem of government in which political power is inherited.
    • MonotheismBelief in one GodShared by Judaism,Christianity and Islam
    • Baron deMontesquieu• Separation of Powers –Executive, Legislative, andJudicial• Wrote The Spirit of Laws
    • Benito Mussolini•Italian leader duringWorld War II•Fascist state –controlled the press,abolishing unions,and outlawing strikes
    • Napoleonic Wars•Wars betweenNapoleon ofFrance and therest of Europe•Spread theideals of theFrenchRevolution
    • Printing Press•Johann Gutenberg•Movable type•Helped spread the ideasof the ProtestantReformation
    • Nationalism•Eachnationality isentitled to itsowngovernment andhomeland•A cause ofWorld War I
    • Neolithic RevolutionWhen people learned how to plant and grow crops, and herdanimals
    • Isaac NewtonDiscovered laws ofgravityUniverse acts according tocertain “fixed andfundamental” laws
    • Protestant ReformationLed by Martin Luther – Many Christians left the CatholicChurch for Protestant Churches
    • PythagorasGreek mathematician - Advances in geometry
    • Qin Dynasty•Qin Shi Huangdi – China’s firstemperor•Unified China, built roads and canals•Constructed the Great Wall to protectthe empire
    • Radical IslamicFundamentalismReaction by radical Muslims againstWestern valuesSeek to return to strict Islamic valuesand rules
    • RenaissanceA rebirth of European culture that started in Italy – spirit of inquiry – rediscoveryof classical learning – improvements in painting and architecture
    • RepublicA system of government by representatives.
    • Normandy LandingLargest amphibious assault in history - Allied troops landed at Normandy toretake France from the Nazis
    • Roman CivilizationAbsorbed Greek learning – known for engineering skills, rule of law, andThe Rise of Christianity
    • October Revolutionof 1917•Revolution in 1917•Bolsheviks seizedpower in Russia•Russia became aCommunist nation
    • OligarchyRule by a few, powerful people.
    • Ottomans•Turkish nomads fromCentral Asia•Ruled the Islamic world ofthe 13th century•Conquered Constantinoplein 1453
    • Panama CanalBuilt by the United States in Mesoamerica to providea short water route between the Atlantic and PacificOceans
    • Popular SovereigntyUltimate powerrests on theconsent of thepeople beinggoverned.
    • Louis PasteurScientist found that mostdiseases are caused by germsDeveloped new vaccinesPasteurization = killing germsby heating.
    • Pearl HarborDecember 7, 1941 – surprise attack by Japanese on the U.S.fleet in Hawaii that brought the U.S. into World War II
    • Fall of the RomanEmpireIn 476 – Rome wasoverrun by invadingbarbarian tribesFollowed by theDark Ages – a periodof great turmoil inEurope
    • Jean JacquesRousseau•Enlightenment Philosopher•Government should follow thewill of the people•Inspired the French Revolution
    • RwandaAfrican nation that experienced genocide against its Tutsipopulation by the Hutus.
    • Scientific RevolutionRejected traditionalteaching of theChurchIntroduced theScientific Method –observing natureand testinghypotheses
    • September 11, 2001Al-Qaeda terroristshijacked commercialairliners and crashedthem into the Pentagonand the World TradeCenter, killing thousandsof Americans.
    • Natan Sharansky•Russian dissident•Founder of RefusenikMovement•Imprisoned forspeaking out forhuman rights in USSR
    • SikhismReligion developed inNorthern IndiaSikhs believe in one Godwho can only be knownthrough meditation
    • Silk RoadTrade route connecting China to the Roman Empire. Chinaexported silk, porcelain and tea.
    • Adam SmithWrote Wealth of NationsAttacked mercantilismPromoted competition and thedivision of labor and free marketsystem
    • SocialismGovernment should pass laws to stop abuses ofworkers and should even take over some businesses
    • Song DynastyPeriod of great socialand economic progressin ChinaFirst use of papercurrency andstandardized coins
    • Joseph StalinCommunist leaderfollowing Lenin;Purged governmentof his opponents;Established atotalitarian state;Resisted Hitler andstarted the Cold War
    • Suez CanalProvided a shorter routefrom Europe to East Africa,India, and East Asia.Served as a lifeline betweenBritain and its colonies,especially India.
    • Tang DynastySuppressedpeasantuprisings,Reunited China,Revived feudalrelationships andbrought peaceand prosperity.
    • Ten CommandmentsCommandments in theJewish religionprohibiting stealing,murder and otherforms of immoralbehavior.
    • Mother TeresaCatholic nun who devotedher life to helping the poorand homeless in IndiaAwarded the Nobel PeacePrize.
    • TerrorismActs of violence against innocent civilians such ashijacking planes and attacking schools to make demandson a hostile government.
    • Margaret ThatcherFirst woman elected Prime Minister of Great Britain
    • TheocracyA society governedby religiousleaders – Presentday Iran is anexample.
    • Tiananmen SquareChinese students were fired on by tanks while leading peacefuldemonstrations for personal freedom and democracy.
    • Hedeki TojoLed the Japanese governmentduring World War IIConvinced the emperor tolaunch a surprise attack onthe United States
    • TotalitarianismA government thatcontrols all aspectsof life –government,military, schools,and otherorganizations.
    • Trench WarfareDuring World War I, ditches were dug to createfortified positions.
    • United NationsBegan in 1945,It’s purpose is to maintainworld peace andencourage cooperationamong nations.
    • Versailles TreatyTreaty between Allied Powers and Germany that endedWorld War I.
    • Queen VictoriaMonarch who doubled Britain’s size and favored social reforms.
    • Vietnam WarWar between CommunistNorth Vietnam and U.S.supported South Vietnam.Started with the Viet Conglaunching guerilla warfareagainst South Vietnam.
    • VoltaireEnlightenment thinker;Views on religioustoleration andintellectual freedominfluence leaders of theAmerican and FrenchRevolutions.
    • Lech WalesaPolish union leader whoorganized the SolidarityMovement.Led a workers’ strikethat led to free electionsand the end ofCommunist rule inPoland.
    • James WattScottish inventor whoimproved the steam engineand made steam poweravailable to run factoriesand machines.
    • William WilberforceReformer who led thefight to abolish theslave trade and slavery.
    • World War IAssassination ofArchduke Ferdinandset off a chainreaction thatinvolved mostnations of Europeand later, the UnitedState.
    • World War IIMost destructiveconflict in historyKilled anestimated 70millionLaunched whenHitler invadedPoland in 1939.
    • Mao Zedong•Chinese Communistleader who droveNationalists out of China.•Great Leap Forward•Cultural Revolution
    • Zhou DynastyZhou rulers justified their ruleby the Mandate of Heaven –If a ruler was selfish andruthless, Heaven wouldoverthrow him.