Fall of the Russian Empire & the Soviet Union 1905 - 1950s Soviet Union = USSR = Russia Thanks GSILL
THE FALL <ul><li>PROBLEMS in Russia: lack of freedom, poor leadership, major economic problems, large gap between the rich...
The First Revolution <ul><li>Peasants, workers, soldiers and  intelligentsia  all called for radical change.  </li></ul><u...
“ Bloodless” Revolution  (March 1917) <ul><li>The Czar had no choice but to step down in the face of rising casualties in ...
Provisional Government in Crisis <ul><li>Continued losses in WWI, continued economic crises, and the provisional govts.’ d...
The BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION <ul><li>Eventually, the Bolsheviks (one of the radical communist groups) and their leader, Vladmi...
Changes made by the Bolsheviks <ul><li>The Czar and his family were placed under arrest. </li></ul><ul><li>Bolshevik party...
CIVIL WAR :  1918 - 1921 <ul><li>Civil War began between the Red Army and White Army.   </li></ul><ul><li>RED - Bolsheviks...
CIVIL WAR :  1918 - 1921 <ul><li>Civil War period caused a major famine and suffering for civilians. </li></ul><ul><li>Bol...
Consequences <ul><li>Prolonged civil war deepened the distrust between the new communist state and its Western European ne...
STALIN!   As  General Secretary of the Communist Party, Stalin exerted total control over the  details of party structure....
Stalin <ul><li>&quot;Ideas are more dangerous than guns. We wouldn't let our enemies have guns, why should we let them hav...
Changing History
Changing History Four... Three... Two... One...
Socialism in One Country <ul><li>According to Stalin, the duty of the USSR was to first create strong socialist state - mu...
Socialism in One Country <ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of 5 year plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Socialism in One Country <ul><li>Agricultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1928 seized 25 million privately owned farm...
Socialism in One Country <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brutal techniques were used against workers and farmers </li>...
Socialism in One Country
Soviet Mentality <ul><li>Promises of prosperity and something great coming soon were believed </li></ul>
Soviet Mentality <ul><li>Brutality of the state was for their own protection (similar to Tsars’ control) </li></ul><ul><li...
Psycho! <ul><li>“ To choose one’s victims, to prepare one’s plan, to quench a strong desire for vengeance, and then to go ...
Gulags
The Great Terror 1937-38 <ul><li>Arrests - about 7 million  </li></ul><ul><li>Executions - about 1 million </li></ul><ul><...
Full Circle... <ul><li>Stalin died in 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>“ All of us around Stalin were temporary” </li></ul><ul><li>“...
Full Circle...
USSR- Changes in the Family <ul><li>Same changes as in the industrialized nations of the west. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban...
USSR- Women’s Status <ul><li>“ Legal equality” with men. </li></ul><ul><li>Women joined the work force in industrializatio...
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  • For example - criminals (including murderers) usually received less than 10 years, politicals usually got at least 10 years - if not 20 or 30. Once in the gulag system, the politicals (regular people) were terrorized by the criminals (bad people).
  • Russian rev soviet union

    1. 1. Fall of the Russian Empire & the Soviet Union 1905 - 1950s Soviet Union = USSR = Russia Thanks GSILL
    2. 2. THE FALL <ul><li>PROBLEMS in Russia: lack of freedom, poor leadership, major economic problems, large gap between the rich and poor, & food shortages. </li></ul><ul><li>EVENTS that challenged the Czar’s authority: unionization, westernization, defeat by the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War , “ Bloody Sunday ”, and lost battles of World War I. </li></ul>
    3. 3. The First Revolution <ul><li>Peasants, workers, soldiers and intelligentsia all called for radical change. </li></ul><ul><li>Street demonstrations and protests became widespread. Leaders began to question the government of the czar. </li></ul>
    4. 4. “ Bloodless” Revolution (March 1917) <ul><li>The Czar had no choice but to step down in the face of rising casualties in WWI and food shortages. </li></ul><ul><li>A Provisional Government was set up to rule. The new government combined democratic and socialist elements -- soviets were developed to govern in local areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Provisional govt. affirmed some natural rights and chose to continue war so that Russia might secure its borders and become a liberal democracy . </li></ul>
    5. 5. Provisional Government in Crisis <ul><li>Continued losses in WWI, continued economic crises, and the provisional govts.’ decision to release all political prisoners led to radical movements gaining support and momentum. </li></ul>
    6. 6. The BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION <ul><li>Eventually, the Bolsheviks (one of the radical communist groups) and their leader, Vladmir LENIN, gained enough support and power to seize control of the government (Nov. 1917) “on behalf of the people.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin found support among the soviets – urban worker groups that had formed </li></ul>
    7. 7. Changes made by the Bolsheviks <ul><li>The Czar and his family were placed under arrest. </li></ul><ul><li>Bolshevik party took political leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Land and labor reforms were enacted. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian troops withdrew from WWI. </li></ul>
    8. 8. CIVIL WAR : 1918 - 1921 <ul><li>Civil War began between the Red Army and White Army. </li></ul><ul><li>RED - Bolsheviks and other communists </li></ul><ul><li>WHITE - Nationalists, Monarchists, Moderates (with outside support) </li></ul>
    9. 9. CIVIL WAR : 1918 - 1921 <ul><li>Civil War period caused a major famine and suffering for civilians. </li></ul><ul><li>Bolshevik leaders executed the Czar and his family as the White Army gained control of more territory and scored victories in battle. </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Leon Trotsky, the Red Army finally took control of most of Russia. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Consequences <ul><li>Prolonged civil war deepened the distrust between the new communist state and its Western European neighbors, who had supported the White Army. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bolsheviks now had a powerful army, the Red Army. </li></ul>
    11. 11. STALIN! As General Secretary of the Communist Party, Stalin exerted total control over the details of party structure. His rivals were all removed violently or politically. And then came . . .
    12. 12. Stalin <ul><li>&quot;Ideas are more dangerous than guns. We wouldn't let our enemies have guns, why should we let them have ideas?&quot; -- Joseph Stalin </li></ul>
    13. 13. Changing History
    14. 14. Changing History Four... Three... Two... One...
    15. 15. Socialism in One Country <ul><li>According to Stalin, the duty of the USSR was to first create strong socialist state - must be able to ward off enemies! </li></ul><ul><li>“ We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years. Either we do it or we shall be crushed” – Stalin </li></ul>
    16. 16. Socialism in One Country <ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of 5 year plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fantastic results - by 1930’s USSR was the world’s 3rd leading industrial power! </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Socialism in One Country <ul><li>Agricultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1928 seized 25 million privately owned farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established gov’t owned farms called collectives </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Socialism in One Country <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brutal techniques were used against workers and farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret police coerced population to meet economic goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive famine killed 5-10 million </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Socialism in One Country
    20. 20. Soviet Mentality <ul><li>Promises of prosperity and something great coming soon were believed </li></ul>
    21. 21. Soviet Mentality <ul><li>Brutality of the state was for their own protection (similar to Tsars’ control) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Politicals” - Enemies of the people who were arrested for alleged spying, disloyalty, etc. Received worse punishments then common criminals </li></ul>
    22. 22. Psycho! <ul><li>“ To choose one’s victims, to prepare one’s plan, to quench a strong desire for vengeance, and then to go to bed . . .there is nothing sweeter in the world.” </li></ul><ul><li>Josef Stalin </li></ul>
    23. 23. Gulags
    24. 24. The Great Terror 1937-38 <ul><li>Arrests - about 7 million </li></ul><ul><li>Executions - about 1 million </li></ul><ul><li>( Stalin’s signature appears on death warrants of over 600,000) </li></ul><ul><li>In prison or camps in late 1938 - about 9 million </li></ul><ul><li>Died in camps - about 2 million </li></ul>
    25. 25. Full Circle... <ul><li>Stalin died in 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>“ All of us around Stalin were temporary” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Destalinization” of the USSR under Kruschev </li></ul>
    26. 26. Full Circle...
    27. 27. USSR- Changes in the Family <ul><li>Same changes as in the industrialized nations of the west. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family ties loosened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth rates declined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater emphasis on children succeeding </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. USSR- Women’s Status <ul><li>“ Legal equality” with men. </li></ul><ul><li>Women joined the work force in industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Women gained ground in certain professions – such as medicine. </li></ul>
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