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Russia 1450 1750

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  • Tatars were Turks who also were invading Russia, and then acted as an administrator for the Mongols
  • Or were the Mongols defeated? Ivan wanted Byzantine legacy for himself Called himself Tsar/Czar from Caesar Rebuilt the Kremlin with Italian architects Czar in charge of church - selected by God
  • Eliminated the “Terem” - the isolation of women Encouraged men and women to interact Taxed men who did not cut their beards Set up elementary schools in cities, 10 years later open universities
  • Eliminated the “Terem” - the isolation of women Encouraged men and women to interact Taxed men who did not cut their beards Set up elementary schools in cities, 10 years later open universities
  • Read Enlightenment thinkers works Communicated with Denis Diderot Passed “reforms” to lessen punishments on serfs Abolished death penalty Encouraged
  • Transcript

    • 1. Russia Brief History of an Empire 1450s to 1700s
    • 2. CULTURAL & POLITICAL INFLUENCES on RUSSIA
      • Slavic, Viking, European and Central Asian cultures
      • Byzantine missionaries brought Orthodox Christianity
      • Parts of Asian Russia had converted to Islam
    • 3.
      • Orthodox Christianity was eventually controlled by the Tsar.
    • 4. Early Russia & Invasion
      • Feudal Lords were loosely organized in what was call the Kievan Empire.
      • Then INVASION by the Mongols and Russia became part of the Mongol Empire from the 1200s to 1400s.
    • 5. 1240-1480 Mongol Rule
      • After the Mongols withdrew (or were they defeated?), a kingdom centered around Moscow had begun.
    • 6. Russia 1450 - 1690
      • The first TSARS (Caesars) expanded power and the growing Russian Empire into Siberia and Central Asia.
    • 7.  
    • 8. Russia 1450 - 1690
      • The first TSARS (or Czars)
      • Worked to gain power over the boyars (nobles) and create a strong central government.
    • 9.  
    • 10. Russia 1450 - 1690
      • Conflicts over the rule of Russia led to series of civil wars and political turmoil and outside invasions.
    • 11. The Romanovs
      • Romanov Dynasty began in 1613, when Russian independence was restored (lasting to 1914) after a period of civil wars and outside invasions.
    • 12. The power of the Tsars increased
      • Councils of Russian nobles were eliminated
      • Trained bureaucrats came from “lower classes” in the government and military instead of nobles being officials
      • Secret police and Tsar’s special forces suppressed rebellion
    • 13. New Openness to the West
      • 1689-1725 Tsar Peter the Great
      • Forced Westernization
      • Modernized army, built a navy, and continued expansion
      • Instituted an educational system
    • 14.
      • Western dress, architecture, styles &
      • BEARDS!
      • (But not politics.)
    • 15.
      • Allowed mobility in government based upon merit
      • Built St. Petersburg
      • Organized and modernized trade and commerce.
    • 16.  
    • 17. Russia became one of the great land empires.
      • “ Pioneers” expanded Russian territorial control
    • 18.  
    • 19. Reform, then Repression
      • 1762-1796 Catherine the Great (Tsarina)
      • Continued expansion and westernization
      • Was initially open to social reforms . . . “Enlightened Despot”
      • The French Revolution & rebellion at home caused her to become more oppressive
    • 20. Russian interaction with . . .
      • Ottoman Empire , Eastern Europe, and Central Asia Russian war victories led to territorial gains (especially Poland and around the Caspian sea)
      • China – mutual agreement on boundaries
    • 21.  
    • 22. Russian interaction with . . .
      • Western Europe – Westerners carried on much of the trade in Russia, Western styles from architecture to the military were mimicked, but Russia remained politically isolated from Western Europe.
    • 23. Themes in Early Modern Russia
      • Russia remained a traditional agricultural society.
      • Nobles continued to control the lower classes.
        • Serfdom was expanded and rural peasants suffered
        • Little freedom was offered to the lower classes
      • Social unrest and revolt was common