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Notes ifd

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  • 1. Unit 4BTHE MIDDLE AGES IN AFRICA AND ASIA 600-1450
  • 2. Origins, Central Ideas, and Spread of Islam Muhammad-Born in or about 570-considered the founder of Islam Muslims-Those who worship Allah and recognize Muhammad as the final prophet Mecca-The Holy City of the Islamic faith Allah-Monotheistic deity-also recognized as the God of Abraham and the Jewish people (and Christians)
  • 3. Origins, Central Ideas, and Spread of Islam Hajj-Pilgrimage to Mecca that each Muslim is required (health permitting) to take within their lifetime Quran- The holy book of Islam-contains the revelations received by Mohammad Jihad (Holy Struggle)-The expansion of the Islamic state and control Trade and the Spread of religion-Silk Roads, Indian Ocean Trade
  • 4. Interactions… People conquered by Muslims chose to accept Islam b/c they were attracted to the religious message as well as not having to pay a tax Forced conversion was forbidden by the Qur’an, so conquered people could keep their own religion Christians and Jews served as officials, scholars, and bureaucrats in Muslim states Extensive trade network (Europe, Asia, and N. Africa)
  • 5. Interactions… Cultural blending leads to achievements in art and science in Muslim-controlled cities in Asia, Europe, and N. Africa Crusades As Islam spreads to N. Africa, the Berbers (originally Christian and Jewish) convert to Islam. They are important in the African gold-salt trade.
  • 6. Interactions…India Muslim tribes invade starting in NW India in the 600s. Muslim minority ruling a Hindu majority (Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire) Sikhism develops
  • 7. Political, Economic, and Social Impact of Islam on Asia Mongol invasions of Baghdad-End of Abbasids and a unified Islamic empire Ottomans (Turkey), Safavids (Persia), and Mughals (India) Growth of Islam in non-Arab cultures
  • 8. Political, Economic, and Social Impact of Islam on Africa Arab settlers in port cities in East Africa Bantu languages blend with Arabic-Swahili Introduction of the slave trade in Africa Growth of commerce in East Africa leads to spread of Islam to other parts of the continent Gold-Salt trade between North African Muslims and empires of West Africa lead to spread of Islam in West Africa
  • 9. Turning Points in World History 600-1450 Expansion of Islam into N. Africa and Spain Umayyad caliphate: Damascus Sunni/Shi’a split Abbasid caliphate: Baghdad Fatimid caliphate: Cairo Golden Age in mathematics and science, including chemistry, scientific method, and medicine
  • 10. Turning Points in World History 600-1450 Mongol Invasions 13th century-spread across Eurasia to create one of the world’s largest empires Brutal conquest of the Abbasids and Russia Pax Mongolia-supported trade along Silk Road Kublai Khan-Yuan dynasty in China
  • 11. Tang China (618-907 A.D.) Political developments  Add territory in Manchuria and Vietnam  Chinese influence in Korean peninsula  Restoration of bureaucracy started during Han dynasty  Scholar-officials take civil service exams to work in government jobs Economic Developments  Foreign trade increases-Silk Roads  New inventions; porcelain, mechanical clocks, block printing, gunpowder  Tea from S.E. Asia
  • 12. Tang China (618-907 A.D.) Cultural Developments  Spread of Buddhism through trade to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam  Greater social mobility (move up in society)  Urbanization-movement to cities  Decline in women’s status-footbinding
  • 13. Song China (960-1279) Political Developments  Rule limited to Southern China Economic Developments  Introduction of fast-growing rice from Vietnam-population growth  Movable type spreads to Japan and Korea  Paper money leads to economic growth  Advances in sailing technology (magnetic compass) lead to growth in ocean trade Cultural Developments  Art-landscapes in black ink  Population at 100 million with ten cities having at least 1 million
  • 14. Development of Slave Trade First major development-7th Century when Islamic traders trade goods for Africans and transport them to S.W. Asia Muslim African rulers enslave non-Muslims on the Islamic belief that they could be bought and sold as slaves 4.5 million Africans transported as slaves to S.W. Asia from 650-1000 A.D. Slaves in African and Muslim societies had legal rights and opportunity for social mobility
  • 15. Trade and New Ideas… Silk Road-China to Rome-spices and silk from east transported west. Indian merchants are middlemen and become wealthy Cultural diffusion (Buddhism and Islam) African Gold-Salt Trade- Arab and Berber traders took salt from Sahara to West Africa in exchange for gold. West African traders also traded gold for salt in N. Africa Cultural diffusion (Islam)
  • 16. Trade and New Ideas… Indian Ocean Trade Arab traders spread Islam to East Africa Arab slave trade along East African coast Piracy Monsoon winds
  • 17. Impact of Mongols Russia  Fall of Kiev  Religion and culture permitted to continue as long as high tributes were paid  Isolation from western Europe-no spread of new ideas and inventions  Moscow emerges as major city  Ivan III takes title of czar-throws off Mongol rule
  • 18. Impact of Mongols China  Northern China conquered 1234  Kublai Khan completes capture of Southern China in 1279 and establishes the Yuan dynasty  China united for 1st time in 300 years (after the fall of the Tang)  Mongol control over most of Asia opens China to foreign contacts and trade (Marco Polo)
  • 19. Impact of Mongols Islamic World  Baghdad (Abbasid caliphate) sacked and 10,000 killed  Poorly administered by the Mongols and leads to way to the rise of the Ottoman Turks
  • 20. Diffusion of Ideas Islamic World  House of Wisdom in Baghdad-translated scientific and medical documents into Arabic  Astrolabe  Algebra  Optics Tang China  Porcelain  Movable type  Gunpowder  Mechanical clock  Paper Money  Magnetic compass
  • 21. Influence of Islam on Law and Government in the Islamic World Shari’a-Islamic law-Regulates family life, moral conduct, and business matters Religious matters are not separate from criminal or civil matters Islamic judges (qadis) apply the law and imams (religious leaders) interpret the law Regulation of human behavior (5 Pillars of Islam) Dietary/Clothing restrictions Sunni/Shi’a split

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