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Lecture08 tang&song china

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  • 1. China during the Sui, Tang, & Song Dynasties Sui 589-618 Tang 618-907 Song 960 -1279
  • 2. Background
    • After the fall of the Han Empire in 220 c.e., northern China was controlled by Central Asian & Tibetan nomads; no group in southern China was strong enough to control the entire region (30 dynasties in about 300 years claimed the Mandate of Heaven).
    • For 350 years, regional rule was the political reality.
  • 3. Background
    • By 589, the first emperor of the Sui dynasty had forcefully reunited northern and southern China once again.
    • The foundations for the Tang & Song Dynasties were laid.
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6. China during the Sui, Tang, & Song Dynasties Sui 589-618 Tang 618-907 Song 960 -1279
  • 7. “ A Golden Age”
    • China during the Tang and Song dynasties enjoyed political stability, economic growth, and intellectual and artistic achievement.
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13. SUI, TANG, & SONG CHINA The more things change, the more they stay the same.
  • 14.
    • Comparatively, Chinese culture retained many of its characteristics from Ancient through the Tang & Song era.
    • Confucianism remained a foundation of society and culture
    • China continued to be superior in many advancements, in technology, and ideas
    • Emperor and the bureaucracy
  • 15.
    • Written language separate from spoken languages
    • The social class structure and gender roles remained relatively constant.
  • 17. Politics & Government
    • The frontiers were stabilized & attempts at expansion were partially successful.
    • Centralized government returned along with a bureaucracy of trained civil servants.
  • 18. Agriculture
    • Agricultural production improved & crop specialization intensified with improved infrastructure and printing and iron implements .
    • Champa rice –
    • Could be harvested
    • twice
    • China lost its monopoly on silk (but still had a superior product)
    • China was the sole supplier of porcelain to the world
    • China began cotton, tea, and sugar production and export.
    • Advanced metallurgy and mining
  • 20. TRADE
    • Regional trade improved with improved infrastructure Indian Ocean trade increased with Tang control over coastal Southern China
    • Silk Road trade increased
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. Finance
    • The use of a credit system (flying money)
    • Government issued paper money.
    • Some areas of the economy were privatized during the Song era.
    • Growth of cities led to growth of industry, trade, and the empires’ economy
  • 24. Some Results
    • Land was no longer the ONLY source of wealth.
    • Trade led to cultural and technological influences—stronger connections with Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and other parts of Asia.
    • Chinese trade became an even stronger force in Eurasia.
  • 25. Social Classes
    • Landowners (landed gentry) were at the top of the social class system.
    • Scholar-gentry and military leaders were another group in the upper class.
    • Merchants and artisans could acquire a great deal of wealth from industry and trade (but were in the lower class).
    • Soldiers, peasants, and slaves were at the bottom of the social classes.
  • 26. Gender Roles
    • Women’s status slowly declined (despite attempts at reform by several empresses).
    • The Song Period saw women
    • at a very low social status.
      • Seclusion, lack of property rights, footbinding, and exclusion from education are
      • all examples of their lowering status.
  • 27. From Ning Lao T'ai-t'ai
    • “ A girl's beauty and desirability were counted more by the size of her feet than by the beauty of her face. Matchmakers were not asked, 'Is she beautiful?' but 'How small are her feet?' A plain face is given by heaven but poorly bound feet are a sign of laziness.”
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. Technology
    • First chain driven mechanism - the clock (1088)
    • Gunpowder
    • Paper production and block printing techniques were invented and then advanced—moveable type.
    • Boat building and navigational technology was more advanced than the rest of the world.
  • 32. Advancements included:
    • Tang and Song China had the largest cities in the world at that time.
    • Song Chinese were the first to use fractions in computations and equations.
    • Solar year was accurately measured
    • Doctors in Song China compiled and printed medical texts
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • In terms of advancements, innovations, and knowledge, China benefited from centuries of Chinese scholarship and technology.
    • Influences from other parts of the world (especially during the Tang period) also had a considerable effect.