Late 19thcentury and20th centuriesSnapshotLatin America& Mexico(afterindependence)
Cultural & Social Continuities• Roman Catholicism as a belief system– Influences politics• Importance of the family and strongpatriarchy• Large gap between upper classes and lowerclasses.• Native beliefs and identity
Cultural and Social Changes• Liberation Theology - Roman Catholic non-violent activists working to end socialinequality and unjust treatment of the poor• Protestant Evangelical Christianity hasgrown.• Globalization – has led to changes in culture,gender roles, and youth
Political Changes New Nation States in the19th century:
Political Continuities• Importance of the military– Military leadership took controlto end chaos or solve problemsothers couldn’t solve.• Caudillo Political Leadership– Military leaders who rose topower– Many became dictators
Political Changes• Revolutionary groups have challenged politicalpower– Socialist/Communist groups– Native groups– Terrorist Groups• Laborers have supported changes in leadership.• Mexican Revolution of the early 1900s led tonationalization of resources and industry• Cuban Revolution – Fidel Castro led communistrevolution in Cuba
Economic ContinuitiesDependency on the West• Plantation then estateagriculture for export wasa base of the economies.• Western marketsdetermined LatinAmerican exports.• Latin America wasdependent on Westerninvestment andmanufactured goods.• Limited industrialization.
Economic Changes• Mining and early oilindustry began• Extension of road,rail, and canalnetworks
Change - Effects of the GreatDepression on Latin America• Foreigninvestments andpurchases declined• The liberals werediscredited and sowas Westerncapitalism• Violent coups in 12countries.
Change-Effects of World Wars on Latin America• Import substitutionindustrialization – growthin industry in LatinAmerica to manufacturewhat had been imported• Distrust of Western ideasof government andeconomy. Growth of . . .– Socialism/communism– Liberation theology
Economic Changes• Drug trafficking hadboth political andeconomic effects inregions of LatinAmerica.