Latin america and mexico after independence

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  • 1. Late 19 th century and 20 th centuries Snapshot Latin America & Mexico (after independence)
  • 2. Political Changes
    • After independence, Nations and Regions in Latin America separated after revolutions:
      • Gran Colombia
      • Bolivia and Peru
      • United Provinces of Central America
  • 3. Political Continuities
    • Caudillo Political Leadership
      • Military leaders who rose to power
      • Many became dictators
    • Importance of the military
      • Military leadership took control to end chaos or solve problems others couldn’t solve.
  • 4. Economic Continuities
    • Plantation then estate agriculture for export was a base of the economies.
    • Dependency on the West
      • Western markets determined Latin American exports
      • Latin America was dependent on Western investment and manufactured goods.
      • Limited industrialization
  • 5. Dollar Diplomacy (creating “Banana Republics”)
    • Western companies gained considerable political influence.
      • Was the United Fruit Company in Central America like the British East India Company?
  • 6. Economic Changes
    • Mining and early oil industry began
    • Extension of road and rail networks
    • World Wars and Economic depression created major disruptions in LA economies.
  • 7. Continuity in Latin America – US involvement
  • 8.  
  • 9. Effects of the Great Depression on Latin America
    • Foreign investments and purchases declined
    • The liberals were discredited and so was laissez-faire capitalism
    • Violent coups in 12 countries.
  • 10. Responses to the Economic Crisis
    • Socialism or corporatism – the govt. controlled the economy to mediate the interests of different groups
    • Fascism & nationalism
    • Reforms to include more groups in govt. and economy.
  • 11. Effects of World Wars on Latin America
    • Import substitution industrialization – growth in industry in Latin America to manufacture what had been imported
    • Distrust of Western ideas of government and economy. Growth of . . .
      • Socialism/communism
      • Liberation theology