Euro expansion, etc 1450 1750


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Euro expansion, etc 1450 1750

  1. 1. Expansion Exploration, Trade, Conquest, and Colonization 1450s to 1750s
  2. 2. Did you know? • The Chinese had sent expeditions throughout the Indian Ocean – then decided to isolate themselves.
  3. 3. Voyages of Chinese Admiral Zheng He, 1405-1433
  4. 4. Do you remember • The Ottoman Empire controlled the Eastern Mediterranean trade. Italian city-states had a monopoly on most imports into western Europe.
  5. 5. Did you know that • Muslim merchants dominated the multi-cultural Indian Ocean trading network from the 800s to 1300s.
  6. 6. Here come the Europeans!
  7. 7. What allowed / caused Europeans to begin their exploration, trade involvement, and conquest? Improvements in technology • Better ship design (caravel)
  8. 8. • The Gunpowder revolution • Navigation – compass, sextant, ast rolabe, maps.
  9. 9. In Europe… • Demographic recovery after the plague • Crusading Spirit • Fragmented state-building led to competition • Portuguese began exploring in 1415 • Columbus reached the Americas in 1492 • Vasco de Gama sailed around Africa to India 1497-98
  10. 10. Training and Experience • Portuguese Seafaring Schools • Experience in wars with Muslims • Experience with winds of the Atlantic
  11. 11. DESIRE FOR PROFIT • To find a faster more profitable trade route to Asia and control Asian trade networks • After Europeans made contact with the Americas, to gain access to the gold and silver of the Americas (then later its other resources)
  12. 12. Religious Reasons. . .The desire to: • spread Christian religion and political control • Defeat Islamic forces
  13. 13. European Exploration, Expansion, Trade, and Conquest RESULTS
  14. 14. RESULTS of the Exploration, Expansion, and Colonization   Asia - First the Portuguese and Spanish, then the Dutch, English, and others began to take control of Indian Ocean trade. China and Japan continued to control their own ports and profits. Africa – Europeans set up trading ports along the coasts. Slaves became an important commodity.
  15. 15. Europeans in Asia and Africa   Political and economic impact of Europeans in Africa and Asia was mainly limited to the oceans and coastal regions. Cultural influence of Europeans and Christianity was limited.
  16. 16. Europeans in the Americas    Mesoamerica and South America – were eventually controlled by the Spanish and Portuguese. North America – Dutch, British, and French controlled. Competition led to “progress”
  17. 17. Europeans in the Americas  Europeans had significant political, economic, and social (cultural and religious) influence in many parts of the Americas.
  18. 18. Europeans in the Americas   Native peoples numbers declined drastically and the importation of African slaves began. Plantations economies and extraction of other resources began.
  19. 19. The world was changing Global trade increased dramatically.  Europe, China, & Islamic Empires exported manufactured goods  Americas, Africa, and parts of Asia exported a variety of raw materials.  The trade of these goods was increasingly controlled by competing European nations.
  20. 20. The World Shrinks Columbian Exchange (Revolution) -between Western Hempisphere, Africa, and Eurasia  DISEASES  CROPS  LIVESTOCK and Animals
  21. 21. International Trade Two trends developed:  decreased manufacturing in parts of the Americas, Africa, and Asia  Coercive labor systems spread: slavery in the Americas, parts of Asia and Africa.
  22. 22. Changes in Commerce Commercial Revolution –  Inflation in Europe and Islamic Empires  Manufacturing increased  Increased prosperity – more “things” for more people