EARLY MAN to
Paleolithic Period and Neolithic Period
The Paleolithic Period
2.5 Million BCE to 12000 BCE ish
(Before the Common Era)
• Humans migrated from Africa to Eurasia,
Australia, & the Americas
• Used fire in new ways
• Used wider range of tools
• Humans were hunter – gatherers
– (1 square mile needed to support two people
• Economic structures focused on kinship
groups (family and clan)
remains to describe
The Ice Man?
Eastern North America
In response to warming climates, from about
10,000 years ago, SETTLED AGRICULTURE
appeared in a number of places..
Settled Agriculture led to what is called
the Neolithic Revolution
• Neolithic Revolution is the period known
for changes in human societies caused by
agriculture and pastoralism (herding of
How did people learn to farm
and domesticate animals?
The Neolithic Revolution
Changes to the environment
More complex economies and social
• Patriarchy & forced labor systems
• Specialization of labor (including artisans &
• More hierarchical social structures (elites and
Domestication of Plants and Animals
Surplus Food Specialization
also known as
5) Specialized jobs
6) Social classes
3) Writing and
4) Highly organized
2) Central governments
and law codes
Elements of Civilization include:
Is civilization more “civilized”?
Agricultural settlements led to
achievements, but also. . .
• Population increases
• Stronger Patriarchy & Slavery
• Rigid social classes
• Increased dependence on agriculture
So . . .
• If a society is not a “civilization,” with
cities, complex institutions and record
keeping, what is that society?
– Backward or Unimportant?
• How that society is described depends
on the INTERPRETATION of the
archeologist and/or historian!