Early man to civilizations

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Early man to civilizations

  1. 1. EARLY MAN to First Civilizations Paleolithic Period and Neolithic Period
  2. 2. The Paleolithic Period 2.5 Million BCE to 12000 BCE ish (Before the Common Era) • Humans migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, & the Americas • Used fire in new ways • Used wider range of tools • Humans were hunter – gatherers – (1 square mile needed to support two people • Economic structures focused on kinship groups (family and clan)
  3. 3. Archeologists interpret remains to describe early man.
  4. 4. The “Ice Man”
  5. 5. The Ice Man? http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/11 /iceman-autopsy/hall-text
  6. 6. Mesoamerica Andes Amazonia Eastern North America New Guinea China Ethiopia West Africa Fertile Crescent In response to warming climates, from about 10,000 years ago, SETTLED AGRICULTURE appeared in a number of places.. Nile valley
  7. 7. Settled Agriculture led to what is called the Neolithic Revolution • Neolithic Revolution is the period known for changes in human societies caused by agriculture and pastoralism (herding of animals)
  8. 8. How did people learn to farm and domesticate animals?
  9. 9. The Neolithic Revolution transformed societies Changes to the environment Increased population More complex economies and social systems • Patriarchy & forced labor systems • Specialization of labor (including artisans & warriors) • More hierarchical social structures (elites and commoners)
  10. 10. - Improvements in agricultural production, trade, & transportation Wheeled vehicles Pottery Plows Woven textilesMetallurgy
  11. 11. Domestication of Plants and Animals Farming Surplus Food Specialization Population Intensification Complex Society, also known as CIVILIZATION
  12. 12. 14 7) Complex Technologies Chariot 5) Specialized jobs 6) Social classes Bronze Sword 3) Writing and record keeping 4) Highly organized religion 1) Cities 2) Central governments and law codes Elements of Civilization include:
  13. 13. Early River Valley Civilizations
  14. 14. Is civilization more “civilized”? Agricultural settlements led to achievements, but also. . . • Population increases • Stronger Patriarchy & Slavery • Rigid social classes • War • Increased dependence on agriculture
  15. 15. So . . . • If a society is not a “civilization,” with cities, complex institutions and record keeping, what is that society? – Barbarian? – Uncivilized? – Outsiders? – Backward or Unimportant? • How that society is described depends on the INTERPRETATION of the archeologist and/or historian!

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