EARLY MAN toFirst Civilizations Paleolithic Period and Neolithic Period
The Paleolithic Period 2.5 Million BCE to 12000 BCE ish (Before the Common Era)• Humans migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, & the Americas• Used fire in new ways• Used wider range of tools• Humans were hunter – gatherers – (1 square mile needed to support two people• Economic structures focused on kinship groups (family and clan)
Archeologists interpretremains to describeearly man.
The Ice Man?
Due Tomorrow: Read the “Iceman” article by Leon Jaroff –from my website-- & writeresponses to the following questions in your notebook.1. Who wrote the source? When? Who is the intended audience?2. What are the beliefs about early man that the Iceman changed?3. What is the main idea or thesis of this article?4. Jaroff gives some explanations for the tattoos on the prehistoric man. What are several other possible explanations for the tattoos purpose or location?5. Give characteristics or elements of this article that make the article seem reliable as a source.
Eastern North America China Fertile Crescent Nile valley West Mesoamerica Africa New Guinea Ethiopia Andes AmazoniaIn response to warming climates, from about 10,000 years ago, SETTLED AGRICULTURE appeared in a number of places..
Settled Agriculture led to what is called the Neolithic Revolution• Neolithic Revolution is the period known for changes in human societies caused by agriculture and pastoralism (herding of animals)
How did people learn to farm and domesticate animals?
The Neolithic Revolution transformed societiesChanges to the environmentIncreased populationMore complex economies and social systems• Patriarchy & forced labor systems• Specialization of labor (including artisans & warriors)• More hierarchical social structures (elites and commoners)
Domestication of Plants and Animals Farming Population Surplus Food SpecializationIntensification Complex Society, also known as CIVILIZATION
Elements of civilization include: 1) Cities Mohenjo Daro It’s the law 2) Central governments And Law codes Hammurabi’s Law Code 15Pharaohs
Elements of Civilization include:1) Cities2) Central governments and law codes 3) Writing and record keeping Can you identify the society represented by each of these two writing samples? 4) Highly organized religions 16
Elements of Civilization include:1) Cities2) Central Governments and law codes3) Writing and 5) Specialized Jobs record keeping4) Highly organized religion Full-time monk 6) Social Classes Assyrian slaves In Egypt 17
Elements of Civilization include:1) Cities2) Central governments and law codes 7) Complex4) Highly organized3) Writing and record keeping Technologies r e l i g i Chariot5) Specialized jobs o n6) Social classes Bronze Sword 18
Early River Valley Civilizations
Is civilization more “civilized”?Agricultural settlements led to achievements, but also. . .• Population increases• Stronger Patriarchy & Slavery• Rigid social classes• War• Increased dependence on agriculture
So . . .• If a society is not a “civilization,” with cities, complex institutions and record keeping, what is that society? – Barbarian? – Uncivilized? – Outsiders? – Backward or Unimportant?• How that society is described depends on the INTERPRETATION of the archeologist and/or historian!