• A series ofThe Crusades military campaigns from the 1090s to the 1400s by a variety of European military groups into parts of the Byzantine Empire and Muslim controlled Middle East.
THE CRUSADES• The Islamic groups holding the regions of the Middle East were not unified at the time.• Massacres were committed by Muslim and Christian armies during the wars.
Crusader KingdomsEuropean armies took and held regions in the Middle East fornearly a century.
Events that may have led to the CrusadesChristian Church in Jerusalem was destroyed.Pilgrim routes (to the Holy Land) were closed for a period of time.Byzantine Empire was losing territory to Islamic Turks and the Byzantine leaders requested assistance from other Christian kingdoms.
Reasons to go on CRUSADERead Pope Urban II’s speech –Summarize the main ideas of the speech by listing in your notebook the:“The top 5 reasons to go on Crusades.”
Categorize your five reasons.What are the political, economic, social, and religious reasons he gives?
RELIGIOUS Causes• God, through the Pope, commanded it• Regain Holy Lands and pilgrim routes• Automatic forgiveness of sins
POLITICAL Causes• End fighting among Europeans (civil wars)• Help defend Byzantine Empire which will keep Muslim armies from Europe.• Gain power / territory at the expense of Islamic groups
ECONOMIC Causes• Chance for wealth and land! (Especially for knights who are little brothers.)
SOCIAL Causes• Chance to improve social status.
RESULTS of the CRUSADESOn the Byzantine Empire• Weakening of the Empire due to the pillaging of Constantinople and taking of Byzantine lands.• Severed political and religious connections to Western Europe.