Political Developments-Persia<br />Centralized Authority of an Absolute monarch…<br />Ruled by the will of the Persian god Ahura Mazda<br />Ruled over 35 million people-respected diverse cultural traditions of subject people<br />Appointed governors in each of the empire’s 23 provinces<br />Ruled over an imperial bureaucracy (administrators, tax collectors, record keepers)<br />
Political Developments-Persia<br />Standardized coinage<br />Taxes<br />“Royal Road”<br />Imperial Centers-Grand cities that became symbols of imperial authority.<br />
Political Developments-Qin & Han <br />Central authority controlled . . .<br />Appointment of governors<br />*Standardization<br />iron, salt, and silk trade<br />Religion<br />Unified written language<br />Expansion of bureaucracy<br />Used military to expand and control empire<br />Education and examination system created a scholar gentry class of government workers. <br />
Political Developments-Qin & Han <br />Mandate of Heaven<br />Dynastic Cycle continued<br />Emperors used status as “Son of Heaven” to reinforce their rule<br />Assimilated non-Chinese culturally, linguistically, and through intermarriage<br />
Political Developments in Rome – Central Authority (Republic-Imperial Rule)<br />Emperor and Rome had authority (previously Senate and two consuls)<br />Military power kept stability (military power also built the empire)<br />Upper class bureaucracy<br />Assimilation through Citizenship (to conquered people)<br />
Political Developments in Mediterranean<br />Local rulers maintained regional rule with Roman oversight-not as centralized as China<br />Emperors used religion to increase their authority<br />Diversity in religious beliefs and languages<br />Local trade relatively unrestricted – except for the trade of grains<br />Unlike China, Romans had an elaborate collection of written laws (good men vs. good laws)<br />
The Collapse of Empire-Rome and Han China-Common Factors<br />Too big-overextended<br />Too expensive to maintain<br />Large landowning families diminish power of central authority<br />Epidemic disease<br />Threat from nomadic/pastoral people on frontier regions of empire<br />
The Collapse of Empire-Rome and Han China-Common Factors<br />Decline of urban life (cities)<br />Contracting population (it gets smaller)<br />Less area under cultivation (less food)<br />Diminishing international trade<br />Insecurity for ordinary people<br />
The Collapse of Empire-Rome and Han China-The Differences<br />Rome<br />No large scale, centralized authority ever rules over W. Europe for any significant time…ever!<br />Han China<br />After several hundred years, a new dynasty emerges with a single emperor, a bureaucracy selected by education and exams, and Confucian beliefs<br />
INDIAN Political Developments-Regionalism of Mauryan & Gupta <br />“Independent” regional rulers<br />Diversity in religious/cultural beliefs and languages<br />Local trade relatively unrestricted-Center of Indian Ocean trade networks.<br />Some state-run industries (spinning, weaving, mining, shipbuilding, and weapons)<br />
INDIAN Political Developments-Regionalism of Mauryan & Gupta <br />Identity comes from religious tradition (Hinduism) and a unique social organization (caste)<br />Caste structured society more than any imperial authority could!<br />Mauryan Empire DID have…large military forces and a civilian bureaucracy (taxes)<br />
Some Similarities…<br />Centralized Monarchies-Exceptions?<br />Bureaucracy-Most extensive?<br />Investment in Public Works-Examples?<br />Ability to tax<br />Military<br />Religion reinforced political authority-Examples?<br />
Political Developments in Persia,India, China, and the Mediterranean<br /><ul><li>Military conquest and </li></ul>expansion of territory.<br />
Political Developments in Persia, India, China, and the Mediterranean<br />Central government sponsored public works projects (Integration of empire)<br />
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