Classical civs political development
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Classical civs political development

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Classical civs political development Classical civs political development Presentation Transcript

  • Classical Civilizations – Political Developments
  • The Dynasties and Empires
    China
    Qin
    Han
    India
    Mauryan
    Gupta
    Mediterranean
    Persian Empire
    City-States of Greece
    Alexander’s Conquests
    Roman Empire
  • Political Developments-Persia
    Centralized Authority of an Absolute monarch…
    Ruled by the will of the Persian god Ahura Mazda
    Ruled over 35 million people-respected diverse cultural traditions of subject people
    Appointed governors in each of the empire’s 23 provinces
    Ruled over an imperial bureaucracy (administrators, tax collectors, record keepers)
  • Political Developments-Persia
    Standardized coinage
    Taxes
    “Royal Road”
    Imperial Centers-Grand cities that became symbols of imperial authority.
  • Political Developments-Qin & Han
    Central authority controlled . . .
    Appointment of governors
    *Standardization
    iron, salt, and silk trade
    Religion
    Unified written language
    Expansion of bureaucracy
    Used military to expand and control empire
    Education and examination system created a scholar gentry class of government workers.
  • Political Developments-Qin & Han
    Mandate of Heaven
    Dynastic Cycle continued
    Emperors used status as “Son of Heaven” to reinforce their rule
    Assimilated non-Chinese culturally, linguistically, and through intermarriage
  • Political Developments in Rome – Central Authority (Republic-Imperial Rule)
    Emperor and Rome had authority (previously Senate and two consuls)
    Military power kept stability (military power also built the empire)
    Upper class bureaucracy
    Assimilation through Citizenship (to conquered people)
  • Political Developments in Mediterranean
    Local rulers maintained regional rule with Roman oversight-not as centralized as China
    Emperors used religion to increase their authority
    Diversity in religious beliefs and languages
    Local trade relatively unrestricted – except for the trade of grains
    Unlike China, Romans had an elaborate collection of written laws (good men vs. good laws)
  • The Collapse of Empire-Rome and Han China-Common Factors
    Too big-overextended
    Too expensive to maintain
    Large landowning families diminish power of central authority
    Epidemic disease
    Threat from nomadic/pastoral people on frontier regions of empire
  • The Collapse of Empire-Rome and Han China-Common Factors
    Decline of urban life (cities)
    Contracting population (it gets smaller)
    Less area under cultivation (less food)
    Diminishing international trade
    Insecurity for ordinary people
  • The Collapse of Empire-Rome and Han China-The Differences
    Rome
    No large scale, centralized authority ever rules over W. Europe for any significant time…ever!
    Han China
    After several hundred years, a new dynasty emerges with a single emperor, a bureaucracy selected by education and exams, and Confucian beliefs
  • INDIAN Political Developments-Regionalism of Mauryan & Gupta
    “Independent” regional rulers
    Diversity in religious/cultural beliefs and languages
    Local trade relatively unrestricted-Center of Indian Ocean trade networks.
    Some state-run industries (spinning, weaving, mining, shipbuilding, and weapons)
  • INDIAN Political Developments-Regionalism of Mauryan & Gupta
    Identity comes from religious tradition (Hinduism) and a unique social organization (caste)
    Caste structured society more than any imperial authority could!
    Mauryan Empire DID have…large military forces and a civilian bureaucracy (taxes)
  • Some Similarities…
    Centralized Monarchies-Exceptions?
    Bureaucracy-Most extensive?
    Investment in Public Works-Examples?
    Ability to tax
    Military
    Religion reinforced political authority-Examples?
  • Political Developments in Persia,India, China, and the Mediterranean
    • Military conquest and
    expansion of territory.
  • Political Developments in Persia, India, China, and the Mediterranean
    Central government sponsored public works projects (Integration of empire)