China revolution & mao


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China revolution & mao

  1. 1. Revolution in China and Communist China (How does this compare with the Russian Revolution and Stalin’s Soviet Union) This presentation relies heavily on a power point created by Dan McDowell. Teaching Point, ©2003
  2. 2. Revolution in China Where are the sources? History is interpretation!
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Manchu / Qing Dynasty maintained limited power despite forced concessions to western nations and Japan at the beginning of the 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Rural & urban workers, nationalists, communists, and intellectuals challenged the government. </li></ul><ul><li>The dynasty fell in 1911 and a weak provisional government took its place. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background <ul><li>After the Chinese emperor fell, regional warlords took control of many parts of China. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalist groups and communist groups moved to gain power. </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Yat-sen became the leading figure in the Nationalist movement. </li></ul><ul><li>There was an shaky alliance between Nationalists and Communists. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Background <ul><li>Between 1925 – 1937 the NATIONALISTS led by Chiang Kai-shek and the COMMUNISTS led by Mao Zedong fought for control of China </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nationalists vs Communists <ul><li>Chiang used brutal tactics against his rivals within the Nationalist party and violently attacked communists leaders, worker groups, and their supporters. </li></ul><ul><li>Allies in organized crime, and Western powers supported Chiang. </li></ul><ul><li>GMD controlled much of China. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Chiang Kai-shek <ul><li>Encouraged continued western investment in China and worked closely with foreign investors. </li></ul><ul><li>He failed to consolidate power, improve the economy (especially the peasants), or modernize China </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Long March <ul><li>In 1934 Chiang Kai-shek attacked the communist strong-hold in Hunan province. </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Long March <ul><li>100,000 men retreated 6000 miles over 370 days to a new communist base in Northern China. </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 soldiers remained </li></ul>
  10. 11. Mao Zedong became the leader of the communists. <ul><li>More concerned with the plight of the Chinese peasant – who had been ignored by the GMD </li></ul>
  11. 12. Mao Zedong <ul><li>Led the army in developing guerilla warfare tactics to fight the Nationalists and then Japanese </li></ul>
  12. 13. Civil War / Japanese Invasion <ul><li>1937 – Japan invaded China proper </li></ul><ul><li>Communists and Nationalists fought the Japanese “separately together”. </li></ul><ul><li>Communists were more effective in their guerilla war against the Japanese than the Nationalist army. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Civil War & Cold War <ul><li>After WWII ended, civil war continued. </li></ul><ul><li>The US began sending military and tactical help to Chiang Kai-shek and the USSR provided minimal help to Mao Zedong </li></ul>
  14. 15. Communist Victory <ul><li>1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists were driven out of mainland China to Taiwan, the Communists claimed victory and founded the Communist People’s Republic of China led by Mao Zedong. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Power Base of Mao <ul><li>The ARMY was already established in the fight against the Japanese and the Nationalists. </li></ul><ul><li>PEASANT support grew even stronger with early redistributions of land by the government. </li></ul><ul><li>OTHERS supported the government because of propaganda and education. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Mao consolidated power <ul><li>Many who were nationalists, upperclass, or dissidents were imprisoned in forced labor camps or killed. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Economic Development <ul><li>Foreign economic influence was eliminated – most foreigners were kicked out of China </li></ul><ul><li>A Soviet style five year plan was implemented to encourage collectivization of agriculture and rapid industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li>(These efforts had limited success.) </li></ul>
  18. 19. Women’s Status Improved “Women hold up half the sky.” <ul><li>Foot-binding ended and arranged marriages were limited </li></ul><ul><li>Women could hold professions, join the army, and serve in the government. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Legal equality” with men. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Women’s Status Improved? <ul><li>Women were working outside of the home AND still responsible for the home and childcare. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional emphasis on men as “superior” continued. </li></ul>
  20. 21. The Hundred Flowers Policy <ul><li>1957 </li></ul><ul><li>Goverment loosened control of people </li></ul><ul><li>People were allowed to question government policies </li></ul><ul><li>Significant rise in anti-government rhetoric caused Mao to end the policy and arrest top critics </li></ul>
  21. 22. Great Leap Forward <ul><li>1958 - Mao attempted to reinvent Chinese economy </li></ul><ul><li>Wished to industrialize outside the western model as quickly as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated private enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced people out of the cities and into communes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Backyard steel mills” – small industrial centers scattered throughout China </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Great Leap Forward = Great Leap Backward
  23. 24. Great Leap Forward <ul><li>The plan failed miserably – famine caused </li></ul><ul><li>20 + million to die, steel production dropped drastically, the program ended early, and Mao’s power was reduced </li></ul>
  24. 25. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Mao wished to regain power he lost in the Great Leap Forward and create another revolutionary movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Created The Red Guard from the Chinese youth – students, peasants, & soldiers </li></ul>
  25. 28. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>Red Guard attacked people in positions of power or privilege who publicly disagreed with Mao. </li></ul><ul><li>Any “suspects” were imprisoned or forced into labor in rural areas. </li></ul>
  26. 29. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>Traditional culture and education were destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>Cult of personality formed around Mao </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually military leaders supported ending cultural revolution in fear that it would get out of control. </li></ul>
  27. 30. China after Mao <ul><li>New communist leadership allowed some private business and farm ownership and created a stock exchange. Manufacturing increased drastically as trade boomed. </li></ul>
  28. 31. China after Mao <ul><li>Overall, redistribution of wealth, education, healthcare, and living standards improved to higher levels. </li></ul>
  29. 32. China after Mao <ul><li>Government control and lack of individual freedom along with a variety of economic and social problems still make China one of the least “free” places on the planet. </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions remain terrible. </li></ul>
  30. 34. China after Mao <ul><li>Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 --student and labor protesters were killed by government forces </li></ul>