Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution


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Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

  1. 1. Enlightenment and Revolution:The Scientific Revolution Ch. 22.1
  2. 2. The Roots of Modern Science Renaissance inspired curiosity This led to the Reformation The Reformation and the challenge to authority, helped start the Scientific Revolution.
  3. 3. Science: The Medieval View Remember the Earth- at-the-center-of-the- Universe theory? Aristotle, the greatest scientist until the 1500’s, had supported this idea. After all, it seemed logical. The Sun moves and we don’t.
  4. 4. A New Way of Thinking Scientific Revolution: Beginning in the mid 1500’s, new scientific ideas would be based upon careful observation.  A willingness to question accepted beliefs Newfound manuscripts launched new ideas European exploration fueled scientific research.  Used stars to guide ships  Needed better instruments and geographic measurements. When they started looking around, they found their observations did not match the ancient beliefs.
  5. 5. Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Geo=Earth Helio= Sun Centric=Center Nicolaus Copernicus first started the concept. However, his theory could not perfectly explain why the planets behaved the way they did. Johannes Kepler’s mathematic laws showed the planets moved in elliptical patterns, not circular, like proposed by Copernicus.
  6. 6. Aristotle vs. Galileo Aristotle  Galileo  Believed a pendulum  Showed a pendulum slowed down as it does not slow down. approached its Called the Law of the resting place Pendulum  Believed heavier  Showed that all objects fell faster objects fall at the than smaller ones same speed.  Earth was center of  With a homemade universe telescope, monitored the movement of the stars to show the Sun was the center of the universe
  7. 7. Conflict with the Church Galileo was urged by the church not to pursue his ideas about the universe He did anyway, in a book called Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems Was threatened by the Church and forced to deny is ideas he knew to be true Sentenced to house arrest for the rest of his life. Later, the Church issued an apology to Galileo, saying they were wrong to suppress his scientific findings. IN 1992!!!!!
  8. 8. The Scientific Method Find a problem Form a hypothesis (prediction) about that problem Observe the problem through experimentation or data collection See if observation proves or disproves the hypothesis Repeat process many times
  9. 9. Observation vs. Assumption What we see or believe isn’t always what is going on.  “I’d help someone who was in trouble”  “Eyewitness accounts are reliable”  “I’d never hurt another human just because someone told me to”
  10. 10. Some Revolutionaries Francis Bacon  English politician and writer  Believed science could improve people’s lives  Criticized peoples acceptance of Aristotle’s ideas Rene Descartes  Rejected old assumptions and teachings  Accept only things learned through observation  Knew only one thing for certain: “I think, therefore I am.”  Moved on from there.
  11. 11. Isaac Newton Brought together the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo under one unifying theory. The Theory of Motion  All things are affected by a force, gravity  That force ruled the planets, pendulum, and all matter on Earth and Space  Every object attracts every other object. The degree of attraction depends on the mass of that object and the distance between the objects. His book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, described the universe as a giant clock.  All its parts worked together perfectly in ways that could be described by mathematics.  Believed God was the creator of this orderly universe, the clockmaker who had set everything in motion
  12. 12. The Revolution Spreads Zacharias Jannsen:  1st microscope Anton van Leeuwenhoek:  Observed bacteria under a microscope  Proved tiny organisms did not just spontaneously appear, as previously thought Evangelista Torricelli  1st mercury barometer Gabriel Fahrenheit and Anders Celsius  The mercury thermometer, and their respective measurements
  13. 13.  Andreas Vesalius  Dissected cadavers to get a better understanding of the inner human body. William Harvey  The Heart and Blood Vessels Edward Jenner  Vaccine for smallpox using cowpox vs. smallpox Robert Boyle  The founder of modern chemistry