CONTINUITY in politics and socialclasses From the earliest civilizations to thepresent, leaders and governments hadconnections or were directly tied toreligion. Religious leaders were in the eliteclasses. Egyptian pharaoh, Mandate ofHeaven, Caliph, Akbar made his ownreligion, Divine Right
CHANGE in politics in the WEST and later inAsia and Africa in the 19th centuries The RISE OF SECULAR GOVERNMENTS Religion began to separate from politics. Government’s power was not based onreligious ideology. Enlightenment American and French revolutions Post-WWs disillusion Communist Revolutions in Russia andChina
CONTINUITIES in POLITICS andSOCIAL CLASSESThe military had an important role in thegovernment and politics of regions andempires.Warriors/military leaders have often been in theelite classes.Some evidence Classical Civs were all based on expansion and thendominance through military might or alliances (1st centuriesbce to 3rd centuries ce). Islamic Empire expanded through military conquest. (8thcenturies to 11th century). Mongol armies built the largest land empire in the world (13thcentury). Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires and Aztec & Inca. (13thto 17th centuries) The America, French, Haitian (18th), Latin American(19th), and Russian Revolutions (20th) were military based. Ashoka, Muhammad, Knights, Samurai, Aztecwarriors, Chinggis Khan, George Washington, Mao
CONTINUITIES in POLITICSFrom the earliest civilizations to thepresent, the military has had animportant role in the government andpolitics of regions and empires.HOWEVER, Chinese scholar gentry had power overthe military in times of stability andwere in an equivalent social class.
ECONOMIC CHANGES 2000s bce Neolithic Revolution(agriculture) leads to permanentsettlements 200s bce - 400s ce ClassicalTrade Classical period saw more trade asclassical empires in Mediterranean,India, and China helped foster trade
ECONOMIC CHANGES 700s – 1000s ce Islamic Empire 1450 – 1750 ceOttoman, Safavid, and MughalEmpires Islamic Empire(s) connectAsia, Africa, Indian Ocean and theMediterranean – trade increases(pilgrimage)
ECONOMIC CHANGES 1450 – 1750s ce EuropeanExpansion Americas, Africa, Asia, Atlantic andIndian Ocean connections(Columbian Exchange, slave trade) Europeans begin to dominate tradenetworks. More “world” in world trade
ECONOMIC CHANGES Late 1700s to 1900 IndustrialRevolution first in Europe, thenUS, then Russia and Japan Manufacturing and commercebecame the base of manyeconomies. Political, social, andgender results. The WEST continuedto dominate.
ECONOMIC CHANGES 19th century Imperialism andColonialism World trade increases as Europeansand US take control of many parts ofAfrica and Asia.
ECONOMIC CHANGES 1900s Consumerism Emphasis on consumer goods in theeconomy began in the West.
Continuities according to 3rd period “Luxury” goods tended to be a main part of trade – earlycivs to present Gold, spices, silk, porcelain China – exported more than imported (until the 1700s) Ag is the base of most economies Competition improves quality European weapons US intervention in 1900s Trade benefits the upper class (or merchant) Dependency on the west . . (after 1800s) Capitalism after industrial rev China (1800s) & Japan’s (up to 1800s) chosen isolation
Economic Continuities according to 5thperiod “Luxury” goods tended to be a main partof trade – early civs to present Gold, spices, silk, porcelain Ag is base of economy Gov involved or controlled trade. Economy is improved through expansion Division of labor = social classes. Economic & trade centers near waterroutes. Until 19th c – importance slave labor
Economic Continuities according to 6thperiod Luxury goods important part of regional orworld trade Spice, ivory, silk, precious metals, coffee? Ag based economies Economy expanded through colonizing orconquest Specialization of labor Religion and trade Government supported control
SOME AP VOCAB Demographics – make-up of humanpopulations (ethnic, religious, regional) The demographics of the westernhemisphere changed after European arrival.The native population declined and theEuropean population increased. Also, newclasses of mixed ancestry began. Political structure or system – how thegovernment is set up Social hierarchy – social class (the castesystem was in India)
SOME AP VOCAB Labor systems – how people work, workpatterns Coercive labor system – forced labor likeslavery or indentured servitude. Elite – upper class Gender systems – roles of men andwomen
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