Similarities in the 4 Early Civs Tigris-Euphrates = Sumerian, Mesopotamian Egyptian Indus Valley China = Shang dynasty
Similarities in the 4 Early Civs Government – government and religions were connected Empire – central government controlled, often through force, several groups or societies and their territories Dynastic cycle in Egypt and China
Similarities in the 4 Early Civs Economics Agricultural goods were the basis of the economy. Government regulation of trade. People paid taxes in labor or products.
Similarities in the 4 Early Civs Religion – Polytheism Based on forms of sacrifice and rituals Social classes – Small group of people in upper class, large numbers in lower classes. Warriors and priests were the top class – government workers and merchants sometimes formed a small “middle class”
Similarities in the 4 Early Civs By 1000 bce, the four civilizations were in decline.
What Changed and What Didn’t? After the First Civilizations…
Monarchs continued to rule most of the new civilizations Men continued to dominate women A sharp divide between the elite and everyone else persisted almost everywhere The practice of slavery No fundamental or revolutionary transformation of social or economic life took place (until the Industrial Revolution) What Stayed the Same?
Population grew more rapidly The growing size of the states or empires that structured civilizations (much larger than the city-states of Mesopotamia or Egypt under the pharaohs) New philosophical/religious traditions (Confucianism, Daoism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and Christianity) What Changed?
Technological innovations to help humans manipulate the environment (China-bellows, loom, silk making, wheelbarrow, harness, crossbow, iron casting; India-sugar, cotton; Rome-aqueducts, roads) Emergence of more elaborate, widespread, and dense networks of exchange and communication (Indian Ocean, Silk Road) Long-distance trade What Changed?
Many countries, regions, and civilizations still link their identities to the achievements of the Classical Era! Persia, Greece, Rome, Qin/Han China, Mauryan/Gupta India The Classical Civilizations (600 B.C.E to 600 C.E.)
Focus for AP WORLD History Major political developments Social and gender structures Major trading patterns within the civilizations and between the civilizations Arts, sciences, and technology Development of traditions and institutions