1. African Gold/SaltTradeAlliance SystemTrade carried acrossthe Sahara Desert bymerchant caravans,which brought blocksof salt to West Africain exchange for gold.(1879 – 1914)The Triple Alliance(Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) andTriple Entente (Britain,France, Russia) soughtto preserve the balanceof power, but draggedtheir members intoWorld War I.
2. Al-QaedaArchimedes(1988 – Present)Terrorist organizationformed by Osama binLaden.(287 – 212 BC)Greek mathematicianwho studied density,levers, and pulleysand invented a screwpump device.
3. ArmeniansArms RaceChristians in theOttoman Empire whofaced genocideduring World War I.Any race to developbetter weapons, suchas the race betweenthe United States andthe Soviet Union todevelop morepowerful nuclearbombs.
4. Thomas AquinasAtlantic SlaveTrade(1225 – 1274)Catholic thinker whobelieved in naturallaws based on reasonand in the right todefy unjust laws.(16th– 19thCenturies)Captured Africans weretransported across theAtlantic under horrificconditions to labor inthe Americas in minesand plantations.
5. Atomic BombBalkansAmerican scientistsdeveloped a bombbased on atomicenergy, which wasused against theJapanese cities ofHiroshima andNagasaki.Mountainous regionof southeasternEurope that providedthe spark ignitingWorld War I. In the1990’s the Balkansexperienced “ethniccleansing” by Serbsagainst Muslims.
6. Aztec CivilizationBlack DeathA complex pre-Columbiancivilization in CentralMexico with a highlycomplex socialorganization, a yearlycalendar, and atradition of humansacrifices.(circa 1350)A disease carried onships from Asia toEurope that killedmillions of peopleand helped to endserfdom in Europe.
7. WilliamBlackstoneBolsheviks(1730 – 1780)English jurist whoexplained thecommon law, andwho defined therights of individualsunder English law.Party of Lenin thatwon the support ofthe people bypromising “Peace,Bread, and Land,”and which led the“October”Revolution of 1917in Russia.
8. Símon BolivarNapoleonBonaparte(1723 – 1780)Leader forindependence whodefeated Spanishforces in SouthAmerica, liberatingVenezuela,Colombia, Ecuador,Peru, and Bolivia.(1769 – 1821)General during theFrench Revolution,who seized power in1799, declaredhimself emperor in1804, and conqueredmuch of Europe.
9. Robert BoyleByzantine Empire(1627 – 1691)Irish chemist whoconducted experimentson gases at differenttemperatures. He issometimes known asthe “Father ofChemistry.”(330 – 1453)Eastern part of theRoman Empire thatsurvived the fall ofRome, with itscapital atConstantinople. Itdeveloped EasternOrthodoxChristianity and theJustinian Code.
10. BuddhismJohn CalvinA religion based onthe idea of self-denialtaught by GautamaBuddha. Buddhiststry to follow the FourNoble Truths and theEightfold Path.(1509 – 1564)He began a newProtestant Church inGeneva based onbelief inpredestination, faithas the key tosalvation, and a strictmoral code.
11. ChristianityCold WarReligion based on theteachings of Jesus,who preachedforgiveness, mercyand sympathy for thepoor. Christiansbelieve Jesus was theson of God whosacrificed himself tosave mankind.(1945 – 1990)Conflict between thetwo “Superpowers”with competingeconomic andpolitical systems.The United Statesand the Soviet Unionnever directlyengaged each other inopen warfare.
12. Winston ChurchillColumbianExchange(1874 – 1963)British PrimeMinister whoopposed Hitler andinspired the Britishpeople with hispublic broadcastsduring World War II.(post-1492)Exchange of productsand ideas betweenNative Americansand Europe thatdeveloped out of the“encounter” byColumbus.
13. CommercialRevolutionNicolasCopernicus(17th– 18thCenturies)The transition fromthe local economiesof the Middle Agesto an economy basedon overseas trade, theextension of bankingand credit, andmercantilist policies.(1473 – 1543)Polish astronomerwho believed that theEarth orbited the sun.His work was bannedby the Church.
14. ConfucianismCrusadesBelief systemestablished byConfucius,emphasizingtraditional valuessuch as obedienceand order. FilialPiety or respect forelders is also valued.(1095 – 1272)A war requested bythe Pope forChristians torecapture the HolyLand from Muslims.The Crusades led togreatly increasedtrade between Europeand the Middle East.
15. Marie CurieDeclaration of theRights of Man(1867 – 1934)Polish-born chemistand physicist whoconducted earlyexperiments withradioactivity. Curiebecame the firstwoman to win aNobel Prize.(1789)Issued by theNational Assemblyduring the FrenchRevolution. It statesthat government restson the consent of thepeople, and peoplehave certainprotected rights.
16. DarfurThomas EdisonAn area in the Sudanin Africa that hasexperienced acts ofgenocide.(1847 – 1931)Creative Americaninventor of theelectric light bulb,phonograph, andmotion pictures.
17. Albert EinsteinEnglish Bill ofRights(1879 – 1933)Jewish physicist whodiscovered that timeand space wererelative. He fledNazi Germany andrecommendeddevelopment of anatomic bomb.(1689)After the GloriousRevolution of 1688,William and Marysigned this documentagreeing to manyrights for theirsubjects.
18. Elizabeth IEnglish Civil War(1533 – 1603)English queen whocreated a strong,centralized monarchybased on nationalunity and a sharing ofpower betweenmonarchy andParliament.(1642 – 1649)A war between theEnglish Parliamentand Charles I, whichestablishedParliament’ssupremacy over themonarchy.
19. EnlightenmentEuropeanImperialism(18thCentury)Movement thatapplied reason andscientific laws tounderstand natureand society.Enlightenmentthinkers questionedhereditary privilegeand absolutism.(19thCentury)The political andeconomic control byEuropean powers ofareas in Africa, Asia,and the Pacific.
20. EratosthenesFascism(276 – 195 BC)Greek geographerwho showed that theEarth was round andalso calculated thesize of itscircumference.(20thCentury)Political system thatdeveloped inGermany, Italy, andSpain after WorldWar I, marked byintense nationalism,belief in an all-powerful leader, andmilitarism.
21. Fourteen PointsFrench Revolution(1918)War aims announcedby PresidentWoodrow Wilson,which includedcreating new nation-states in EasternEurope and a Leagueof Nations.(1789 – 1799)Revolution thatoverthrew the Frenchmonarchy, endedhereditary privilege,and made Francemore democratic. Itwas accompanied byviolence and war.
22. Free EnterpriseSystemGalileo GalileiAn economic systemin which basiceconomic questionsare answered by thefree actions ofproducers andconsumers.(1564 – 1642)Italian scientist whostudied motion. Hisobservations with atelescope confirmed theCopernican theory. Hewas tried and convictedby the Church.
23. Indira GandhiGenocide(1917 – 1984)The daughter ofNehru and the firstwoman elected asIndia’s PrimeMinister. She waslater assassinated.An effort to murderan entire people ornationality. Attemptsof genocide occurredin Armenia duringWorld War I, theHolocaust duringWorld War II, andmore recently inRwanda, Burundi,Darfur, and Kosovo.
24. Mohandas GandhiGlobalization(1869 – 1948)Leader who achievedIndian independencethrough non-violent,passive resistance tothe British.(Present)Creation of a globaleconomy and societythrough improvedcommunications,transportation, andtrade.
25. GloriousRevolutionGreat Depression(1688)A revolution inBritain in whichJames II wasoverthrown and thenew king and queenagreed to the Bill ofRights of 1689,granting theirsubjects certainrights.(1932 – 1939)A devastatingeconomic downturnthat saw stock pricesfall, business fail andlarge scaleunemployment inAmerica and Europe.
26. MikhailGorbachevGreat Schism(b. 1931)His reforms led to theelection of non-Communistgovernments inEastern Europe andthe dissolution of theSoviet Union.(1378 – 1417)Split that occurred inthe Catholic Churchwith two Popes, one inAvignon and the otherin Rome. The Schismcaused many toquestion the Church’sauthority.
27. Greek CivilizationHammurabi’sCodeAncient Greek city-states, especiallyAthens, made majorcontributions to art,architecture,philosophy,literature, drama, andhistory.(circa 1700 BC)Developed by theBabylonians, it is theearliest knownwritten law code. Itpromoted justice buttreated social classesdifferently.
28. Gupta EmpireHan Dynasty(320 – 550)An empire in Indiacharacterized bypeace, prosperity, andtrade. Often referredto as the Golden Ageof Hindu Culture.(206 BC – 220 AD)Han invented paperand lead-glazedceramics, gaveexaminations tocandidates forimperial service, andincreased trade overthe Silk Road.
29. HinduismThomas HobbesReligion in India thatbelieves in manygods and goddesses,reincarnation, andthat a person’sbehavior in lifedetermines his or herform or caste in thenext life.(1588 – 1679)Englishman whowrote that man is“nasty and brutish” innature and needs acentral authority tokeep order, or societywould break down.
30. HolocaustAdolf Hitler (1889 – 1945)Nazi Party leader whoestablished atotalitarian state inGermany. His policiestook Germany into adevastating war in1939 and led to thedeaths of millions ofJews in the Holocaust.(1938 – 1945)The genocide of Jewsand other minoritiesduring World War IIby the Nazis, inconcentration campslike Auschwitz.
31. Inca CivilizationHuman RightsRights that all peoplepossess, such as theright to meet theirneeds without beingpersecuted.A pre-Columbiancivilization in theAndes Mountains.The Inca excelled atengineering, anddeveloped new foodcrops like potatoes.
32. IndustrialRevolutionHundred Years’War(1337 – 1453)War betweenEngland and Franceover succession tothe French throne. Itstrengthened royalpower and brought anend to feudalism..(Late 18th– Early19thcenturies)Began in England.Changed the waygoods were made,moving productionfrom the home tofactories and fromhand to machine.
33. John Paul IIIslamReligion founded byMohammed, basedon five pillars: faithin one God (Allah),prayer fives times aday, charity, fasting,and making apilgrimage to Meccaat least once.(1920 – 2005)In 1978, this Polebecame the first non-Italian Pope in 400years. He helped endCommunism inEastern Europe.
34. Justinian’s Codeof LawsIsrael In 1948, the UnitedNations partitionedPalestine into twostates – Israel andPalestine. Fiveneighboring Arabnations immediatelydeclared war againstIsrael.(529)Emperor Justiniancollected all existingRoman laws andorganized them into asingle code.
35. League of NationsKorean War(1950 – 1953)Communist NorthKorea invaded SouthKorea. The UnitedStates and other U.N.countries intervenedand forced theCommunists back.The Armistice leftKorea as before.(1920 – 1946)Internationalorganizationproposed by Wilsonand created by theVersailles Treaty topromote disarmamentand prevent futurewars. It failed to stopwar.
36. Limited MonarchyLas Madres de laPlaza de MayoMothers whodemanded theArgentinegovernment revealthe whereabouts ofchildren whomysteriouslydisappeared in the1980’s.A system ofgovernment thatemerged in Englandin which the monarchwas made to sharepower with anelected parliament.
37. Nelson MandelaJohn Locke (1632 – 1704)Englishman who wrotethat people enter into asocial contract, and thatgovernment powercomes from the peopleit governs, who havethe right to overthrowan abusive government.(1918 – Present)Leader imprisonedfor speaking outagainst apartheid.After being releasedfrom prison, hebecame SouthAfrica’s first blackPresident, and keptthe country togetherunder majority rule.
38. ManorialismMagna Carta(1215)King John ofEngland guaranteedfree men the right toa trial by jury andalso agreed thatconsent by a councilof nobles would beneeded for any newtaxes.Economic system offeudal Europe,consisting of thelord’s house and hisserfs. Each manorwas self-sufficientand produced its ownfood, clothing, andshelter.
39. Maya CivilizationKarl Marx (1818 – 1883)Critic of capitalism,whose ideas becamethe basis ofcommunism;believed workerswould eventuallyoverthrow theircapitalist bosses.Complex pre-Columbiancivilization inGuatemala and theYucatan. Theycultivated corn andhave achievements inbuilding and creationof a numberingsystem.
41. MonarchyMilitarismThis occurs whencivilians adoptmilitary values andgoals and becomeover-reliant onmilitary advisors.Militarismcontributed to theoutbreak of WorldWar I.A system ofgovernment in whichpolitical power isinherited.
42. Ming DynastyMonotheism(1368 – 1644)Dynasty thatfollowed theMongols. The Mingmoved China’scapital to Beijing andruled for 300 year ofpeace and prosperity.Belief in one God,shared by Judaism,Christianity, andIslam.
43. Napoleonic WarsBaron Charlesde Montesquieu(1689 – 1733)Argued for separationof powers in TheSpirit of Laws.(1796 – 1815)Wars betweenNapoleon and the restof Europe, whichhelped spread theideas of the FrenchRevolution.
44. Benito MussoliniNationalism(1883 – 1945)Leader who turnedItaly into a Fasciststate by controllingthe press, abolishingunions, andoutlawing strikes.Belief that eachnationality is entitled toits own governmentand national homeland.The French Revolutionignited the spirit ofnationalism in Europe.Nationalism was acause of World War I.
45. NormandyLandingNeolithicRevolution(circa 8,000 BC)The change thatoccurred whenpeople learned howto plant and growcrops, and herdanimals.(June 1944)Allied troops, in thelargest amphibiousassault in history,landed at Normandyin an attempt toretake France fromthe Nazis.
46. Isaac NewtonOctoberRevolution of 1917(1643 – 1727)Scientist whodiscovered the lawsof gravity, raisinghopes that theuniverse actedaccording to certainfixed andfundamental laws.The Bolsheviksseized power byforce in a secondrevolution in 1917.Once in power, theychanged Russia to aCommunist nation.
47. Panama CanalOligarchyRule by a few.Built across theIsthmus of Panamaby the United Statesto provide a shortwater route betweenthe Atlantic andPacific Oceans.
48. OttomansLouis Pasteur(1299 – 1923)A nomadic group ofTurkish people fromCentral Asia whoemerged as the rulersof the Islamic worldin the 13thcentury.They conqueredConstantinople in1453.(1822 – 1895)Scientist who foundthat most diseases arecaused by germs. Hedeveloped newvaccines and amethod to kill germsby hearting, knownas pasteurization.
49. Printing PressPearl Harbor (December 7, 1941)A surprise attack bythe Japanese navy onthe U.S. fleet at PearlHarbor whichbrought the UntiedStates into WorldWar II.Johann Gutenberginvented a printingpress with movabletype in 1450 inMainz, Germany,which later helpedspread the ideas ofthe Reformation.
50. PopularSovereigntyProtestantReformationA system ofgovernment in whichultimate power restson the consent of thepeople beinggoverned.(16thCentury)Movement begun inGermany by MartinLuther in 1517 inwhich manyChristians left theCatholic Church forProtestant Churches.
51. Radical IslamicFundamentalismPythagoras (570 – 495 BC)Greek mathematiciannoted for advances ingeometry.(Post-1979)Reaction by radicalMuslims againstWestern values.They seek a return tostrict adherence toIslamic values andlaws.
52. Qin DynastyRenaissance(221 – 206 BC)Shi Huangdi becameChina’s firstemperor. He unifiedChina, built roadsand canals, andconstructed the GreatWall to protect hisempire.(15th– 16thCenturies)A rebirth ofEuropean culture thatbegan in the Italiancity-states, with aspirit of inquiry, arediscovery ofclassical learning,and improvements inpainting andarchitecture.
53. Fall of the RomanEmpireRepublic A system ofgovernment byrepresentatives.Fell in 476 AD whenit was overrun byinvading barbariantribes. Its fall wasfollowed by a periodof great turmoil inEurope.
54. RomanCivilizationJean JacquesRousseauCivilization thatarose around Rome,absorbed Greeklearning, and ruledmuch of WesternEurope and theMediterranean world;known for itsengineering skills,laws, andChristianity.(1712 – 1778)Stated thatgovernment shouldfollow the peoples’“general will.” Hiswritings inspired thedemocratic ideals ofthe FrenchRevolution.
55. September 11,2001Rwanda(1990’s) Africannation thatexperienced genocideagainst its Tutsipopulation, carriedout by Hutus.Al-Qaeda terrorists,living in the U.S.,hijacked severalcommercial airlinersand crashed theminto the Pentagon andWorld Trade Center.
56. ScientificRevolutionNatan Sharansky(17thCentury)Rejected traditionalChurch teachings.Introduced scientificmethod in whichpeople observednature and testedhypotheses.Russian dissident andfounder of theRefusenikMovement. He wasimprisoned in 1977for speaking out forgreater human rightsin the Soviet Union.
57. Adam SmithSikhismReligion thatdeveloped inNorthern India,combining bothIslamic and Hindubeliefs. Sikhsbelieve in one God,which can only beknown throughmeditation.(1723 – 1790)In his book, TheWealth of Nations,Smith attackedmercantilism andexplained howcompetition and thedivision of laborguided a free-marketsystem based on self-interest.
58. Silk RoadSocialismTrade route thatconnected China andEurope from the timeof the Roman Empireonwards. Chinaexported silk,porcelain and tea.Movement thatbelieves workersshould have thegovernment passlaws to curb abusesof workers and thatgovernment shouldeven take over somebusinesses.
59. Suez CanalSong Dynasty(960 – 1279)Period of great socialand economicprogress in China,marked by the firstuse of paper currencyand standardizedcoins.Completed in 1869,the canal provided ashorter route fromEurope to EastAfrica, India and EastAsia. It served as alifeline betweenBritain and India.
60. Joseph StalinTang Dynasty(1878 – 1953)Communist leaderfollowing Lenin, whopurged governmentof his opponents,changed the Sovieteconomy, establisheda totalitarian state,resisted Hitler, andstarted the Cold War.(618 – 907)Tang rulerssuppressed peasantuprisings, reunitedChina, revivedtraditional feudalrelationships, andbrought peace andprosperity.
61. TerrorismTenCommandmentsCommandments inthe Jewish religionprohibiting stealing,murder, and otherforms of immoralbehavior.The use of acts ofviolence againstinnocent civilians,such as hijackingplanes and attackingschools, in order tomake demands on ahostile government.
62. Mother TeresaMargaretThatcher(1912 – 1997)A Catholic nun whodevoted her life tohelping poor andhomeless people inIndia, who wereliving on the streets.Awarded the NoblePeace Prize.(b. 1925)First woman electedPrime Minister ofGreat Britain.
63. Hedeki TojoTheocracy A society governedby religious leaders;for example, present-day Iran.(1884- 1948)General who led theJapanese governmentduring World War II;Tojo convinced theemperor to launch asurprise attackagainst the UnitedStates.
64. Tiananmen SquareTotalitarianism(1989)Chinese studentswere fired on bytanks while leadingpeacefuldemonstrations forgreater personalfreedom anddemocracyA government thatcontrols all aspects oflife.
65. Versailles TreatyTrench Warfare (1914 – 1918)Form of combatduring World War Iin which both sides,facing machine-gunfire, dug ditches tocreate fortifiedpositions.(1919)Treaty betweenAllied Powers andGermany, endingWorld War I.
66. United NationsQueen Victoria(1945 – Present)Internationalorganizationlaunched in 1945. Itspurpose is tomaintain world peacewhile encouragingcooperation amongnations.Monarch whodoubled Britain’ssize and who favoredsocial reforms.
67. Lech WalesaVietnam War(1956 – 1975)War betweenCommunist NorthVietnam and U.S.-supported SouthVietnam. Beganwhen the Viet Conglaunched guerillawarfare against SouthVietnam.(b. 1943)Polish union leaderwho organized theSolidarityMovement. He led aworkers’ strike thatled to free electionsand the end ofCommunist rule inPoland.
68. VoltaireJames Watt(1694 – 1778)Enlightenmentthinker whose viewson religioustoleration andintellectual freedominfluenced leaders ofthe American andFrench Revolutions.(1736 – 1819)Scottish inventorwho improved thesteam engine, thusmaking steam poweravailable to runmachines in factories.
69. World War IIWilliamWilberforce(1759 – 1833)Reformer who led thefight to abolish theslave trade andslavery.(1939 – 1945)The most destructiveconflict in history inwhich an estimated70 million werekilled. Hitlerlaunched this war inEurope by invadingPoland in 1939.
70. World War IMao Zedong(1914 – 1918)Assassination ofArchduke Ferdinandset off a chainreaction that involvedmost nations ofEurope and later theUntied States.(1893 – 1976)Chinese Communistleader who drove theNationalist Chinese outof China in 1949. Heinstituted brutalmeasures to achieveCommunist control ofChina, including theGreat Leap Forwardand the CulturalRevolution.
71. Zhou Dynasty (1027 – 256 BC)Zhou rulers justifiedtheir rule by theMandate of Heaven –if a ruler was selfishand ruthless, Heavenwould overthrowhim.Nomadic pastoralismor nomadictranshumance is aform of agriculturewhere livestock areherded eitherseasonally orcontinuously in orderto find fresh pastureson which to graze.NomadicPastoralism
72. Shang Dynasty Originally a tribe living inthe lower regions of theYellow River during the XiaDynasty (21st - 17th centuryBCE), the Shang Dynastywas established by KingTang in 1675 BC. TheShang Dynasty lasted over600 years and was led by 30different emperors.The Olmec were the firstmajor civilization in Mexico.They lived in the tropicallowlands of south-centralMexico. The Olmecsappeared to practice ritualbloodletting and played theMesoamerican ballgame,hallmarks of nearly allsubsequent Mesoamericansocieties.Olmecs
73. ChavinThe Chavín were acivilization that developed inthe northern Andeanhighlands of Peru from 900BCE to 200 BCE. Theyextended their influence toother civilizations along thecoast.Compound bows have beenknown from archaeologyand art since the secondmillennium BCE, but theirhistory is not well recordedas they were developed bycultures without a writtentradition. They originatedamong Asiatic pastoralistswho used them as dailynecessities, classically formounted archery. (Mongols)Compound Bow
74. Ziggurats Massive structures builtin the ancientMesopotamian valleyand western Iranianplateau, having theform of a terraced steppyramid ofsuccessively recedingstories or levels.A religion and philosophy basedon the teachings of prophetZoroaster (also known asZarathustra) and was formerlyamong the worlds largestreligions. It was probablyfounded some time before the6th century BCE in Greater Iran.In Zoroastrianism good and evilhave distinct sources. Thereligion first dwindled when theAchaemenid Empire wasinvaded by Alexander the Great.Zoroastrianism
75. Transregional Crossing regionalboundaries; traderoutes, invasionroutes, migrationroutes are examplesof transregionalmovement.An ancient Indian sacredcollection of Vedic Sanskrithymns. It is counted amongthe four canonical sacredtexts of Hinduism known asthe Vedas. Some of itsverses are still recited asHindu prayers, at religiousfunctions and otheroccasions, putting theseamong the worlds oldestreligious texts in continueduse.Rig Veda
76. Epic ofGilgameshAn epic poem fromMesopotamia, isamongst the earliestsurviving works ofliterature. The literaryhistory of Gilgameshbegins with fiveindependent Sumerianpoems aboutGilgamesh, king ofUruk.The modern name of anancient Egyptian funerarytext, used from thebeginning of the NewKingdom to around 50BCE. The text consists ofa number of magic spellsintended to assist a deadpersons journey throughthe underworld and intothe afterlife.Book of the Dead
77. Sanskrit An Indo-European,Indic language, in usesince c. 1200 BCE asthe religious andclassical literarylanguage of India.The movement ormigration of a group ofpeople, such as thosesharing a nationaland/or ethnic identity,away from anestablished or ancestralhomeland.Diaspora
78. Filial PietyA Confucian virtue;one of the virtues to beheld above all else: arespect for the parentsand ancestors.A celebrated sacredepic poem of theHindus, written inSanskrit. It is of greatlength, and is chieflydevoted to a history, inmany episodes, of acivil war between twodynasties of ancientIndia.Mahabharata
79. ShamanismThe religion ofcertain peoples ofnorthern Asia, basedon the belief that theworld is pervaded bygood and evil spiritswho can beinfluenced orcontrolled only bythe shamans.An ancient Canaanitecivilization situated onthe western, coastal partof the Fertile Crescent.The major Phoeniciancities were on thecoastline of theMediterranean. It was anenterprising maritimetrading culture that spreadacross the Mediterraneanfrom 1550 BC to 300 BC.Phoenicia
80. Persian Empires A succession of empires inSouthwest Asia, founded inthe 6th century BCE byCyrus the Great whooverthrew the Medianconfederation. It expandedto rule over significantportions of the ancientworld. The empiresincluded the Achaemenids,Parthians, and Sassanids.The Moche culture (ca. AD 100-750) was a South Americansociety, with cities, temples,canals and farmsteads locatedalong the arid coast in a narrowstrip between the Pacific Oceanand the Andes mountains ofPeru. They are perhaps bestknown for their ceramic art;their pots include life-sizedportrait heads of individuals andthree-dimensionalrepresentations of animals andpeople.Moche
81. Persepolis Ancient city of Persia,ceremonial capital ofthe empire underDarius I and hissuccessors. In 330 BCAlexander the Greatplundered the city andburned the palace ofXerxes I.A Phoenician city-state;acquired dominance inthe WesternMediterranean.Merchants and explorersestablished a wide net oftrade that brought greatwealth to Carthage.Fought a series of warswith Rome known as thePunic Wars.Carthage
82. Chang’anAncient capital of Chinaduring the Han, Sui, andTang dynasties, nearpresent-day Xian. Fromthe mid-4th century it wasa centre of Buddhiststudies.Thought to have beenestablished around 100 BC andcontinued to be built until about250 AD, the city may havelasted until sometime betweenthe 7th and 8th centuries. At itszenith, perhaps in the first halfof the 1st millennium AD,Teotihuacan was the largest cityin the pre-Columbian Americas,with a population of perhaps125,000 or more, placing itamong the largest cities of theworld in this period.Teotihuacán
83. Chang’an (1027 – 256 BC)Zhou rulers justifiedtheir rule by theMandate of Heaven –if a ruler was selfishand ruthless, Heavenwould overthrowhim.(1027 – 256 BC)Zhou rulers justifiedtheir rule by theMandate of Heaven –if a ruler was selfishand ruthless, Heavenwould overthrowhim.TeothuacanCorvée Unpaid labor (astoward constructingroads) due from afeudal vassal to hislord.An excessive tax,rental, or tariffimposed by agovernment,sovereign, lord, orlandlord.Rents andTributes
84. SlaveryA civil relationshipwhereby one personhas absolute powerover another andcontrols his life,liberty, and fortune.The cutting down andremoval of all or most ofthe trees in a forestedarea. Deforestation canerode soils, contribute todesertification and thepollution of waterways,and decrease biodiversitythrough the destruction ofhabitat.Deforestation
85. DesertificationThe transformation ofarable or habitable landto desert, as by achange in climate ordestructive land use.During the Middle Ages,Calicut was dubbed the"City of Spices" for its roleas the major trading point ofeastern spices such as blackpepper and cardamom.Muslim Arab merchantstraded with Calicut as earlyas 7th century, andPortuguese explorer Vascoda Gama landed their onMay 20, 1498.Calicut
86. White HunsThe Hephthalites dominatedmuch of Central Asia andNorthern India at the heightof their power(approximately 460 to 570BCE). They are also referredto as "White Huns," a termderived from a quotationfrom Procopius History ofthe Wars. Their invasionsbrought an end to the GuptaEmpire.Islamic trade in WestAfrica was conducted bycaravans of camels.According to Ibn Battuta,the explorer whoaccompanied one of thecaravans, the average sizewas a thousand camelsper caravan, with somebeing as large as 12,000.Trans-SaharanCaravans
87. Lateen SailsA triangular sail hungon a long yard that isattached at an angle tothe top of a short mast.Qanat systems areconstructed as a series ofwell-like vertical shafts,connected by gently slopingtunnels. Qanats allow waterto be transported over longdistances in hot dry climateswithout losing a largeproportion of the water toseepage and evaporation.Qanat System
88. Dhow Ships An Arab sailing vesselwith one or more lateensails. It is primarilyused to carry heavyitems, like fruit, alongthe coasts of theArabian Peninsula,Pakistan, India andEast Africa.Novgorod was the mainRussian port for manycenturies and was importantfor Baltic Sea trade. Duringthe Middle Ages, the cityparticipated in the HanseaticLeague and was one of themain trade routes fromNorthern Europe to RomeEmpire and Constantinople.Novgorod
89. TimbuktuA city in the WestAfrican nation of Mali. Itwas made prosperous bythe tenth mansa of theMali Empire, MansaMusa. Its geographicalsetting made it a naturalmeeting point for nearbyWest African populationsand nomadic Berber andArab peoples from thenorth.A city-state located on anisland in Lake Texcoco, inthe Valley of Mexico.Founded in 1325, it becamethe seat of the growingAztec Empire in the 15thcentury, until captured byCortez in 1521.Tenochitlan
90. Baghdad In 762 the caliph Al Mansurcommissioned the construction ofthe city and believed that Baghdadwas the perfect city to be thecapital of the Islamic empire underthe Abbasids. Baghdad evolvedinto a significant cultural,commercial, and intellectualcenter for the Islamic World.Mansur loved the site so much heis quoted saying, "This is indeedthe city that I am to found, where Iam to live, and where mydescendants will reign afterward".A luxury good is a good forwhich demand increasesmore than proportionally asincome rises, and is acontrast to a "necessitygood", for which demand isnot related to income. Theincreased production of artand of luxury goods is oneof the most characteristicfeatures of the Renaissance.Luxury Goods
91. Caravanserai A roadside inn wheretravelers could rest andrecover from the daysjourney. Caravanseraissupported the flow ofcommerce, information, andpeople across the network oftrade routes covering Asia,North Africa, and South-Eastern Europe, especiallyalong the Silk Road.The first system ofgovernment established inIslam, it represented thepolitical unity of theMuslim Ummah (nation).It was initially led byMuhammads disciples asa continuation of thepolitical system theprophet established,known as the rashiduncaliphates.Caliphates
92. Bills of Exchange A documentguaranteeing thepayment of a specificamount of money,either on demand, or ata set time.An economic alliance of tradingcities and their guilds thatdominated trade along the coastof Northern Europe in the laterMiddle Ages. It stretched fromthe Baltic to the North Sea andinland during the Late MiddleAges and early modern period(c.13th–17th centuries). TheHanseatic cities had their ownlegal system and furnished theirown protection and mutual aid,and thus established a sort ofpolitical autonomy and in somecases created political entities oftheir own.Hanseatic League
93. Berbers Berbers have lived inNorth Africa forthousands of years andtheir presence has beenrecorded as early as 3000BC. Greeks, Romans, andancient Egyptians haveindicated the presence ofBerbers in their records.A series of migrations ofspeakers of the original Bantulanguage group. The primaryevidence for this greatexpansion, one of the largest inhuman history, has beenprimarily linguistic. Thelanguages spoken in sub-Equatorial Africa areremarkably similar to eachother, to the degree that it isunlikely that they begandiverging from each other morethan three thousand years ago.Bantu Migration
94. LongshipsLongships were navalvessels made and used bythe Vikings fromScandinavia and Iceland fortrade, commerce,exploration, and warfareduring the Viking Age. Thelong-ship is characterized asa graceful, long, narrow,light, wooden boat with ashallow draft hull designedfor speed.A Moroccan BerberIslamic scholar andtraveler known for theaccount of his travels andexcursions called theRihla. His journeys lastedfor a period of nearlythirty years and coveredalmost the entirety of theknown Islamic world andbeyond.Ibn Battuta
95. Marco Polo A Christian merchant fromthe Venetian Republic whointroduced Europeans to theculture and history ofCentral Asia and China. Helearned about trading whilehis father and uncle travelledthrough Asia and met KublaiKhan of the Yuan Dynasty.Al-Andalus was theArabic name given to anation in the parts ofthe Iberian Peninsulagoverned by Muslims(given the genericname of Moors), atvarious times in theperiod between 711and 1492.Al-andalus
96. Neo-confucianismA form of Confucianismthat was primarilydeveloped during theSong Dynasty and MingDynasty. It formed thebasis of Confucianorthodoxy in the QingDynasty of China. Itattempted to mergecertain basic elements ofConfucianism, Daoism,and Buddhism.Champa rice is a quick-maturing, drought resistantrice that can allow twoharvests, of sixty days each,in one growing season.Originally introduced intoChampa from Vietnam, itwas later sent to China as atribute gift from the Champastate.Champa Rice
97. Dar al-Islam The religiousconceptualization ofthe world as belongingeither to Muslim ornon-Muslim territory.Muslim territory islabeled as “Dar al-Islam.”The dynastic namegenerally given to thecaliph of Baghdad, thesecond of the two greatMuslim caliphates ofthe Arab Empire, thatoverthrew theUmayyad caliphs.Abbasids
98. Patriarchy Patriarchy is a social systemin which the role of the maleas the primary authorityfigure is central to socialorganization, and wherefathers hold authority overwomen, children, andproperty. It implies theinstitutions of male rule andprivilege, and is dependenton female subordination.The Delhi Sultanate is a termused to cover five Delhi basedkingdoms or sultanates ofTurkic origin in medieval India.The sultanates ruled from Delhibetween 1206 and 1526, whenthe last was replaced by theMughal dynasty. The fivedynasties were the Mamlukdynasty (1206–90); the Khiljidynasty (1290–1320); theTughlaq dynasty (1320–1414);the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51);and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).Delhi Sultanates
99. Waru Waru An agriculturaltechniquedeveloped by theQuechuas in SouthAmerica before therise of the IncaEmpire.Mita was mandatorypublic service in thesociety of the IncaEmpire. The system,modified by the Spanish,became a form of slavery.Mit’a
100. Free Peasants A peasant is an agriculturalworker who generally worksland owned or rented from anoble. The peasant was bound tothe land and could not move orchange their occupation unlessthey became a yeoman (freeperson), which generallyhappened by buying theirfreedom. The peasant alsogenerally had to give most oftheir crops to the nobles.The use of laborersbound in servitudebecause of debt.Peonage
101. Byzantine EmpireThe eastern half of the RomanEmpire was politically andeconomically stable so EmperorConstantine decided to create anew capital at the former Greekcity of Byzantium, which herenamed Constantinople(present-day Istanbul). Whenthe western half of the RomanEmpire fell in 476, the Easternhalf survived and thrived. ThisEastern half of the RomanEmpire later became known asthe Byzantine Empire.A caravel is a small,highly maneuverablesailing ship developed inthe 15th century by thePortuguese to explorealong the West Africancoast and into the AtlanticOcean. The lateen sailsgave her speed and thecapacity for sailing.Caravels
102. Astrolabe An elaborate inclinometer,historically used byastronomers, navigators, andastrologers. Used to locate andpredict the positions of the Sun,Moon, planets, and stars,determining local time givenlocal latitude. It was used inclassical antiquity, through theIslamic Golden Age, theEuropean Middle Ages andRenaissance.Vodun is an indigenousorganized religion of coastalWest Africa from Nigeria toGhana. It is distinct from thevarious traditional animisticreligions in Africa and is themain origin for religions ofsimilar name found amongthe African Diaspora in theNew World such as HaitianVodou.Vodun
103. WilliamShakespeareAn English poet and playwright,widely regarded as the greatestwriter in the English languageand the worlds pre-eminentdramatist. He is often calledEnglands national poet and the"Bard of Avon". His survivingworks, including somecollaborations, consist of about38 plays, 154 sonnets, two longnarrative poems, and severalother poems.The founder of the MaliEmpire and celebrated asa hero of the Malinkepeople of West Africa inthe semi-historical Epic ofSundiata.Sundiata
104. Miguel deCervantesA Spanish novelist, poet,and playwright. His work,Don Quixote, consideredthe first modern novel, isa classic of Westernliterature, and is regardedamong the best works offiction ever written.Slavery is a system underwhich people are propertyand are forced to work.Slaves can be held againsttheir will from the time oftheir capture, purchase orbirth, and deprived of theright to leave, to refuse towork, or to demandcompensation.Chattel Slavery
105. IndenturedServitudeAn indentured servant wastypically a young unskilledlaborer who came toAmerica under contract towork for an employer for afixed period of time,typically three to sevenyears, in exchange for theirocean transportation, food,clothing, lodging and othernecessities during the termof their indenture.In Latin America, laborers,ordinarily Indians, weretheoretically free wageearners on large landedestates, but in practice theiremployers, who controlledthe local governments, wereable to bind them to the land,primarily by keeping them ina state of perpetualindebtedness.Hacienda System
106. EncomiendaSystemA system of tributory laborestablished in SpanishAmerica. The encomiendawas first used over theconquered Moors of Spain.Transplanted to the NewWorld, it gave theconquistadors control overthe native populations byrequiring them to pay tributefrom their lands, which were"granted" to deservingsubjects of the Spanishcrown.A member of apeople native toManchuria who ruledChina during theQing dynasty.Manchus
107. CreoleA person born in theWest Indies orSpanish America butof European, usuallySpanish, ancestry.The powerfulterritorial nobles inFeudal Japan whoruled most of thecountry from theirvast, hereditary landholdings.Daimyo
108. Zamindars The Zamindars were influentialin administration of territories ofBengal, contemporaryBangladesh. The Nawabs ofBengal ruled the area under theMughal Empire from 1717 to1880. Murshid Quli Jafar Khangoverned the area, through hisfeudal chiefs, the zamindars.The zamindars went on to buildthe first universities, collegesand museums in their area.A person of mixedrace; particularly, inMexico and Centraland South America, aperson of European(Spanish orPortuguese) andindigenous descent.Mestizo
109. MulattoMughalsA person of mixedwhite and blackancestry; specificallyblacks and whites inthe Americas and theCaribbean.Muslim empire in India,1526–1857. The dynastywas founded by Babur, aTurkish chieftain who hadhis base in Afghanistan.Baburs invasion of Indiaculminated in the battle ofPanipat (1526) and theoccupation of Delhi andAgra.
110. SamuraiOmani-EuropeanRivalryA member of thehereditary warriorclass in feudal Japan;generally retained bya daimyo (noble).In the early 16th century thepowerful Portuguese tradingempire sought to extend itsinfluence and reduce Oman’scontrol over the thrivingArabian Sea and Indian Oceanroutes. Portuguese troopsinvaded Oman and capturedsome of the coastal areas,occupying them for up to 150years before being defeated bySultan bin Saif Al Ya’rubi.
111. Thirty Years War The Thirty Years War (1618–1648) was fought primarily inwhat is now Germany, andinvolved most countries inEurope. The conflict lasted for30 years, making it the longestcontinuous war in modernhistory. Initially, the war wasfought largely as a religiousconflict between Catholics andProtestants.The United Fruit Company wasa United States corporation thattraded in tropical fruit (primarilybananas) grown on third worldplantations and sold in theUnited States and Europe. It hada deep and long-lasting impacton the economic and politicaldevelopment of several LatinAmerican countries. Criticsoften accused it of exploitativeneocolonialism and described itsparticipating countries as“banana republics.”United FruitCompany
112. Ottoman-SafavidConflictStarting in 1514, the OttomanEmpire and Savafid Persia wereengaged in almost constantwarfare over control of theCaucasus and Mesopotamia.The two states were the greatestpowers of the Middle East, andthe rivalry was further fueled byreligious differences: theOttomans were Sunnis, whilethe Safavids were staunchlyShia Muslims and seen asheretics by the Ottomans.HSBC (Hong Kong andShanghai Banking Corporation)was founded in the formerBritish colony Hong Kongin1865 and Shanghai. It is aglobal financial servicescompany currentlyheadquartered in London. As of2010, it is the worlds sixth-largest banking and financialservices group and the worldseighth-largest companyaccording to a compositemeasure by Forbes magazine.HSBC
113. MarxismMarxism is an economic andsocio-political worldvieworiginally developed in the earlyto mid 19th century by twoGerman émigrés living inBritain, Karl Marx and FriedrichEngels. Marxism is based uponthe idea that social changeoccurs because of the strugglebetween different classes withinsociety who are undercontradiction with each other.The Marxist analysis leads tothe conclusion that capitalismleads to the oppression of theworkers.The Meiji Restoration was achain of events that restoredimperial rule to Japan in 1868.The Restoration led to enormouschanges in Japans political andsocial structure. The rapidindustrialization andmodernization of Japan requireda massive increase in productionand infrastructure. Japan builtindustries such as shipyards,iron smelters, and spinningmills, which were then sold towell-connected entrepreneurs(zaibatsu).Meiji Restoration
114. Utopian Socialism Utopian socialism is aterm used to define thefirst currents of modernsocialist thought. It isdistinguished from latersocialist thought bybeing based onidealism instead ofmaterialism.The House ofRomanov was thesecond and lastimperial dynasty to ruleover Russia, reigningfrom 1613 until theFebruary Revolutionabolished the crown in1917.House ofRomanov
115. Opium Wars The Opium Wars werethe climax of tradedisputes and diplomaticdifficulties betweenChina under the QingDynasty and the BritishEmpire after Chinasought to restrict illegalBritish opium trafficking.Germans, for the mostpart, had been a disunitedpeople since theReformation when theHoly Roman Empire wasshattered into apatchwork of states. Thenew German nationalists,mostly young reformers,sought to unite all theGerman-speaking andethnic-German people.GermanNationalism
116. Zulu KingdomThe Zulu Kingdom was amonarchy in Southern Africathat extended along the coastof the Indian Ocean. Thesmall kingdom grew todominate much of SouthernAfrica, but when it cameinto conflict with the BritishEmpire in the 1870’s, it wasdefeated despite early Zuluvictories.Hangzhou Founded during theQin Dynasty,Hangzhou is at thesouthern end of ChinasGrand Canal whichextends to Beijing. Thecanal evolved overcenturies but reachedits full length by 609.
117. Melaka Established by the Malayruler, the Sultanate ofMelaka was first a Hindukingdom in 1402 and laterbecame Muslim upon theconversion and marriage ofthe Sultan. At its peakMelaka was the mostimportant port in the east.Over 80 languages werespoken and more than 4,000traders were housed there.Marathas The Maratha Empiresymbolized the revival ofthe political power of theHindus in north Indiaafter many centuries ofMuslim rule. It led to thedilution of the castesystem and themodernization of theIndian army.
118. Bolivar’s JamaicaLetterThis document was writtento an English gentleman,most likely the Governor ofJamaica. It is in response toa request that Simon Bolivargive his views on theindependence movement inVenezuela and the form ofgovernment under which thecountry should operate.Maroon SocietiesRunaway slaves inthe West Indies,Central America,South America, andNorth America, whoformed independentsettlements andsocieties together.
119. Indian Revolt of1857The Indian Rebellion of 1857 isalso known as the SepoyRebellion. The rebellion beganon 10 May 1857 in the town ofMeerut when a group of nativesoldiers employed by the BritishEast India Companys army,mutinied because of perceivedrace-based injustices andinequities.Taiping RebellionThe Taiping Rebellionwas a widespread civilwar in southern Chinafrom 1850 to 1864, led byChristian convert HongXiuquan, against theruling Qing Dynasty.About 20 million peopledied, mainly civilians, inone of the deadliestmilitary conflicts inhistory.
120. Boxer Rebellion The Boxer Rebellion or theRighteous Harmony SocietyMovement in northernChina, was a nationalistmovement by the "Society ofRighteous and HarmoniousFists" (known as "Boxers" inEnglish), in China between1898 and 1901, opposingWestern imperialism andChristianity.TanzimâtMovementThe TanzimâtMovement, meaningreorganization of theOttoman Empire, was aperiod of reformationthat began in 1839 andended with the FirstConstitutional Era in1876.
121. MaryWollstonecraft (1759-1797)English writer andearly feminist whodenied malesupremacy andadvocated equaleducation for women;mother of MaryShelley.White AustraliaPolicy An unofficial termfor an immigrationpolicy designed torestrict the entry ofpeople of color intoAustralia.
122. Coerced Labor Forced labor for littleor no pay under thethreat of violence.Slavery has existed onnearly every continent,including Asia, Europe,Africa, and theAmericas, andthroughout most ofrecorded history.Theory ofRelativityA physical theory ofrelativity based on theassumption that the speedof light in a vacuum is aconstant and theassumption that the lawsof physics are invariant inall inertial systems.
123. QuantumMechanicsA fundamental theory ofmatter and energy thatexplains facts that previousphysical theories wereunable to account for, inparticular the fact thatenergy is absorbed andreleased in small, discretequantities (quanta), and thatall matter displays bothwavelike and particle-likeproperties, especially whenviewed at atomic andsubatomic scales.Polio Vaccine First developed by JonasSalk and first tested in1952. It consists of aninjected dose ofinactivated (dead)poliovirus. An oralvaccine was developed byAlbert Sabin which beganhuman trials in 1957 andwas licensed in 1962.
124. Big Bang Theory A theory holding that theuniverse originatedapproximately 20 billionyears ago from the violentexplosion of a very smallagglomeration of matterof extremely high densityand temperature.AntibioticsA drug used to treatinfections caused by bacteriaand other microorganisms.In 1926, Alexander Flemingdiscovered penicillin, asubstance produced by fungithat appeared able to inhibitbacterial growth. In 1939,Edward Chain and HowardFlorey further studiedpenicillin and later carriedout trials of penicillin onhumans.
125. 1918 FluPandemicThe 1918 flu pandemic(commonly referred to as theSpanish flu) was an influenzapandemic that was first found inthe United States, appeared inSierra Leone and France, andthen spread to nearly every partof the world. It was caused byan unusually severe and deadlyvirus. Many of its victims werehealthy young adults, in contrastto most influenza outbreakswhich predominantly affectjuvenile, elderly, or otherwiseweakened patients.Cholera Cholera is an infection ofthe small intestine that iscaused by bacteria. Themain symptoms areprofuse watery diarrheaand vomiting, andtransmission is primarilythrough consumingcontaminated drinkingwater or food.
126. Malaria Malaria is amosquito-borneinfectious diseasewidespread intropical andsubtropical regions,including parts of theAmericas, Asia, andAfrica.NanjingThe Nanking Massacre orNanjing Massacre, alsoknown as the Rape ofNanking, was a mass murderand war rape that occurredduring the six-week periodfollowing the Japanesecapture of the city ofNanjing (Nanking), theformer capital of theRepublic of China during theSecond Sino-Japanese War.
127. Hiroshima A large city in WesternJapan, best known as thefirst city in history to bedestroyed by a nuclearweapon when the UnitedStates of Americadropped an atomic bombon it at 8:15 A.M. onAugust 6, 1945, near theend of World War II.FirebombingA bombing techniquedesigned to damage atarget, generally anurban area, through theuse of fire, caused byincendiary devices,rather than from theblast effect of largebombs.
128. Trench Warfare Trench warfare is a formof warfare in whichcombatants occupyfighting lines, consistinglargely of trenches, inwhich troops are largelyimmune to the enemyssmall arms fire and aresubstantially shelteredfrom artillery.Kwame Nkrumah The leader of Ghana andits predecessor state, theGold Coast, from 1952 to1966. He oversaw thenations independencefrom British colonial rulein 1957, and was the firstPresident of Ghana andthe first Prime Minister ofGhana.
129. Muhammad AliJinnah Was the 20th centuryfounder of Pakistan.Jinnah served as leader ofthe All-India MuslimLeague from 1913 untilPakistans independenceon August 14, 1947 andPakistans first Governor-General until his death onSeptember 11, 1948.Pan ArabismPan-Arabism is anideology espousingthe unification of thepeoples and countriesof the Arab world,from the AtlanticOcean to the ArabianSea. It is closelyconnected to Arabnationalism.
130. Quebecois Relating to Quebec,Canada, especially tothe French speakinginhabitants or theirculture. SomeQuebecois wish toseparate fromCanada.Pan AfricanismA sociopolitical worldview, philosophy, andmovement which seeks tounify native Africans andthose of African heritageinto a "global Africancommunity.”
131. ZionismZionism is primarilya nationalist Jewishpolitical movementthat, in its broadestsense, has supportedthe self-determination of theJewish people in asovereign Jewishnational homeland.ConscriptionConscription is thecompulsoryenrollment of peopleto some sort of publicservice, most oftenmilitary service.
132. India-PakistanPartitionThe Partition of the Indiansubcontinent in 1947 into thetwo states of India and Pakistanwas a cataclysmic event,accompanied by unprecedentedgenocide and violence and oneof the largest displacements ofpeople in the twentieth century.The Partition was a climaxwithin a pattern of recurrentviolence in the name of Hindusand Muslims for severalgenerations before 1947.ANZAC The term ANZACoriginated as an acronymfor the Australian andNew Zealand ArmyCorps, an army corps ofAustralian and NewZealand troops whofought against the Turksin 1915 at the Battle ofGallipoli during WorldWar I.
133. Guernica Guernica is a painting byPablo Picasso, inresponse to the bombingof Guernica, BasqueCountry, by German andItalian warplanes at thebehest of the SpanishNationalist forces, onApril 26, 1937, during theSpanish Civil War.Tiananmen Square A large city square in thecenter of Beijing that hasgreat cultural significanceas it was the site ofseveral important eventsin Chinese history. Thesquare was the center ofthe June 4, 1989 protestswhere soldiers openedfire on protesters killing400–800.
134. Anti-ApartheidMovementOriginally known asthe Boycott Movement,a British organizationthat was at the center ofthe internationalmovement opposingSouth Africas systemof apartheid andsupporting SouthAfricas Blacks.New WorldOrder Any period of historyevidencing adramatic change inworld politicalthought and thebalance of power.
135. Military IndustrialComplexThe combinedinterests of themilitaryestablishment andindustries involved inproducing militarymaterial consideredas exerting influenceon US foreign andeconomic policy.Five Year Plans Formerly in SovietSocialist economies,a government planfor economicdevelopment over aperiod of five years.
136. Socialist Realism A Marxist aestheticdoctrine that seeks topromote thedevelopment ofsocialism throughinstructive use ofliterature, art, andmusic.Great LeapForwardThe attempt by thePeoples Republic ofChina in 1959-60 tosolve the countryseconomic problemsby labor-intensiveindustrialization.
137. New DealThe set of programsand policies designedto promote economicrecovery and socialreform introducedduring the 1930s byPresident Franklin D.Roosevelt.InternationalMonetary FundAn international financialinstitution organized in1945 to promoteinternational trade byincreasing the exchangestability of the majorcurrencies. A fund ismaintained out of whichmember nations withtemporary deficits maymake withdrawals.
138. InternationalCriminal CourtThe International CriminalCourt is the first permanent,treaty based, internationalcriminal court established totry and punish perpetratorsof the most serious crimes ofconcern to the internationalcommunity. The ICC is anindependent internationalorganization, and is not partof the United Nationssystem.World Bank A United Nationsagency created toassist developingnations by loansguaranteed bymembergovernments.
139. World TradeOrganization An internationalorganization based inGeneva that monitorsand enforces rulesgoverning globaltrade.Red Cross An internationalorganization that cares forthe wounded, sick, andhomeless in wartime,according to the terms ofthe Geneva Convention of1864, and now alsoduring and followingnatural disasters.
140. UNICEF An agency of theUnited Nationsresponsible forprograms to aideducation and thehealth of children andmothers in developingcountries.AmnestyInternationalAnindependent worldwideorganization workingagainst human-rightsviolations and for therelease of personsimprisoned for politicalor religious dissent.
141. Doctors WithoutBordersDoctors Without Borders,is a secular humanitarian-aid non-governmentalorganization best knownfor its projects in war-tornregions and developingcountries facing endemicdiseases. Theorganization is known inmost of the world by itsFrench name, MédecinsSans Frontières (MSF).European UnionAn economic andpolitical union establishedin 1993 by members ofthe European Communityand since expanded toinclude numerous Centraland Eastern Europeannations.
142. World HealthOrganization A United Nationsagency to coordinateinternational healthactivities and to helpgovernments improvehealth services.NAFTATrade pact signed byCanada, the U.S., andMexico in 1992, whichtook effect in 1994.Inspired by the successof the EuropeanCommunity in reducingtrade barriers among itsmembers,
143. Royal Dutch ShellA truly multinationalcorporation comprisingtwo foundingcompanies, RoyalDutch Petroleum Co. ofThe Hague and ShellTransport and TradingCo. of London. Thetwo companies beganas rivals.UniversalDeclaration ofHuman RightsA declaration adopted bythe United NationsGeneral Assembly thatarose directly from theexperience of the SecondWorld War and representsthe first global expressionof rights to which allhuman beings areinherently entitled.
144. Greenpeace An internationalorganization thatworks forenvironmentalconservation andthe preservation ofendangered species.Negritude The historical,cultural, and socialheritage consideredcommon to blackscollectively thatbegan in the 1940’sin France.
145. Xenophobia An unreasonablefear or hatred offoreigners orstrangers or of thatwhich is foreign orstrange.New Age A Western spiritualmovement thatdeveloped in thesecond half of the 20thcentury. Its centralprecepts have beendescribed as "drawingon both Eastern andWestern spiritual andmetaphysical traditions.
146. Falun Gong A spiritual discipline firstintroduced in China in1992. It combines thepractice of meditation andslow-moving qigongexercises with a moralphilosophy. Chinesefollowers have beenimprisoned for practicingFalun Gong.LiberationTheologyLiberation theology is apolitical movement inChristian theologywhich interprets theteachings of JesusChrist in terms of aliberation from unjusteconomic, political, orsocial conditions.
147. World Cup Soccer The internationaltournament contested bythe mens national teamsof the members ofFédération Internationalede Football Association(FIFA). It is played everyfour years, with eachteam having to qualify forthe tournament except thehost nation.Bollywood The motion-pictureindustry of India,based in Bombay.The term is acombination of thewords Hollywoodand Bombay.
148. Reggae A style of Jamaicanmusic blendingblues, calypso, androck andcharacterized by astrongly syncopatedrhythm.Acquired ImmuneDeficiency Syndromekills some 6,000 peopleeach day in Africa - morethan wars, famines andfloods. It is a serious(often fatal) disease of theimmune systemtransmitted through bloodproducts especially bysexual contact orcontaminated needles.