Recent Techniques In Textile Wet Processing Aravin Prince .P., M.Tech (Textiles) Lecturer/ Apparel Technology S.S.M.I.T.T, Komarapalayam firstname.lastname@example.org +91-9790080302
What is Textile Processing..? It has four basic process Preparatory Dyeing Printing Finishing Testing
Preparation The ultimate goal of any preparation process is to produce fabric that is clean and rid of all impurities that interfere with dyeing and finishing. Fabric preparation is the first of the wet processing steps
Desizing To remove the sizing material from the textile material (yarn/ fabric/ garment)
Scouring To remove natural impurities from natural fibers. To remove added impurities from man made fibers
Bleaching To remove natural coloring matter from fiber structure Mostly used hydrogen peroxide; we can use this to all type of fibers
What Is “Dyeing”…..? The pleasure derived from imparting colour to clothing has existed since the time of the earliest civilisations; A world of fashion without colour is impossible to imagine. Coloration processes produce the most visible results of all the finishing operations carried out during the preparation of textile goods
What Is Printing….? Textile printing is the most versatile and important of the methods used for introducing colour and design to textile fabrics. Considered analytically it is a process of bringing together a design idea, one or more colorants, and a textile substrate (usually a fabric), using a technique for applying the colorants with some precision.
What is finishing…..? This facilitates production of attractive ready-to-sell textiles intended to fulfil requirements for specific use. This includes all processes which help to maintain the value or increase the value of the textile material. Textile finishing therefore makes textile raw material usable by creating properties with a useful effect.
Ultrasonic Assisted Wet Processing Ultrasound energy is sound waves with frequencies above 20,000 oscillations per second, which is above the upper limit of human hearing. The ultrasonic waves can be generated by variety of ways. Mostly it is produced by piezo-electric and magnatostrictive transducers
Mechanisms: Increasing swelling of fiber in water. Reducing glass transition (Tg) temperature of the fiber. Reduce the size of the dye particles. It helps to enhance the transport of the dye to the fiber.
Applications It degraded starch followed by ultrasonic desizing could lead to considerably energy saving as compared to conventional starch sizing and desizing. The scouring of wool in neutral and very light alkaline bath reduces the fiber damage and enhance rate of processing. It is more beneficial to the application of water insoluble dyes to the hydrophobic fibers. Among the textile fibers, polyester is structurally compact fiber with a high level of crystallinity and without recognized dye sites. Ultrasonic waves accelerate the rate of diffusion of the disperse dye inside the polyester fiber.
Benefits Energy savings by dyeing at lower temperatures and reduced processing times. Environmental improvements by reduced consumption of auxiliary chemicals. Increased color yields. Enzymatic treatments supplemented with ultrasonic energy resulted in shorter processing times, less consumption of expensive enzymes, less fiber damage, and better uniformity treatment to the fabric.
Digital Printing Digital printing, the most advanced technology in textile printing is an emerging new technique. Digital printing in simple terms is the process of creating prints generated and designed from a computer, as opposed to analog printing, which requires printing screens. Among the various approaches for digital printing including electro photography, ink jet has gained a very significant place in the field of innovative printing techniques.
Nano Technology…… The concept of Nano tech was first developed in 1930,that time it is called as bottom science. The term Nano arise from 1970‟s only. The term „Nano‟ comes from a Greek word „Nanos‟ which means „Dwarf‟. Dwarf means abnormally small. 1nm = 10-9m It is about 75000 to 100000 times smaller than the diameter of the human hair.
This technology that can work at the molecular level, atom by atom to create large structures with improved molecules organization by controlling shape and size at the Nano scale.
Hydrophobic Finish This nano finish originally named as “Nano care”& marketed by “Nano Tex”Hydrophobic surface can be produced mainly in 2 ways 1. By creating rough structure on a hydrophobic surface 2.By modifying a rough surface using materials with low surface energy Flurocarbon finishes constitute an important class of hydrophobic finish
U-V Finish Rayleigh‟s scattering theory predicts that in order to scatter UV radiation between 200 and 400 nm, the optimum particle size will be between 20 and 40 nm. A thin layer of titanium dioxide is formed on the surface of the treated cotton fabric which provides excellent UV-protection; the effect can be maintained after 50 home launderings.
Anti Microbial Finish It is a well known fact that the growth of bacteria and microorganisms in food or water is prevented when stored in silver vessels due to antimicrobial properties Silver ions have broad spectrum of anti microbial activities The method of producing durable silver containing antimicrobial finish is to encapsulate a silver compound or nano particle with a fiber reactive polymer like poly (styrene co-maleic anhydride) Instead of perfume , we may use thermo sensitive pigment, thermal storage materials or pharmaceutical preparation in the inner core The treated yarns showed effective antimicrobial activity against various bacteria, fungi
Anti-Pollen Finish Miyuki keori co of Japan is marketing anti-pollen fabrics The smoothness of the finish on the surface and the anti-static effect does not let pollen or dust to come close This finish is given by the polymer which have anti- static or electro conductive composition Eg. Fluroalkyl –( meth acrylate polymers.) It is used in coats blouses, gloves,& etc
Odour Fight Finish A Taiwanese nanotech firm Greenshield has created underwear using nanotechnology that fights odour This underwear fiber release undetectable negative ions &infrared rays that destroy odour - causing bacteria The negative ions inhibits the reproduction of bacteria Far infrared rays causing all the individual atoms being vibrated at a higher frequency which speeds up the metabolism & the elimination of wastes
Tourmaline –a natural mineral emits negative ions when low level radiation comes in contact with oxygen, co2 & water molecules in the air-promotes electrolytic dissociation This nano finish can eliminate 99.99% of bacteria, 90% of odour, 75 % sticky moisture
Flame- Retardant Finish Nyacol nano technologies, has been the world leading supplier of colloidal Antimony pentoxide which is used for flame retardant finish on textiles It contain colloidal antimony pentoxide with halogenated flame retardants . The ratio of halogen to antimony 5:1 to 2:1 10 parts of nycol in 1550 parts of aqueous dispersion, with pH7 and add 40 parts of H2O and sufficient ammonia add for bring out pH9,mix this with 50 parts of rubber latex and spray to the Non-
Characteristics of Nano finished Textile materials Their protective layer is difficult to detect with the naked eye. Saving time and laundering. This technology embraces environmental friendly properties. The crease resistant feature keeps clothing neat. Nano processed products are toxic free Garments are good looking and more durable than ordinary material Manufacturing cost is low, adding value to the products.
Bio Technology Bio-technology is not a single technology, rather it is a group of technologies. It shares two main characteristics-working with living cells and their molecules and having a wide range of applications that can improve our lives. Bio-technology is the one “using organisms or their products for commercial purposes”.
Enzymes Enzymes come from a Greek word “Enzymos” which means „in the cell‟ or „from the cell‟. Enzymes are proteins, composed of amino acids, which are produced by all living organisms. These are responsible for number of reactions and biological activities. Enzymes not only work efficiently and rapidly also biodegradable.
Enzymatic Desizing Desizing using enzymes is the most effective and widely used method for the removal of Starch. Starch liquefying enzymes are directly used in required quantity under controlled condition of pH and temperature. Amylase enzyme from Malt extract were first used to degrade starch-based sizes for cheap and effective desizing. Two categories of amylasei. α-amylaseii. β-amylase
The α-amylase attacks the starch randomly andform Dextrins. It is very rapid in action andproduce simple water soluble sugars.The β-amylase converts starch into maltoseand it is slower in the rate of action
Bio-scouringCotton scouring using alkaline which requires harshchemicals and high temperature leads to high cost.Bio-scouring is an effective alternative to chemicalscouring.Cottonase T enzyme is widely used for scouring whichreduces the need for high energy consumption.It is versatile, economically viable and eco-friendly tocotton scouring.
Bleach Killing In bleaching, especially with hydrogen peroxide, the reactive dyes are very much sensitive to residual peroxide. The residual peroxides are converted into water and Oxygen by using the enzymes which shows better results than traditional method. Reaction takes place at 30-400 C and pH 5.5-7.5 for 15 min Enzymes like Peroxidases, Glucose oxidases, etc are used.
Bio-washing This process is removal of surface dyes from fabrics. Neutral stable cellulase enzyme is used for bio- washing. This enzymes replaces the pumice stones . It is produced from humicola isolans. It is leading to decolourisation without loss in fabric strength. H
Bio-polishing It is a finishing process of cellulosic fabrics and garments. This process is improving surface of the material . This process is also called enzymatic singeing . Bio-polishing with acid cellulose effectively reduces fabric fuzz and pilling on denim materials.
Plasma Technology…?Plasma is often called the "Fourth State of Matter,"the other three being solid, liquid and gas.A gas becomes a plasma when the addition of heat orother energy causes a significant number of atoms torelease some or all of their electrons.The remaining parts of those atoms are left with apositive charge, and the detached negative electronsare free to move about.Those atoms and the resulting electrically chargedgas are said to be "ionized." When enough atoms areionized to significantly affect the electricalcharacteristics of the gas, it is a plasma.
ApplicationsThe plasma modification of polymeric materialsused as textiles, membranes, non-woven,composites, and so on, is able to optimize a lot ofinteresting properties. Mechanical Properties Electrical Properties Wetting (hydrophilic) Hydrophobic Uv-protection Flame-retardancy
Mechanical Properties Material: e.g. cotton, other cellulose-based polymers Treatment: e.g. oxygen plasma Crease-resistance Material: e.g. cotton, wool, silk Treatment: e.g. dipping in N2- Fabric Cross Section Possesing Cut plasma Resistance For Cotton
Electrical Properties Antistatic Protection Antistatic finish Material: e.g. rayon Treatment: e.g. plasma consisting of chloro- two layer fabric construction (chlormethyl)dimethylsila ne three layer fabric construction
Hydrophobic & Hydrophilic Finish Improvement of wetting Material: e.g. PA, PE, PP, PET PTFE... Treatment: e.g. O2 Hydrophilic treatment serves Water-repellent finished cotton/polyester fabric. also as dirt-repellent and plasma treated. antistatic finish. Hydrophobic finish Material: e.g. cotton, cotton/PET, treatment: e.g. per fluorocarbon-plasma Oil repellency on plasma treated cotton/polyester fabric.
UV-protection Material: e.g. dyed cotton/polyester Treatment: TiO2 plasma PLASMA TREATMENT FOR UV PROTECTION Flame-retardancy Material: e.g. PAN, Rayon, cotton Treatment: e.g. phosphorus PLASMA TREATMENT FOR FLAME RETARDENCY containing monomers
Advantages It increases abrasion resistance of cotton materials It increases dyeing speed It gives anti-shrinking It gives anti-dirty It gives hydrophilicity to polypropylene bonded fiber fabrics It gives liquid repellency
ConclusionThus the Ultrasonic, Digital Printing , Bio ,Nano & Plasma technology replaces traditional method with more advantages such as Replacing harmful chemicals Require less effluent treatments Low cost and less energy consumption No damages to materials superior quality of the product In feature , one can expect to see many more developments in textiles , based on above technology‟s
Aravin prince .Periyasamy M.Tech email@example.com +91-9790080302
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