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VoL93-4 CHEMISTRY EDITION TieDyeing-Continued • Rubber bands! size 33 (3 1I2"L x 1/8"W) etc. This makes a great lab to do before .Jumbo, Beral-type pipets, 15 ml bulb the Christmas holidays. Students can capacity . make personalized gifts that are afford- able. Use this activity as a fund raiser for • Beakers, 1000 ml the science club at your school. • Oven racks or sturdy plastic coat hangers interlocked between slats of wood Safety Precautions: • Rubber gloves Students should wear old clothes and shoes. Reactive dyes are "wash fast." Once • Ziplocksbags or small trash bags the reactive dye makes contact with clothes • Newspaper it will not wash out. Figure 2 Procedure: Do not let the students get sloppy. Hint This should be done in an area sep- Students should not squirt each other with 1. Fill the plastic bucket with 8 liters of arate from the dyeing area to prevent sodium carbonate activator solution. filled pipets of reactive dye solution. shirts frompickingup dye by mistake. Soak the T-shirts in the sodium carbon- Students should wear appropriate protec- ate activator solution for a minimum of 3. Dyeing can be done on oven racks placed tive clothing, e.g., chemical splash goggles, 20 minutes. The ionization of cellulose over sinks or on racks with newspaper disposable plastic gloves and chemical- increases with increasing alkalinity of underneath to absorb excess dye. After a resistant aprons. the solution and above pH 8 there is an shirt is placed on a clean rack, dyes can Hands may become stained from the reac- adequate number of ionized hydroxyl be applied using jumbo Beral-type pipets. Apply the dye to one side of the tive dye. It is not easily washed off and will groups in the fiber for most dyeing pur- take about two days for the dye to wear off poses. Soaking the T-shirts for 2 hours shirt by slowly squirting the reactive dye your hands, will maximize the number of possible solution onto each section of the shirt. A bonding sites. After the T-shirt has beautiful design can be made by dyeing Sodium carbonate activator solution is soaked, wring the T-shirt out over the each section of the shirt a .different very basic. Be sure to wear rubber or plastic plastic bucket. color. Once you are done dyeing one side gloves when placing the T-shirts in solution of the shirt, turn the shirt over and and when the shirt is wrung out at the end The sodium carbonate activator solution of the activation period. repeat the dyeing process. Shirts should is very basic so be sure to wear rubber drain for 15 minutes if possible. gloves when placing shirts in the solu- Disposal: Students tend to use a lot of dye and tion and when the shirt is wrung out at All of the chemical solutions and reactive there is a lot of dripping so be prepared. the end of the activation period. dyes may be disposed of according to Flinn Hint: Fewer beakers of dye and more Suggested Disposal Method #26b. Consult pipets work best. Too many beakers take your current Flinn Chemical Catalog/ too long to clean up and reorganize Reference Manual. between classes. Shirts can pick up some dye by mistake, but students will be Literature Cited: applying so much dye that it probably American Association of Textile Chemists will not matter. Clean work areas will and Colorists (MTCC). Dyeing Primer. A minimize problems. series of short papers on the Fundamentals 4. Place shirts in a plastic Ziplock" bag or of Dyeing. P.O. Box 12215, Research small trash bag and close to keep the Triangle Park, NC 27709. shirt moist. Drying will prevent the reac- Vickerstaff, T. "Theoretical Principles of tive dyes from fully reacting. Most colors Dyeing with Reactive Dyes." Procion will have completely reacted after 4 Dyestuffin Textile Dyeing, 1962, pp. 17-40. hours but less reactive colors such as Special thanks to Gerald Blackstone,2. Shirts are now ready to fold and tie. A green and turquoise will take as long as Eastchester High School, Eastchester, NY spiral pattern is created by laying the 24 hours. Be patient. Let the dyes react and Elenore Grow, Horizon High School, shirt flat on a surface protected by a completely. Brighton, CO for showing me how to tie-dye. clean dropcloth. The shirt is held with 5. At home, rinse the shirt in warm water Ordering information for Flinns Tie- the thumb and fingers at the point where (75-900F) in order to remove the unre- Dyeing-Chemistry Fun Kit is listed on the center of the spiral will be located. acted dye and the sodium carbonate acti- page 7 of this Flinn Fax. Individual tie- Use a twisting motion to coil the shirt vator. Change the water and continue to dyeing supplies may be found below. and use your other hand to bring the rinse. Repeat until the water remains loose ends of the shirt into the circle (see clear and the shirt does not feel slippery. Figure 1). Take four rubber bands and Set the washing machine on the HOT AP8701Z Pipets, Jumbo, Beral-type $ 9.50 slide them around the shirt so they inter- 15 ml capacity, pkgJ120 sect at the center where the twist began water setting and wash as many as 10 shirts at one time in 2 tablespoons of the AP8702Z Urea, 650 g 8.45 (see Figure 2). You now have what appears to look like a "pie" cut into eight pre-wash, such as Joy® or Dawn" dish- AP8703Z Sodium carbonate, 250 g 5.40 pieces. The bound shirt can be turned soap. Dry shirts on the hottest dryer set- AP8704Z Reactive Dye, Yellow, 8.50 over and dyed on both sides. We selected ting. The reactive dye is washfast so it is 45 grams this type of folding pattern because it is now safe to wash with other clothes using AP8705Z Reactive Dye, Red, 8.25 the easiest to do and the entire tie-dye- normal detergents. The reactive center on 45 grams ing process can be completed in a 50- the dyes is a dichloro-triazinyl group so Reactive Dye, Blue, 10.10 AP8706Z minute lab period. Students also like this do not use bleaches on the shirt. 45 grams pattern the best. 6. Now be creative! Try other patterns for AP8707Z Reactive Dye, Green, 11.25 folding. Dye labcoats, socks, tennis shoes, 45 grams