Chapter 4 Production ofManufactured Fibers   70% of all textiles used               Apparel – 48%            Home furnishi...
Characteristics of Manufactured Fibers Quantities can be controlled easily b/cnot dependent on nature Properties may be ta...
Categories of Manufactured Fibers Three main categories  ◦ Manufactured Cellulosics     Derived from wood pulp and cotton ...
Generations of Manufactured Fibers First generation  ◦ Regenerated from natural materials     Rayon Second generation  ◦ S...
Formation of Manufactured Fibers Spinning  ◦ Process of making a manufactured fiber     Polymer (fiber forming substance) ...
Antron® nylon solution dyedpolymer chips                              6
Spinneret
Filament Fiber ProductionFilaments extruded simultaneously Each filament does not touch each other Filaments are hardened ...
Hardening Techniques for Filament FibersMelt spinning◦ Polymer melted◦ Force thru Cool air to  solidify◦ Simple / less exp...
Hardening Techniques for Filament FibersDry spinning◦ Polymer dissolved in  solvent◦ Extruded into warm, dry  air◦ Warm ai...
Hardening Techniques for Filament Fibers Wet spinning  ◦ Polymers dissolve in chemical bath  ◦ Extruded into other chemica...
Hardening Techniques for Filament Fibers  Solvent spinning  ◦   Newest process  ◦   Polymer is dissolved in amine oxide  ◦...
Special-Use Spinning Methods Gel Spinning ◦   Hybrid of wet + dry spinning ◦   Also called Solution Spinning ◦   Plastic f...
Specialized Fiber Formation Heterogeneous fibers ◦ Bicomponent Hollow fibers Microfibers Fibrillated fibers
Advantages of Bicomponent Fibers Single fiber has characteristics of both polymers  ◦ Increased comfort  ◦ Better absorben...
Bilateral Fibers Also called side-by-side bicomponent fibers ◦ Two different polymers fed into spinneret    Fig 4-4a p.58 ...
Sheath-Core Fibers Spun so one fiber encases the other ◦ See #43 on p.26 of your Swatch Kit ◦ Refer to Fig 4-4b on p. 58 o...
Matrix or Biconstitute Fibers Created with two generically different fibers ◦ Fine, short lengths of one fiber embedded in...
Hollow Fibers Have one or more spaces in their centers Fig 4- 6 p. 58 ◦ Air injected into fiber as it is being formed ◦ Sh...
Intertek Testing Services                         ITS   LabtestPhotomicrograph of hollow nylonfibers (cross section)      ...
Intertek Testing Services                         ITS   LabtestPhotomicrograph of hollow nylonfibers (cross section)      ...
Microfibers     Produced by carefully controlled melt spinning ◦ Splitting method    Two incompatible polymers are extrude...
Fibrillated fibers  ◦ Characteristics     Coarse fibers used for bagging and twine  ◦ Extrude asheet of polymer  ◦ Draw an...
Manufactured Fiber ModificationsDictated by the Projected End Use  Drawing  Heat setting  Texturing  Cutting
Modifications continued Drawing –parallel alignment or orientation of molecules Partially oriented yarns (POY) ◦ Not drawi...
Undrawn Antron®nylon fiber                  27
Modifications continued Heat Setting ◦ Heat and pressure permanently change shape      Improves dimensional stability of t...
Pleats Heat Set into Polyester
Modifications continued Texturing – Produces the following: ◦ Bulkier yarns ◦ Opaque yarns ◦ Yarns with elastomeric qualit...
Modifications continued Cutting ◦ Creates staple yarns from filament fibers ◦ Extruded from spinnerets with many holes to ...
Antron® nylon staple tow                           32
Additional Treatments Applied during the spinning process ◦ Additives such as:    Dyes    Pigments    Delusterants    Whit...
Chapter 5 ManufacturedCellulosic FibersTwo categoriesRegenerated cellulosic fibersDerivative cellulosic fibersBoth made fr...
Regenerated Cellulosic Fibers Rayon  ◦   Pure cellulose fiber  ◦   Originally produced from mulberry trees  ◦   Known as “...
Viscose rayon fiber                      36
Varieties of Rayon Originally inexpensive to manufacture Viscose Rayon Cuperammonium rayon High-wet modulus (HWM) or polyn...
General Properties of Rayon Excellent absorbency Wet strength lower than cotton Poor resiliency Does not pill
Intertek Testing Services                       ITS   LabtestPhotomicrograph ofviscose rayon fibers                       ...
Intertek Testing Services                           ITS   LabtestPhotomicrograph of flat rayon fibers(cross section)      ...
Mechanical Properties ofViscose Rayon  Medium-weight fiber  Not as strong as cotton  Abrades more easily than cotton  Weak...
Chemical Properties ofViscose Rayon  Very absorbent     Comfortable to wear     Dyes readily in rich vibrant colors  Burns...
Environmental Properties of Viscose Rayon  Silverfish  Mildew  Sunlight
End Uses of Viscose Rayon Frequently used in blends ◦ Blended with fibers that are more durable Most rayon fabrics are wov...
Care of Viscose Rayon Dry cleaning recommended Nonchlorine bleaches are safe Follow care labels!!! Store in a clean, dry e...
More Rayon p.67 Cuperammonium Rayon ◦   Bemberg rayon (bember industries until 1975) ◦   Known as cupro ◦   Silkier in fee...
More Rayon High-Wet Modulus Rayon ◦ Stronger, more resilient, more dimensionally stable ◦ Modulus refers to resistance to ...
Lyocell Newest regenerated cellulosic fiber ◦ Tencel® by Courtaulds Fibers, Inc. ◦ Lenzing Lyocell® by Lenzing Fibers   Co...
Tencel® lyocell fiber                        49
Physical Properties of Lyocell Fiber is round Smooth No striations Fibrils or tiny fibers on surface ◦ Creates a fine, sof...
Intertek Testing Services                        ITS   LabtestPhotomicrograph of lyocell fibers                           ...
Mechanical Properties of Lyocell Stronger than other cellulosic fibers More abrasion resistance Less shrinkage Better resi...
Chemical Properties of Lyocell Similar to rayon Absorbent Dyes well Comfortable to wear Excellent static resistance
Environmental Properties of Lyocell Similar to rayon  ◦ Silverfish  ◦ Mildew  ◦ Sunlight
End Uses of Lyocell Apparel & Home Furnishings Knits and Wovens Due to high cost – limited nonwoven applications Frequentl...
Care of Lyocell Wash or Dry clean Follow care labels closely Friction can cause additional fibrillation of fibers
Derivative Cellulosic Fibers Acetate and Triacetate ◦ Chemically changed during production ◦ Derivative of cellulose calle...
Cellulose Acetate Commonly CalledAcetate  Developed during WW1 as coating for  aircraft wings  After war it was developed ...
Physical Properties of Acetate White fiber Longitudinal striations Irregular cross section resembling popcorn – see p. 70 ...
Intertek Testing Services                        ITS   LabtestPhotomicrograph of acetate fibers                           ...
Mechanical Properties of Acetate Very weak fiber Lighter in weight than cotton or rayon Poor abrasion resistance Poor elas...
Chemical Properties of Acetate Moderate absorbency Builds static electricity Melts at temps over 275 Thermoplastic Resista...
Environmental Properties of Acetate Susceptible to atmospheric gases  ◦ Color may change Silverfish if heavily starched Mi...
End Uses of Acetate Apparel and Home Furnishings Don’t use when durability is needed Lining fabric Frequently used in: ◦ T...
Care of Acetate Dry cleaning recommended Stay away from acetone Nonchlorine bleaches may be used
Triacetate U.S. production ceased in 1986 Produced today in; ◦ United Kingdom ◦ Japan ◦ Belgium Similar to acetate: ◦ Phys...
Triacetate Mechanical Properties (compared to acetate) ◦   Better resiliency ◦   Better dimensional stability ◦   Better e...
Triacetate Chemical Properties (compared to acetate) ◦ Less absorbant ◦ Builds up static electricity (like acetate) ◦ Much...
Triacetate End Uses ◦ Used when durability is not important ◦ Used when pleat and crease retention is important ◦ Bedsprea...
Triacetate Care of ◦ Machines washed ◦ Hand washed ◦ Dry cleaned ◦ Use non-chlorine bleach ◦ Needs lining for sunlight if ...
Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q58mPh6v0kA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7mAYMg5ycMs
Production of manufactured fibers
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  1. 1. Chapter 4 Production ofManufactured Fibers 70% of all textiles used Apparel – 48% Home furnishings – 40% excluding floor coverings Floor coverings – 99% Industry – 91%
  2. 2. Characteristics of Manufactured Fibers Quantities can be controlled easily b/cnot dependent on nature Properties may be tailored to the needs of the consumer Blending of manufactured fibers ◦ With natural fibers - optimize end product characteristics Ex. polyester/cotton blend: cotton gives comfort and pleasant hand polyester adds resilience and durability
  3. 3. Categories of Manufactured Fibers Three main categories ◦ Manufactured Cellulosics Derived from wood pulp and cotton linters Cannot be used as textiles in their original form ◦ Synthetics Created from petrochemicals ◦ Inorganic fibers Glass Metal Ceramic
  4. 4. Generations of Manufactured Fibers First generation ◦ Regenerated from natural materials Rayon Second generation ◦ Synthesized from petroleum products Nylon Third generation ◦ Developed within the past 20 years ◦ High-performance or high technology Microfibers
  5. 5. Formation of Manufactured Fibers Spinning ◦ Process of making a manufactured fiber Polymer (fiber forming substance) gets melted into dope Dope is extruded/forced through a Spinneret ◦ Spinneret Looks like a showerhead Has multiple holes, each one creates one filament
  6. 6. Antron® nylon solution dyedpolymer chips 6
  7. 7. Spinneret
  8. 8. Filament Fiber ProductionFilaments extruded simultaneously Each filament does not touch each other Filaments are hardened as they emerge from the Spinneret Several techniques for hardening the filaments Described by the number and size of the filaments ◦ 70/40 Yarn is 70 denier and there are 40 filaments
  9. 9. Hardening Techniques for Filament FibersMelt spinning◦ Polymer melted◦ Force thru Cool air to solidify◦ Simple / less expensiveNylon, olefin, polyester, saran and glass
  10. 10. Hardening Techniques for Filament FibersDry spinning◦ Polymer dissolved in solvent◦ Extruded into warm, dry air◦ Warm air dissolves the solvent + hardens the filament◦ Acetate, vinyon, some acrylics
  11. 11. Hardening Techniques for Filament Fibers Wet spinning ◦ Polymers dissolve in chemical bath ◦ Extruded into other chemical bath ◦ Acrylic and viscose rayon
  12. 12. Hardening Techniques for Filament Fibers Solvent spinning ◦ Newest process ◦ Polymer is dissolved in amine oxide ◦ Extruded into solvent bath ◦ Tencel, Lyocell
  13. 13. Special-Use Spinning Methods Gel Spinning ◦ Hybrid of wet + dry spinning ◦ Also called Solution Spinning ◦ Plastic films and packing materials ◦ Spectra® Emulsion Spinning ◦ for insoluable fibers – high melting points ◦ Teflon® ◦ GORE-TEX® fabrics
  14. 14. Specialized Fiber Formation Heterogeneous fibers ◦ Bicomponent Hollow fibers Microfibers Fibrillated fibers
  15. 15. Advantages of Bicomponent Fibers Single fiber has characteristics of both polymers ◦ Increased comfort ◦ Better absorbency ◦ Cross-dyed effects can be achieved
  16. 16. Bilateral Fibers Also called side-by-side bicomponent fibers ◦ Two different polymers fed into spinneret Fig 4-4a p.58 ◦ Benefit of crimp Result of one fiber shrinking more than the other Crimped fibers have: Improved hand Increased cover Loft elasticity
  17. 17. Sheath-Core Fibers Spun so one fiber encases the other ◦ See #43 on p.26 of your Swatch Kit ◦ Refer to Fig 4-4b on p. 58 of textbook
  18. 18. Matrix or Biconstitute Fibers Created with two generically different fibers ◦ Fine, short lengths of one fiber embedded in another before extrusion Fig. 4-5
  19. 19. Hollow Fibers Have one or more spaces in their centers Fig 4- 6 p. 58 ◦ Air injected into fiber as it is being formed ◦ Shape determined by spinneret holes ◦ By adding gas producing compounds to the spinning solution Lightweight and trap air ◦ Often used for cold weather clothing Thermolite® by DuPont
  20. 20. Intertek Testing Services ITS LabtestPhotomicrograph of hollow nylonfibers (cross section) 21
  21. 21. Intertek Testing Services ITS LabtestPhotomicrograph of hollow nylonfibers (cross section) 22
  22. 22. Microfibers Produced by carefully controlled melt spinning ◦ Splitting method Two incompatible polymers are extruded then separated. ◦ Sea-island method Polymer for the microfiber is embedded into another polymer. Also called microdenier fibers Characteristics ◦ Soft ◦ Excellent drape
  23. 23. Fibrillated fibers ◦ Characteristics Coarse fibers used for bagging and twine ◦ Extrude asheet of polymer ◦ Draw and stretch the sheet This causes it to break into interconnected fibers
  24. 24. Manufactured Fiber ModificationsDictated by the Projected End Use Drawing Heat setting Texturing Cutting
  25. 25. Modifications continued Drawing –parallel alignment or orientation of molecules Partially oriented yarns (POY) ◦ Not drawing to the maximum length Fully oriented yarns (FOY) ◦ Drawing to the maximum length
  26. 26. Undrawn Antron®nylon fiber 27
  27. 27. Modifications continued Heat Setting ◦ Heat and pressure permanently change shape Improves dimensional stability of thermoplastic yarns . Create permanent pleats and creases
  28. 28. Pleats Heat Set into Polyester
  29. 29. Modifications continued Texturing – Produces the following: ◦ Bulkier yarns ◦ Opaque yarns ◦ Yarns with elastomeric qualities Since synthetic fibers are moldable, they will retain a permanently textured shape
  30. 30. Modifications continued Cutting ◦ Creates staple yarns from filament fibers ◦ Extruded from spinnerets with many holes to produce more economically ◦ See Fig. 4 – 8 p. 61 for a detailed summary of the process
  31. 31. Antron® nylon staple tow 32
  32. 32. Additional Treatments Applied during the spinning process ◦ Additives such as: Dyes Pigments Delusterants Whiteners
  33. 33. Chapter 5 ManufacturedCellulosic FibersTwo categoriesRegenerated cellulosic fibersDerivative cellulosic fibersBoth made from cotton linters and wood pulp
  34. 34. Regenerated Cellulosic Fibers Rayon ◦ Pure cellulose fiber ◦ Originally produced from mulberry trees ◦ Known as “artificial silk” ◦ Viscose rayon only type produced in US
  35. 35. Viscose rayon fiber 36
  36. 36. Varieties of Rayon Originally inexpensive to manufacture Viscose Rayon Cuperammonium rayon High-wet modulus (HWM) or polynosic rayon High-tenacity rayon
  37. 37. General Properties of Rayon Excellent absorbency Wet strength lower than cotton Poor resiliency Does not pill
  38. 38. Intertek Testing Services ITS LabtestPhotomicrograph ofviscose rayon fibers 39
  39. 39. Intertek Testing Services ITS LabtestPhotomicrograph of flat rayon fibers(cross section) 40
  40. 40. Mechanical Properties ofViscose Rayon Medium-weight fiber Not as strong as cotton Abrades more easily than cotton Weaker wet than dry Not dimensionally stable ◦ Tends to shrink progressively when laundered Poor elastic recovery Poor resilience Flexible fiber
  41. 41. Chemical Properties ofViscose Rayon Very absorbent Comfortable to wear Dyes readily in rich vibrant colors Burns like cotton Conducts electricity – no static buildup ◦ Catches fire when exposed to open flame. ◦ Continues to burn when flame is removed. ◦ Smells like burning paper Acids and alkalis degrade it
  42. 42. Environmental Properties of Viscose Rayon Silverfish Mildew Sunlight
  43. 43. End Uses of Viscose Rayon Frequently used in blends ◦ Blended with fibers that are more durable Most rayon fabrics are woven Fiber may stretch when damp or wet Nonwoven rayon fabric used in medical and sanitary products
  44. 44. Care of Viscose Rayon Dry cleaning recommended Nonchlorine bleaches are safe Follow care labels!!! Store in a clean, dry environment
  45. 45. More Rayon p.67 Cuperammonium Rayon ◦ Bemberg rayon (bember industries until 1975) ◦ Known as cupro ◦ Silkier in feel and appearance ◦ Lightweight summer clothing
  46. 46. More Rayon High-Wet Modulus Rayon ◦ Stronger, more resilient, more dimensionally stable ◦ Modulus refers to resistance to stress + strain ◦ European generic name is Model High-tenacity Rayon ◦ stronger than viscose
  47. 47. Lyocell Newest regenerated cellulosic fiber ◦ Tencel® by Courtaulds Fibers, Inc. ◦ Lenzing Lyocell® by Lenzing Fibers Corporation Solvent used is nontoxic ◦ Self-contained solvent-spun process Creates little water and air pollution ◦ Environmentally friendly fiber Process more expensive
  48. 48. Tencel® lyocell fiber 49
  49. 49. Physical Properties of Lyocell Fiber is round Smooth No striations Fibrils or tiny fibers on surface ◦ Creates a fine, soft finish with reduced luster
  50. 50. Intertek Testing Services ITS LabtestPhotomicrograph of lyocell fibers 51
  51. 51. Mechanical Properties of Lyocell Stronger than other cellulosic fibers More abrasion resistance Less shrinkage Better resilience
  52. 52. Chemical Properties of Lyocell Similar to rayon Absorbent Dyes well Comfortable to wear Excellent static resistance
  53. 53. Environmental Properties of Lyocell Similar to rayon ◦ Silverfish ◦ Mildew ◦ Sunlight
  54. 54. End Uses of Lyocell Apparel & Home Furnishings Knits and Wovens Due to high cost – limited nonwoven applications Frequently used in blends ◦ Especially cotton
  55. 55. Care of Lyocell Wash or Dry clean Follow care labels closely Friction can cause additional fibrillation of fibers
  56. 56. Derivative Cellulosic Fibers Acetate and Triacetate ◦ Chemically changed during production ◦ Derivative of cellulose called esters FIBERS ARE NOT CELLULOSE
  57. 57. Cellulose Acetate Commonly CalledAcetate Developed during WW1 as coating for aircraft wings After war it was developed into a fiber Production began in 1924 First thermoplastic fiber Trade names ◦ Chromespun® ◦ Estron®
  58. 58. Physical Properties of Acetate White fiber Longitudinal striations Irregular cross section resembling popcorn – see p. 70 Lustrous, but may be delustered Smooth hand White unless dyed prior to extrusion
  59. 59. Intertek Testing Services ITS LabtestPhotomicrograph of acetate fibers 60
  60. 60. Mechanical Properties of Acetate Very weak fiber Lighter in weight than cotton or rayon Poor abrasion resistance Poor elasticity Poor resilience Not dimensionally stable Does not pill Drapes well
  61. 61. Chemical Properties of Acetate Moderate absorbency Builds static electricity Melts at temps over 275 Thermoplastic Resistant to acids and bases Can be bleached with nonchlorine bleach Not as comfortable to wear as: ◦ Cotton, linen or rayon
  62. 62. Environmental Properties of Acetate Susceptible to atmospheric gases ◦ Color may change Silverfish if heavily starched Mildew Sunlight degrades ◦ But less than silk/other cellulosic fibers ◦ Delustered acetate less resistant to sunlight
  63. 63. End Uses of Acetate Apparel and Home Furnishings Don’t use when durability is needed Lining fabric Frequently used in: ◦ Taffeta, satin and brocade for formal wear Cigarette filters Personal hygiene products Fiberfill Filters
  64. 64. Care of Acetate Dry cleaning recommended Stay away from acetone Nonchlorine bleaches may be used
  65. 65. Triacetate U.S. production ceased in 1986 Produced today in; ◦ United Kingdom ◦ Japan ◦ Belgium Similar to acetate: ◦ Physical and chemical properties ◦ Differs mechanically
  66. 66. Triacetate Mechanical Properties (compared to acetate) ◦ Better resiliency ◦ Better dimensional stability ◦ Better elasticity ◦ Like acetate Low strength Poor abrasion resistance
  67. 67. Triacetate Chemical Properties (compared to acetate) ◦ Less absorbant ◦ Builds up static electricity (like acetate) ◦ Much less senstitive to acetone ◦ Less heat-sensitive (given special heat setting treatment) creases and pleats are more permanent Environmental Properties ◦ More resistant to mildew than acetate ◦ Resistant to silverfish, moths and carpet beetles ◦ Moderate resistant to sunlight
  68. 68. Triacetate End Uses ◦ Used when durability is not important ◦ Used when pleat and crease retention is important ◦ Bedspreads ◦ Comforters ◦ draperies
  69. 69. Triacetate Care of ◦ Machines washed ◦ Hand washed ◦ Dry cleaned ◦ Use non-chlorine bleach ◦ Needs lining for sunlight if used as draperies ◦ Acetone will damage it.
  70. 70. Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q58mPh6v0kA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7mAYMg5ycMs
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