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Production of manufactured fibers


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  • 1. Chapter 4 Production ofManufactured Fibers 70% of all textiles used Apparel – 48% Home furnishings – 40% excluding floor coverings Floor coverings – 99% Industry – 91%
  • 2. Characteristics of Manufactured Fibers Quantities can be controlled easily b/cnot dependent on nature Properties may be tailored to the needs of the consumer Blending of manufactured fibers ◦ With natural fibers - optimize end product characteristics Ex. polyester/cotton blend: cotton gives comfort and pleasant hand polyester adds resilience and durability
  • 3. Categories of Manufactured Fibers Three main categories ◦ Manufactured Cellulosics Derived from wood pulp and cotton linters Cannot be used as textiles in their original form ◦ Synthetics Created from petrochemicals ◦ Inorganic fibers Glass Metal Ceramic
  • 4. Generations of Manufactured Fibers First generation ◦ Regenerated from natural materials Rayon Second generation ◦ Synthesized from petroleum products Nylon Third generation ◦ Developed within the past 20 years ◦ High-performance or high technology Microfibers
  • 5. Formation of Manufactured Fibers Spinning ◦ Process of making a manufactured fiber Polymer (fiber forming substance) gets melted into dope Dope is extruded/forced through a Spinneret ◦ Spinneret Looks like a showerhead Has multiple holes, each one creates one filament
  • 6. Antron® nylon solution dyedpolymer chips 6
  • 7. Spinneret
  • 8. Filament Fiber ProductionFilaments extruded simultaneously Each filament does not touch each other Filaments are hardened as they emerge from the Spinneret Several techniques for hardening the filaments Described by the number and size of the filaments ◦ 70/40 Yarn is 70 denier and there are 40 filaments
  • 9. Hardening Techniques for Filament FibersMelt spinning◦ Polymer melted◦ Force thru Cool air to solidify◦ Simple / less expensiveNylon, olefin, polyester, saran and glass
  • 10. Hardening Techniques for Filament FibersDry spinning◦ Polymer dissolved in solvent◦ Extruded into warm, dry air◦ Warm air dissolves the solvent + hardens the filament◦ Acetate, vinyon, some acrylics
  • 11. Hardening Techniques for Filament Fibers Wet spinning ◦ Polymers dissolve in chemical bath ◦ Extruded into other chemical bath ◦ Acrylic and viscose rayon
  • 12. Hardening Techniques for Filament Fibers Solvent spinning ◦ Newest process ◦ Polymer is dissolved in amine oxide ◦ Extruded into solvent bath ◦ Tencel, Lyocell
  • 13. Special-Use Spinning Methods Gel Spinning ◦ Hybrid of wet + dry spinning ◦ Also called Solution Spinning ◦ Plastic films and packing materials ◦ Spectra® Emulsion Spinning ◦ for insoluable fibers – high melting points ◦ Teflon® ◦ GORE-TEX® fabrics
  • 14. Specialized Fiber Formation Heterogeneous fibers ◦ Bicomponent Hollow fibers Microfibers Fibrillated fibers
  • 15. Advantages of Bicomponent Fibers Single fiber has characteristics of both polymers ◦ Increased comfort ◦ Better absorbency ◦ Cross-dyed effects can be achieved
  • 16. Bilateral Fibers Also called side-by-side bicomponent fibers ◦ Two different polymers fed into spinneret Fig 4-4a p.58 ◦ Benefit of crimp Result of one fiber shrinking more than the other Crimped fibers have: Improved hand Increased cover Loft elasticity
  • 17. Sheath-Core Fibers Spun so one fiber encases the other ◦ See #43 on p.26 of your Swatch Kit ◦ Refer to Fig 4-4b on p. 58 of textbook
  • 18. Matrix or Biconstitute Fibers Created with two generically different fibers ◦ Fine, short lengths of one fiber embedded in another before extrusion Fig. 4-5
  • 19. Hollow Fibers Have one or more spaces in their centers Fig 4- 6 p. 58 ◦ Air injected into fiber as it is being formed ◦ Shape determined by spinneret holes ◦ By adding gas producing compounds to the spinning solution Lightweight and trap air ◦ Often used for cold weather clothing Thermolite® by DuPont
  • 20. Intertek Testing Services ITS LabtestPhotomicrograph of hollow nylonfibers (cross section) 21
  • 21. Intertek Testing Services ITS LabtestPhotomicrograph of hollow nylonfibers (cross section) 22
  • 22. Microfibers Produced by carefully controlled melt spinning ◦ Splitting method Two incompatible polymers are extruded then separated. ◦ Sea-island method Polymer for the microfiber is embedded into another polymer. Also called microdenier fibers Characteristics ◦ Soft ◦ Excellent drape
  • 23. Fibrillated fibers ◦ Characteristics Coarse fibers used for bagging and twine ◦ Extrude asheet of polymer ◦ Draw and stretch the sheet This causes it to break into interconnected fibers
  • 24. Manufactured Fiber ModificationsDictated by the Projected End Use Drawing Heat setting Texturing Cutting
  • 25. Modifications continued Drawing –parallel alignment or orientation of molecules Partially oriented yarns (POY) ◦ Not drawing to the maximum length Fully oriented yarns (FOY) ◦ Drawing to the maximum length
  • 26. Undrawn Antron®nylon fiber 27
  • 27. Modifications continued Heat Setting ◦ Heat and pressure permanently change shape Improves dimensional stability of thermoplastic yarns . Create permanent pleats and creases
  • 28. Pleats Heat Set into Polyester
  • 29. Modifications continued Texturing – Produces the following: ◦ Bulkier yarns ◦ Opaque yarns ◦ Yarns with elastomeric qualities Since synthetic fibers are moldable, they will retain a permanently textured shape
  • 30. Modifications continued Cutting ◦ Creates staple yarns from filament fibers ◦ Extruded from spinnerets with many holes to produce more economically ◦ See Fig. 4 – 8 p. 61 for a detailed summary of the process
  • 31. Antron® nylon staple tow 32
  • 32. Additional Treatments Applied during the spinning process ◦ Additives such as: Dyes Pigments Delusterants Whiteners
  • 33. Chapter 5 ManufacturedCellulosic FibersTwo categoriesRegenerated cellulosic fibersDerivative cellulosic fibersBoth made from cotton linters and wood pulp
  • 34. Regenerated Cellulosic Fibers Rayon ◦ Pure cellulose fiber ◦ Originally produced from mulberry trees ◦ Known as “artificial silk” ◦ Viscose rayon only type produced in US
  • 35. Viscose rayon fiber 36
  • 36. Varieties of Rayon Originally inexpensive to manufacture Viscose Rayon Cuperammonium rayon High-wet modulus (HWM) or polynosic rayon High-tenacity rayon
  • 37. General Properties of Rayon Excellent absorbency Wet strength lower than cotton Poor resiliency Does not pill
  • 38. Intertek Testing Services ITS LabtestPhotomicrograph ofviscose rayon fibers 39
  • 39. Intertek Testing Services ITS LabtestPhotomicrograph of flat rayon fibers(cross section) 40
  • 40. Mechanical Properties ofViscose Rayon Medium-weight fiber Not as strong as cotton Abrades more easily than cotton Weaker wet than dry Not dimensionally stable ◦ Tends to shrink progressively when laundered Poor elastic recovery Poor resilience Flexible fiber
  • 41. Chemical Properties ofViscose Rayon Very absorbent Comfortable to wear Dyes readily in rich vibrant colors Burns like cotton Conducts electricity – no static buildup ◦ Catches fire when exposed to open flame. ◦ Continues to burn when flame is removed. ◦ Smells like burning paper Acids and alkalis degrade it
  • 42. Environmental Properties of Viscose Rayon Silverfish Mildew Sunlight
  • 43. End Uses of Viscose Rayon Frequently used in blends ◦ Blended with fibers that are more durable Most rayon fabrics are woven Fiber may stretch when damp or wet Nonwoven rayon fabric used in medical and sanitary products
  • 44. Care of Viscose Rayon Dry cleaning recommended Nonchlorine bleaches are safe Follow care labels!!! Store in a clean, dry environment
  • 45. More Rayon p.67 Cuperammonium Rayon ◦ Bemberg rayon (bember industries until 1975) ◦ Known as cupro ◦ Silkier in feel and appearance ◦ Lightweight summer clothing
  • 46. More Rayon High-Wet Modulus Rayon ◦ Stronger, more resilient, more dimensionally stable ◦ Modulus refers to resistance to stress + strain ◦ European generic name is Model High-tenacity Rayon ◦ stronger than viscose
  • 47. Lyocell Newest regenerated cellulosic fiber ◦ Tencel® by Courtaulds Fibers, Inc. ◦ Lenzing Lyocell® by Lenzing Fibers Corporation Solvent used is nontoxic ◦ Self-contained solvent-spun process Creates little water and air pollution ◦ Environmentally friendly fiber Process more expensive
  • 48. Tencel® lyocell fiber 49
  • 49. Physical Properties of Lyocell Fiber is round Smooth No striations Fibrils or tiny fibers on surface ◦ Creates a fine, soft finish with reduced luster
  • 50. Intertek Testing Services ITS LabtestPhotomicrograph of lyocell fibers 51
  • 51. Mechanical Properties of Lyocell Stronger than other cellulosic fibers More abrasion resistance Less shrinkage Better resilience
  • 52. Chemical Properties of Lyocell Similar to rayon Absorbent Dyes well Comfortable to wear Excellent static resistance
  • 53. Environmental Properties of Lyocell Similar to rayon ◦ Silverfish ◦ Mildew ◦ Sunlight
  • 54. End Uses of Lyocell Apparel & Home Furnishings Knits and Wovens Due to high cost – limited nonwoven applications Frequently used in blends ◦ Especially cotton
  • 55. Care of Lyocell Wash or Dry clean Follow care labels closely Friction can cause additional fibrillation of fibers
  • 56. Derivative Cellulosic Fibers Acetate and Triacetate ◦ Chemically changed during production ◦ Derivative of cellulose called esters FIBERS ARE NOT CELLULOSE
  • 57. Cellulose Acetate Commonly CalledAcetate Developed during WW1 as coating for aircraft wings After war it was developed into a fiber Production began in 1924 First thermoplastic fiber Trade names ◦ Chromespun® ◦ Estron®
  • 58. Physical Properties of Acetate White fiber Longitudinal striations Irregular cross section resembling popcorn – see p. 70 Lustrous, but may be delustered Smooth hand White unless dyed prior to extrusion
  • 59. Intertek Testing Services ITS LabtestPhotomicrograph of acetate fibers 60
  • 60. Mechanical Properties of Acetate Very weak fiber Lighter in weight than cotton or rayon Poor abrasion resistance Poor elasticity Poor resilience Not dimensionally stable Does not pill Drapes well
  • 61. Chemical Properties of Acetate Moderate absorbency Builds static electricity Melts at temps over 275 Thermoplastic Resistant to acids and bases Can be bleached with nonchlorine bleach Not as comfortable to wear as: ◦ Cotton, linen or rayon
  • 62. Environmental Properties of Acetate Susceptible to atmospheric gases ◦ Color may change Silverfish if heavily starched Mildew Sunlight degrades ◦ But less than silk/other cellulosic fibers ◦ Delustered acetate less resistant to sunlight
  • 63. End Uses of Acetate Apparel and Home Furnishings Don’t use when durability is needed Lining fabric Frequently used in: ◦ Taffeta, satin and brocade for formal wear Cigarette filters Personal hygiene products Fiberfill Filters
  • 64. Care of Acetate Dry cleaning recommended Stay away from acetone Nonchlorine bleaches may be used
  • 65. Triacetate U.S. production ceased in 1986 Produced today in; ◦ United Kingdom ◦ Japan ◦ Belgium Similar to acetate: ◦ Physical and chemical properties ◦ Differs mechanically
  • 66. Triacetate Mechanical Properties (compared to acetate) ◦ Better resiliency ◦ Better dimensional stability ◦ Better elasticity ◦ Like acetate Low strength Poor abrasion resistance
  • 67. Triacetate Chemical Properties (compared to acetate) ◦ Less absorbant ◦ Builds up static electricity (like acetate) ◦ Much less senstitive to acetone ◦ Less heat-sensitive (given special heat setting treatment) creases and pleats are more permanent Environmental Properties ◦ More resistant to mildew than acetate ◦ Resistant to silverfish, moths and carpet beetles ◦ Moderate resistant to sunlight
  • 68. Triacetate End Uses ◦ Used when durability is not important ◦ Used when pleat and crease retention is important ◦ Bedspreads ◦ Comforters ◦ draperies
  • 69. Triacetate Care of ◦ Machines washed ◦ Hand washed ◦ Dry cleaned ◦ Use non-chlorine bleach ◦ Needs lining for sunlight if used as draperies ◦ Acetone will damage it.
  • 70. Videos