Nanotechnology for security


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Nanotechnology for security

  1. 1. Nanotechnology for SecurityFrank SimonisTNO Future Technology Center02-05-2006
  2. 2. Agenda • introduction • existing nanotechnology consumer products • why nano • sensors • materials • future expectations • impact on defence • nanotechnology radars2
  3. 3. Nanotechnology: < 100 nm3
  4. 4. The unique properties of nanotechnology: Small dimensions enabling high speed and high functional density (nanoelectronics, lab-on-chip) small and light weight devices and sensors (smart dust) high sensitivity (sensors, nanowires) and special surface effects (such as lotus effect) Very large surface area providing reinforcement and catalytic effects Quantum effects such as highly efficient optical fluorescent quantum dots New molecular structures, with new material properties: high strength nanotubes, nanofibers and nanocomposites Top-down Bottom-up Scaling and miniaturization. Lithography, embossing or imprint. Through atom-by-atom or mol-to-mol engineering • Micro- and nanoelectronics • Carbon nanotubes by gas phase deposition • MEMS, micro electro mechanical systems • Nanowires, metal, ceramic or polymer type • Nanostructured coatings in displays, solar cells • Quantum dots • Nanofibers by electrospinning • Self assembling, molecular and biostructures • Nanoclay platelets and tubes by exfoliation • Nanostructures, catalytic, nanomembranes • Nanomedicine4
  5. 5. Nano for sport Fullerene 60 reinforced carbon fiber Nano-titanium strengthened titanium Nanocarbon composite Nanoclay barrier Radar golfCNT composite CNT reinforced carbon fiber5 Nanocarbon composite
  6. 6. Nano for personal care Fullerene as sponge for radicals (skin cosmetics) Nanoparticle collamin Skin lift with nano silica Skin moisturizing with skin care and proteins Nano ZnO sunblock nano-encapsulated Alp water Nanofibers to increase hair volume Nanoceuticals Nanoceutical toothpaste (artichoke)6
  7. 7. Nano for cars Nanoclay reinforced PP Nanoparticle (SiO2) clearcoat for GM increases no of parts cars (BASF) Nanobreeze (nano Ag?) kills allergens, bacteria etc. Nano wax Nano polish7
  8. 8. Nano for textile Texapore coated Nanotex textiles Nanosphere non-stick fabric fabric (breathing) (water repellent) (water repellent) Nano silver antibacterial Nano silver prevents deodorant socks Finetex nanofiber filters odor in textiles8
  9. 9. Nano for domestic Oled displays rf shielding paint Anti-graffiti paint (non stick) Pathogen nanofilter Self cleaning glass Finetex nanofiber filters Nansulate insulation (nano TiO2) with nanopores9
  10. 10. ...and MEMS for automotive MEMS are physically small and integrate electrical, mechanical and sensoric components (micro electro mechanical systems) Inertial Measurement Units 4.0 mm Airbag Accelerometers Accelerometer 500 um Fuel Injection Nozzle 1 micron beams Platforms 1) Si (CMOS) 2) Glass/ceramic (high temperature) Tire Pressure Sensors Microelectromechanical Systems: Advanced Materials and Fabrication Methods 0.5mm10
  11. 11. …….and lab on chip diagnostic systems Rapid, Specific and Sensitive Micro (Fluidic) Detection System Bench Process Book Size System Watch Size System m Micro System dm cm Several micro system platforms 1) Si (CMOS) 2) Glass/ceramic (high temperature) mm 3) Plastic (low cost, disposable)11
  12. 12. Why Nano (sensoric aspects) Thanks to miniaturization down to micron & nano level: • small dimensions function integration possible (dsp, rf, mem) (mm, um, nm) efficient thermal and material transport enables mass production, low cost portable, wearable, point of analysis disposable • small sample volume fast response (uL, nL, pL) high throughput multi parallel analysis, matrix array single cell/molecule detection less chemical waste ENIAC ~1950 Jornada ~2000 • high sensor-sample ratio high sensitivity high signal to noise Shrink volume by 108 Improve power efficiency by 108 Stan Williams, HP12
  13. 13. Nanostructures for sensing DNA-coated pad Magnetic bead Magnetoresistive strip Shorting Field metal generation wireNanocalorimeter; Roukes CIT GMR Biosensor; Whitman/Prinz, NRL Cantilever Sensor; Thundat ORNL • Signal to noise improvements: yocto(10-24) joule, atto(10-18) newton, femto (10-15) mol/L, ppb, single molecule • Miniaturization – size/weight - arrays • Lower power, potentially scavenged • Locally process data into information + 15 μ NanoAu Chemiresistor; Snow NRL Lab-on-a-chip; Sandia13
  14. 14. Cantilever Array-based Artificial Nose Gases and Vapours ppb - ppt range M.K. Baller, et al., Ultramicroscopy 82, 1 (2000) F.M. Battiston, et al., Sensors & Actuators 77, 122 (2001) Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., L.A.Pinnaduwage et al, Rev.Sci.Instr.75 (11), 4554, 200414
  15. 15. Gas sensor array metal oxide type Gases and Vapors - ppb level NO2, H2O, NH3, CH4 , SO2, CO2, H2S, alcohols, aromatics Detection limits at 250..300 °C 100 detection limit [ppb] 10 Cross-section of a 3X3.5 mm2 microarray Gradient membrane with 16 sensor segments SiO2 or Al2O3 1 G a s e s Thickness 2 to 20 nm 2-propanol benzene toluene 2-nitro- Platinum electrodes toluene Thickness 1 µm SE1 SE2 SE3 Gas detector layer SnO2 or WO3, Pt-endowed, Substrate: Si/SiO2 or Al2O3 approx. 150 nm Heater (Pt) Temperature gradient 50°C / 2mm15
  16. 16. Microfluidic lab-on-chip systems16
  17. 17. Sample preparation chip for biochips, tno One reaction chamber system Body fluid micro filter • external fluid controls microbe/cell lysing • ultrasound for lysing microbes, cells • dna/rna extraction • magnetic bead binding DNA labelling • purification and magnification DNA extraction DNA sensor Outlet17
  18. 18. Sensing with carbon nanotubes Chemiresistor for volatiles Biosensor functionalized (dna)selective for in situ life detection, CNT’s biomedical applications Coupling nanotubes to a resonating RF link RF antenna: remote sensing for remote sensing or d dna identification Senstenna principle or active RFID with sensor function18
  19. 19. Single molecule detection, Wang JHU Fluidic manipulation plus quantum-dot fluorescence in optical cavity channel Sample preparation, Microfluidics, Optical cavity fluidic channel & Biosensing Chips Electrical Molecular Manipulation and Positioning Single Molecule Detection Single Molecule Dynamics Quantum dot fluorescence19
  20. 20. Micro X-ray source & detector (amptek, tno)20
  21. 21. Spectrometer on a chip (B-I) Microspectrometer on chip by Boehringer-Ingelheim21
  22. 22. Micro gaschromatograph, C2V, tno • Dimensions: 7x7x7 mm3 • Det. limit: <1 ppm • Response time: 25ms • Int. volume: < 1 µl • Dead volume: 0.1 µL • Temperature: 80 / 150 C22
  23. 23. Why Nano (materials aspects) From the material point of the view, small dimensions give new opportunities such as: • control at the nanoscale enables perfect, defect free structures, featuring exceptional properties for strength, conductivity etc. • nanostructures and particles create a very large surface area, featuring unique surface activity for sensing, catalysis, absorption etc. • completely new particles, unknown in nature, can be produced with new properties, such as carbon nanotubes • at the nanoscale, quantum effects can be used e.g. to obtain new optical effects23
  24. 24. Carbon Nanotube (CNT) reinforced fibers With carbon nanotubes (diameter 1-2 nm, aspect ratio 103,104) the following ultimate material properties are foreseen: • mechanical: E-modulus up to 1-5 MPa, ultimate tensile strength: 30-180 GPa • electrical conductivity: 6000 S/cm, thermal conductivity: 2000 W/mK • ultrahigh surface area: 1500 m2/gram Up to now, the exceptional tensile strength properties have not been realized yet, at present only 1-2 percent of the potential strength has been realized. Space elevator project (USA) Goal is to develop a 60% CNT filled polymer (PMMA or PS) with an exceptional tensile strength of 60 GPa. Current status for these composites is 2-4 GPa. Existing high strength fibers such as carbon fiber, Aramide, Dyneema, PBO are in the range of 3-6 GPa.24
  25. 25. Carbon NanoTube (CNT) reinforced laminate High strength carbon nanotube laminate (bucky paper) for high strength lightweight aerospace structures25
  26. 26. Nano(clay)platelets reinforced materials (tno) Nanoplatelets: graphite (GNP), nanoclay; exfoliated nanoclay platelets Nanoplatelets (thickness 1-2 nm, aspect ratio 100-1000) are relatively low cost nanoadditives (5-10 $/kg) and are being applied in order to: • increase chemical, UV and thermal stability (usually 50 to 100 K up) • increase fracture toughness: typically a factor 103 • increase tensile strength: factor 2 • diffusion barrier: factor 2-10 • good template for dna and amino acids26
  27. 27. Nanomedicine Nano encapsulation of dna, proteomics, drugs, release via bioswitch or ultrasound bioswitch Encapsulation (nanoclay, double layered hydroxides)27
  28. 28. Electrospun (polymer) nanofibers • 2x increase in tensile strength (660 nm PU) • 10x increase in tensile strength (68 nm PA) • thanks to increase in no. fiber-fiber bondings28
  29. 29. Electrospun (polymer) nanofilters (eSpin) Nanofilter (fluid/gas) Absorption fabric Catalytic breakdown29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. Main technologies impacting military operations • Tracking & tracing - via ID / RFID • μ - power • μ - vehicles & robotics, remote & autonomous • Wireless sensors, ambient intelligence • Smart structures & uniform • Nanocomposites: high strength & temp, lightweight, non metal • Biomimic structures: lightweight-bone type, self healing/assembling • Integrated functions: adaptive, sensoric, actuating, (polymer) electronics • Active coatings: adaptive, stealth, bio-active, flexible display • Key words: smart structures, skin, uniform, textiles31
  32. 32. Expectations on nanotechnology deployment by sector Healthcare and Manufacturing life sciences and materials Coatings Pharmaceuticals Medical Catalysts instruments Metal Fabrics Lubricants Composite materials Aircraft Orthopedic Automobiles materials Dental equipment Food Fuel Clothing Contrast cells Household media appliances Lumber Embedded Biological displays Sporting labels Paper 2004 goods Computers Hard drives Sensors Logic chips Memory chips Consumer 2009 electronics Optical Solar components cells Storage 2014 media > 1% of products in segment >10 years Intermediate products incorporate emerging nanotechnology > 10% of products in segment Final goods incorporate emerging nanotechnology Electronics and IT32 Source: October 2004 Lux Research Report “Sizing Nanotechnology’s Value Chain”
  33. 33. brain machine interface genetyping exo-skeletons informatics robotic surgery in vitro smart cell imaging telesurgery homes wireless hifu tissue growth biometric diagnosis health sensors assistive position & motion hifu drugdelivery environment sensors hifu surgery epd imaging µ-surgery via skin telecare tele rfid µ-X-ray monitoring molecular imaging smart textiles pda biofluidic lab-on-chip molecular medicine biosensor tags nutraceuticals nerve/muscle biocompatible stimulation nanobio nanofilters coatings targeted prognostic water/air/body fluids bioswitchdrug delivery biomarkers drug delivery chinese (wireless sensoric) implants medicines via skin artificial regenerative medicine organs & blood medicine μ artificial cells433
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  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. Ten Cate, DSM, TNO Flexible nano armour • feasibility study to evaluate present flexible armour systems • definition of new technological concepts for future flexible armour systems for the soldier It aims in particular at flexible armour systems based on polymer (nano)binder systems and shear thickening fluid binding systems which are used to retain high strength polymer fibers. An important part of this study is to define technologies which can improve existing systems and to define directions for flexible armour based on combinations of fiber, binder systems and nanoparticles.37
  38. 38. Philips, CPS Europe, Holst, TNO Soldier Smart Card Characteristics -dimensions 8 x 5 cm -flexible and wearable, in or outside uniform -functions: soldier-soldier identification, positioning, life signal, heartbeat/breathing, some BC sensing -operating in a network, soldier-soldier and soldier-command communication Technology -plastic card or foil as substrate, equipped with: -a SAND node e.g. from Philips (chip with radio, battery, dsp, memory, logic, identification, gps, uwb) controlling the sensors and display on the plastic strip or foil -sensors -visual alarm (light signal), display and sound -flexible antenna38
  39. 39. MSA/Gallet/TenCate/TNO Smart helmet Characteristics -antiballistic nanocomposite material (lightweight, high impact protection) -integrated sensors (acoustic array, B/C, EEG etc.) and communication (RF) -networked with suit and command Technologies -CNT reinforced composite high strength fiber, nanopores, nanofibers, nanobinders -BC sensorcards in helmet -switchable conductive/non-conductive rf array antenna’s -contactless EEG sensor39
  40. 40. TenCate/Bluecher/Covalent/TNO Nanomembrane BC uniform Characteristics -ventilating BC-uniform -lightweight, long term wearable -nanomembrane areas with a highly selective seperation, only water vapor transmission Technology -nanomembranes (0,5 nm dik) based on "macrocyclic organic synthons" -pores tunable between 2-20 Angstrom (molecular lego system) -nanomembrane mounted onto a porous, robust film40
  41. 41. Wearable kidney41
  42. 42. Biochemical warfare agent sensors (TIIMS) Biomaterials and Devices Development of biochemical sensors using nanotechnologies and synthesis and recycling of biomolecular materials for space applications. The primary targets of this research area are developing multifunctional proteins and next-generation biochemical sensors. Multifunctional proteins enable autophagous, or self- consuming, structures that mimic small birds that consume their own muscles during long migrations. The muscular structure is rebuilt at the end of the “mission,” or migration. The biochemical sensors are based on stochastic, or one-at-a- time, detection of molecules and supramolecular structures ranging from small ions and organic molecules to macromolecules — including proteins and DNA — to larger objects, such as virus particles. Single nanopore- based stochastic sensors will be developed based on carbon nanotubes and genetically engineered transmembrane proteins. TIIMS Texas institute for intelligent bio-bano materials42 and structures for Aerospace
  43. 43. Adaptive components (TIIMS) Intelligent Systems Modeling and controlling hierarchical adaptive systems with distributed sensing, actuation and intelligence at different length scales. Birds have long inspired the development of aircraft, but our present man-made vehicles are primitive compared to Mother Natures flying counterparts. To achieve the goal of flying like a bird, the first set of challenges — material science advances in strength-to-weight ratios, reconfigurability, integration of sensing and actuation — is the main focus. The second set of challenges — engineering advanced control systems to enable intelligence, agility and adaptability of aerospace vehicles made from these materials — constitutes the secondary research focus of the institute.43
  44. 44. Sensorcraft “flying radar” The SensorCraft radar would combine air and ground moving target identification (GMTI), imaging and foliage- penetration applications; electro-optical/infrared sensors also would be used. Building a lightweight, low-cost sensor and then integrating it into the wing structure are key challenges on the radio frequency (RF) side, which is regarded as the most difficult aspect of SensorCraft. The active, electronically scanned radar must be lighter in weight—in the thousand-fold range—and much lower in cost than today’s technology. Using lightweight materials would enable affordable radars that are "five to six times bigger in area than what we have today," Key to the SensorCraft are load-bearing antennas, where the sensor becomes part of the wing, rather than a "parasitic" load bolted onto the airframe. The resulting antenna would be more susceptible to aerodynamic pressures—less stable than traditional structures. So engineers would embed sensors in the wing to track antenna movement and deformation in order for software to compensate for these factors.44
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