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Dyeing of textiles with super critical form

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  • 1. Dyeing of Textiles with Super Critical Form Aravin Prince Periyasamy Lecturer, SSM Institute of Textile Technology, Komarapalayam, T.N, India Mobile: +91-9790080302 E-mail: aravinprince@gmail.comAbstract The environmental pollution problems have driven impetus in developing the novel concepts in wetprocessing using supercritical fluid .This novel concept is used for dyeing of synthetic fibers and natural fibers,since, some supercritical fluids are inexpensive, non-toxic, environmentally friendly, chemically inert undermany conditions and easily available that can be utilized in textile wet processing at supercritical stage. In SuperCritical (SC) dyeing process, there is no salt and auxiliaries are required hence, the cost of the effluenttreatment will be drastically reduced. One of the supercritical fluids, Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) is a clean and versatile solventand a promising alternative to noxious organic solvents and Chlorofluorocarbons. It has attracted particularattention as a supercritical fluid in the synthesis as well as processing areas. Color fastness of fibers dyed insupercritical CO2 is similar to fibers dyed in water. Due to the low viscosity of SC-CO2, dissolved dyes readilypenetrate into pores and capillaries of fibers more easily as compared to others Supercritical fluids (SCF’s).The diffusion coefficient of dye molecules in SC-CO2 is greater than those of liquids and other SCFs whichallow faster mass transport and therefore, significant higher dyeing rates which resulting in a short dyeing time. The supercritical is non aqueous process hence it is environmentally friendly. The review of thefundamental properties, the procedure of dyeing and scope of supercritical fluids in textile wet processing isdiscussed in this paper.Introduction behavior occurs because increases inThe supercritical fluid can be defined as density decreases mean inter moleculargases under high pressure and temperature distance resulting in an increase in thethat exceed the critical point. The idealized number of interaction between the solventpressure-temperature diagram for pure and solute. Further increases in pressuresubstance is shown in figure 1, will greatly increase the dielectric constant of system, thus imparting dissolving power even to a system. Though a supercritical fluid doesn’t contain two phases such as gas and liquid, it possesses the properties of both gas and liquid. The special combination of gas like viscosity and liquid like density of supercritical fluid results in it being an excellent solvent. The density of supercritical fluid can be tuned easily by small changes in pressure. Figure:1 Phase diagram of Co2 Fluids, such as Supercritical Xenon, Ethane and Carbon Dioxide offer a rangeThe supercritical state exists at of unusual chemical possibilities in bothTemperature and Pressure condition synthetic and analytical chemistry. Evenabove the critical point. In the critical though liquid like densities observed forregion, a substance that is a gas at normal supercritical fluids other properties arecondition exhibits liquid, like density and similar to those of gases.much, increased solvent capacity. This 1
  • 2. Why Use Supercritical Fluids? c) The solvent may be removed by simpleSupercritical fluids(SFC’s) have the depressurization.ability to dissolve non-polar solids which d) The density of the solvent can be tunedmakes them useful in various applications by varying the pressure.ranging from classical extraction to Moreover, the use of supercritical CO2sophisticated industrial processes, for doesn’t create a problem with respect toinstance in the area of polymer processing the green house effect as it is beinginvolving impregnation of pharmaceutical conserved during the processes. CO2 is aproducts into polymer matrix. Also, over good solvent for many non-polar (andthe last decade, research has focused on some polar) molecules with low molecularthe development of SCF Technology for weight. Moreover it is evident thatvarious textile applications, including supercritical CO2 dyeing could offer manyextraction of impurities (scouring), potential advantages over the conventionalbleaching and dyeing. The comparison of methods of dyeing. One of the mostproperties of SFCs with other phase is significant of these is the possibility ofshown in table 1, enhancing desirable fiber properties through the dyeing process, therebyState Density Diffusivity viscosity creating an “improved fiber.” It has been shown that supercritical carbon dioxide is (g/cm3) (cm2/sec) (g/cm.sec) partially dissolved in polyester fiberGas 10-3 10-1 10-4 producing a softener-like swelling effect.Liquid 1 5*10-6 10-2 In addition, in dyeing experiments supercritical CO2 has been shown toSCF 0.3-0.8 10-3 10-4 reduce the Tg of PET by 20 to 30ºC under Table1: Physical Properties of gas, liquid typical SCF dyeing conditions. Extraction and supercritical fluid studies have shown that measurable CO2Why Use Only Carbon Dioxide As get dissolved in the fiber for poly olefins and nylons as well. Comparison ofSupercritical Fluid?Supercritical CO2 is a clean and versatile physical properties substance with SC-CO2solvent and a promising alternative to is shown in the table 2noxious organic solvents and State Density Viscosity Diffusivitychlorofluorocarbons. It has attracted (g/cc) g/cm.sec Cm2/sparticular attention as a supercritical fluidin the processing areas of textile especially Gas 0.001 10-1 10-4dyeing due to the following properties: Liquid 0.1-1.0 10-4–10-3 10-4-10-3a) CO2 is non- toxic, non-flammable, SCF 1.0 10-5 10-2 chemically inert, and inexpensive. A Table2: Comparison of physical properties large amount is available as a by- substance with SC-CO2 product from NH3 and ethanol industries and refineries.b) Supercritical conditions are easily achieved: Tc = 304 º K and Pc = 7.38 MPa. 2
  • 3. In the case of coloration of textile fibers, a Conventional Dyeing SC – CO2 dyeingnumber of benefits can be realized when High volumes of waste No waste water at all,using SC-CO2, including: water with residual dye dye remains as powder, chemical. no need of dispersinga. Complete elimination of water leveling agents. (aqueous effluent).b. Vastly reduced energy costs due to Chemicals recycled in CO2 used in this process this process are very can be recycled up to elimination of a drying step. less. 90%c. Elimination of auxiliary agents (e.g., surfactants, salts). Dyeing, drying required Only 2h is enough tod. Rapid diffusion and potential for high is 3h/batch – 4h/batch dye, wash and dry the material. degree of dye exhaustions.e. No after treatment is required. Dye utilization value Dye utilization greaterf. Mild critical properties (31.3ºCand less than SC-CO2 than 99%. 72.9 atm). High energy required to Only 20% energyg. Non-toxic at low concentration. meet this dyeing requirement to meet thish. Non-flammable, and Inexpensive, process. dyeing process. abundant and easily recycled. Conventional system New machines, higher can be used. initial investment.Conventional against Supercritical fluid Table3: Comparison of conventionalDyeing aqueous dyeing and SC- CO2 dyeingAccording to the conventional aqueous Concepts for Dyeing Equipment Usingdyeing liqueur has to contain large Supercritical Fluidsamount of dispersing agent and As shown in the schematic diagramsurfactants in order to obtain reasonable of a prospective dyeing apparatus fordyeing rate and high dye levelness. While supercritical liquors, a plant which can be variated to meet special criteria. Thein case of carbon dioxide dyeing scenario machine is an extraction plant modified foris different. The viscosity [10.5 -10 .4 Pa processing with the supercritical fluids. InS] and diffusion coefficient (10.8 - contrasts to conventional extraction plants10.7m2/s) values of supercritical fluid are the dyestuff are applied to the substratesimilar to those of water making it suitable instead of being removed, i.e. the fluid willfor the use as a dyeing medium. In have to be loaded with dyestuff prior toconventional dyeing of synthetic fibers coming in contact with the goods to be dyed. This can be done in two manners:like polyester with disperse dyes requiresauxiliaries, such as, surfactants and  The dyestuff is filled into the pressuredispersing agents to achieve sufficient vessel in defined quantities;solubility. In supercritical CO2, thesolubility of such non-polar substances can  The dyestuff is filled into anbe expected to be sufficient for dyeing. additional small autoclave in the desired (surplus) quantity regulating the carbon dioxide content via pressure, temperature and/or flow control instruments. 3
  • 4. The absorption of the dyestuff by the fiber, period of 0 to 60 min and afterwards thei.e. the diffusion into the inner parts of the fabric is rinsed with acetone to removefiber, has to meet high levelness standards. residual dyestuff. Technical parameters areThe necessary convection of the liquor can shown in table 4be achieved by an agitator within thedyeing autoclave or by moving thesubstrate (type1). Another option is to Actual used Maximum capacitypenetrate the goods, either by the capacitycirculation of the liquor or by utilizing thecurrent produced by continuous Pressure Pressurereplenishment of carbon dioxide. In the 250bar 500barlatter case, the flow of replenished carbondioxide will have to be continuously Temperature Temperatureloaded with dyestuff (type2). Residues of 130ºC 350ºCdyestuff or fiber admixtures to beextracted prior to dyeing will be collected Table4: Technical Parameter of fabricin a conventional separator. The separation dyeingof phase will in this case be initiated byexpansion or by raising the temperature. Procedure for Yarn Packages Figure: 2 SC-CO2 dyeing apparatus The process developed for the yarn package dyeing as shown in Table. DyeingA simple apparatus for dyeing in temperatures and volume flow rates aresupercritical carbon dioxide is shown inabove figure 2. It consists of a temperature similar with conventional dyeing whilecontroller, a vessel heater which surrounds actual time required is typically less.the vessel, a stainless steel dyeing vesselof 50ml capacity (with a quick releasecap), a manometer, a Varex HPLC carbondioxide pump and a cooler for cooling thehead of the carbon dioxide pump. Theapparatus was pressure-tested for use upto 350 bar and 100 degree Celsius. A sidearm connects the top and the bottom of thecell outside the heater to allow thesupercritical carbon dioxide to circulate bythermal convection.Procedure for Sc-Co2 Fabric Dyeing Conditions ProcedureThe fabric sample to be dyed is wrappedaround a perforated stainless steel tube and Temperature, ºC: 100 Load yarn and dyemounted inside the auto clave around the – 130 Fill with co tostirrer. Dyestuff without auxiliary Pressure, bar :200 desired density.chemicals was placed on the bottom of the – 300 Start circulation withvessel and closed and urged with gaseousCO2 and preheated. On reaching working Co2 density, g/cc flow reversal.temperature CO2 was compressed to the :0.3- 0.6 Hold at dyeingworking pressure under constant stirring.Pressure maintained during the dyeing Volume glow rate, temperature 4
  • 5. 1/min kg: Heat to dyeing during dyeing in a static dyeing machine, agglomeration, crystallization and melting50 – 80 min Depressurize of the dyes can take place leading to lowerHold time min: 10 - Unload yarn solubility in carbon dioxide. It has been30 observed that solubility increases as a function of density and the effect is generally more pronounced at high temperature. Dyes that contain –OH, - Table5: SC- CO2 yarn dyeing process COOH, and –NH2 groups, which enable intermolecular hydrogen bonding, wereDyeing of Synthetic Fibers reported to exhibit relatively low solubilitySolubility of Disperse Dyes in SC-CO2 in SC-CO2.above these parameters areCarbon dioxide has a linear molecular explained in the figure no 3structure with two symmetrical polar The -COOH group shows the largestbonds. Although it has no dipole moment, decrease in solubility while, interestingly,its quadrupole is sufficiently strong to halogen and nitro groups generally have aaffect its thermodynamic properties positive effect on the solubility.significantly. These properties are different Nevertheless, dye solubility in SC-CO2 isfrom those of other nonpolar molecules of low and often a co-solvent is required tosimilar size and molecular weight. Without enhance the solubility to a practicallystrong quadruples, it was found that there appropriate value. The prediction of dyewere no significant differences in polarity solubility from the molecular mass,between liquid and supercritical phase of polarity and polarizability has beenCO2. Since most dyes have been attempted with limited success.developed specifically for water-basedapplications, they will likely exhibit verylimited solubility in SC-CO2. The onlyobvious dye class with potential to be usedin this medium is disperse dyes. Hence,knowledge of the solubility of dispersedyes in SC-CO2 is of interest both forthermodynamic considerations and fornew dyeing techniques. Dye solubility datais essential for the process design and Figure 3: Weak interaction of CO2 withoptimization of SC-CO2 dyeing process. A different chemical groups (a) ether, (b)significant amount of data exists for azo, carbonyl and (c) aromaticanthraquinone, mordant, and Dyeing Processbenzothiazoleazo disperse dyes. The Extensive research during the last decadesolubility, or at least the rate of using Supercritical Fluid Dyeing (SFD)dissolution, can increase after extensive has shown that a variety of mainlygrinding of the dyes due to increasing of hydrophobic fibers can be dyed with thisthe surface area, which increases the technique. Polyester fibers have beenaccessibility of the solid dye molecules to found to be most suitable for SFDthe SCF medium. It has been reported that Technology due to the compatibility of 5
  • 6. hydrophobic dyes, hydrophobic solvent fibers or natural fibers (cotton, viscose) areand the hydrophobic nature of the fiber. difficult to dye using this medium withprocess for dyeing a hydrophobic one high fastness properties and high colorprocess described a technique for dyeing depth. The problem of dyeing naturalhydrophobic textile materials with disperse fibers under SC-CO2 arises from thedyes by heating the textile material and the inability of carbon dioxide to sufficientlydisperse dye in SC-CO2 under a pressure break massive intermolecular hydrogenof 73 to 400 bar to a temperature in the bonding that exists throughout the fibersrange from 80 to 300ºC, and subsequently (particularly cotton). High hydrogenlowering the pressure and the temperature bonding in natural fibers hinders theto below the Pc and the TC of CO2 in a diffusion of disperse dyes into the polymerstep-wise manner, substantially deeper chains resulting in unacceptable, lowdyeing can obtained. Undesirable fastness properties. Many approaches haveagglomeration of disperse dyes does not been developed to overcome theoccur in this process which sometimes limitations of the SC-CO2 dyeing processtakes place in aqueous-dyeing method, of natural fibers due to importance ofleading to reduction in shade and surface cotton in the global market with andyeing. approximate market share of 37%. Several techniques have been reported toMechanism of Dyeing Synthetic Fiber in overcome the limitation of dyeing naturalSC-CO2 fiber in SC-CO2.In some ways, dyeing of hydrophobic Chemical modification of natural fabricsfibers in SC-CO2 is similar to dyeing using before dyeing is one of the possiblein organic solvents. There are four steps treatments. Schematic representation of theexplaining dyeing mechanism. reverse micelles system is shown in Figure Dissolution of dyes, 4.Reverse micelles provide a stable Transfer to the fiber, aqueous micro environment consisting of a Adsorption of dye molecules on the water pool in non-aqueous medium. fiber surface, The cellulose material by impregnating Dye diffusion into the fiber. with hydrogen bond breaking chemicalsDue to the low viscosity of SC-CO2, and /or modification of cotton is done anddissolved dyes will readily penetrate into afterwards pressure and temperaturepores and capillaries of fibers. The release the dyestuff will be trapped insidediffusion coefficients of dye molecules in the fiberSC-CO2 are greater than those of liquidswhich allow faster mass transport andtherefore, significant higher dyeing rateswhich resulting in a short dyeing time.Dyeing of Natural Cellulosic FibersHydrophobic fibers can be dyed in SC-CO2 with high color strength usingcommercial disperse dyes, hydrophilic Figure 4: reverse micelle system 6
  • 7. Dyeing Natural Protein Fiber  Dichloro triazine dyes have been tested For dyeing wool and silk with on silk and cotton but showeddisperse dyes in SC-CO2, a special insufficient fixation.pretreatment of the substrate with amordant was attempted. The fiber was first Four factors play a role in reactivepre-treated with a metal and was then dyeing of natural fibers in SC-CO2reacted with a ligand (complexing agent) a. Solubility of the dye in the SC-CO2 atdissolved in SC-CO2. The reaction the process pressure and temperature.between a ligand and the exchanged metal b. Accessibility of the porous fiberformed an immobilized metal-chelate structure to allow diffusion of dyecomplex on the surface of fiber. molecules into the pores. Depending on the metals and the c. Affinity or substantivity between theligands, different colors were obtained. textile and the dye so that dyeThis approach eliminated the problem of molecules can approach the textilewastewater treatment since both metal ion surface close enough for the reaction toand metal complex are not soluble in take place.depressurized CO2. In addition, it was d. Reactivity of dye with the textile. Thereported that un reacted ligand could be dye has to form a covalent bond withrecovered and reused. These are general amino groups of proteins or withprocess carried for dyeing the fibers in hydroxyl groups of cellulose.supercritical form. Now let us go for someof the examples with specific dyes on Method of Dyeingsome fibers. An autoclave is used, where preheated oil flows through a heating jacket. DyeDyeing of With Reactive Dye of powder is placed at the bottom of theDichloro Triazine Class autoclave in a filter to prevent entrainmentIn Polyester Dyeing, SC-CO2 penetrates of un-dissolved dye particles. Theand swells the fibers, thereby making them substrate to be dyed is wetted with wateraccessible for dye molecules. Natural and folded and placed in the autoclave.textiles, the dye molecules can be fixed by The apparatus is pressurized to 200 barseither physical (e.g. Vander Waals) or and SC-CO2 was circulated through thechemical (e.g. covalent) bonds. Since the dye filter and the textile at a rate of 0.10dyes used in a SC-CO2 dyeing process are (±0.02) m3/h during 2 hours. In the firstnon-polar and natural fibers are polar the hour, temperature and pressure increasedaffinity between dyes and textiles is low so due to heating of the SC-CO2. During thephysical bonds are weak. So far, several second hour, pressure and temperaturereactive dyes known from conventional were constant. The temperature ofdyeing in water have been investigated in autoclave depends upon the fiber used forSC-CO2: dyeing. Vinylsulphone dyes have been successfully used for silk and wool, Color Analysis 2-bromoacrylamide dyes have been Dyed textile samples were analyzed by successful in dyeing wool and cotton, measuring the reflectance curve between 350 and 750 nm with a spectrophotometer. 7
  • 8. The minimum of the curve (Rmin) wasused to determine the ratio of lightabsorption (K) and scatter (S) via theKubelka-Munk function:Since the ratio K/S is proportional to theconcentration of dye molecules in textile,it is a measure for the coloration of thetextile. After this analysis, sample wasstripped of unfixed dye by extraction witha 50 weight% solution of acetone in waterfor 30 min. The K/S-value of the extractedtextile (K/S extr was determined and usedto calculate the percentage of dyemolecules that was fixed to the textile (F) : Graph 1: Coloration of textiles dyed inThe below table shows the fixation of the moist supercritical carbon dioxide (100ºC,color on the fiber at pressure of 250 bar 2 hours) as a function of pressureand temperature of 100ºC. Textile Fixation (%) Polyester 95 Silk 76 Wool 70Table 6: Typical fixations of textiles dyedin moist SC – CO2 at 250 bar and 1000 CIt was studied that change in the Graph 2: Coloration of textiles dyed intemperature and pressure had the moist supercritical carbon dioxide (250difference in the fixation of the color. The bar, 2 hours) as a function of temperaturebelow graph shows the fixation dependingon the pressure and temp: From above graph we can conclude that Dichloro triazine dye was used to dye textiles in SC-CO2. Polyester yielded a good coloration and this is in accordance with literature. This shows that there is enough dye dissolved in the SC-CO2. The 8
  • 9. coloration of polyester increases with  The SC-CO2 gives better wash fastnesspressure because the solubility of the dye than conventional dyeing;in the SC-CO2 increases with pressure andbecause at higher pressure more CO2 Disadvantages of Supercritical Dyeingdissolves in the polymer matrix, i.e. thepolyester is more swollen and therefore  Dyeing of multiple packages in themore accessible at higher pressure. same bath;Polyester coloration was independent of  During polyester dyeing, the trimer istemperature. produced. This is removed using aqueous cleaning waterless SC-CO2 asAdvantages of Supercritical Dyeing a problem to eliminate; and Elimination of water pretreatment and  There is little data about dyestuff water pollution; solubility in SC-CO2 No need of auxiliary agents (such as dispersants); Saving of energy cost for drying textiles; High degree of levelness and dye shift exhaustion; Conclusion Time required for dyeing is very less; Dyeing with supercritical CO2 reduces waste fluid and recovers surplus No washing treatment required; dye from the system. These fluids have a Carbon dioxide is non-toxic, easily densities and solvating powers similar to available and about 90% can be aqueous solvent combined with viscosity values and diffusion coefficient like those recycled; observed for the gases. Therefore, it is Easier circulation of dye due to lower purposed for commercial exploitation. viscosities and absence of surface Successful commercialization of SC-CO2 tension and miscibility of air with CO2 processing will improve the economics of dyeing and other textile chemical under pressure; processes by eliminating waste water Polyolefin fibers in supercritical CO2 discharges. As a result, the use of SC-CO2 can be carried out at temperature is expected to make textile processing more economical and environmentally 120°C and pressure of 280 bar with no friendly. fiber damage; Acknowledgement Dyeing of natural fibers by using non- First of all I would like to express profound gratitude to our beloved ionic reverse micellar system in SC- chairmen, Shri S.S.M.P. Elango, our CO2 can be done; Principal Prof. R.Muthusamy and Head of the department, Prof. K.Sukumar for 9
  • 10. giving encouragement, moral guidance, Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Aprofessional support and the valuable Basic Study For Dyeing Fiber insuggestions given for carrying out my Non-Aqueous Media, Dyes and Pigments, Pp 129–135 (2004).work effectively. 8. Tamura, K., Shinoda, T., Binary andI am deeply grateful to Dr.G.Nalankilli, Ternary Solubilities of Disperse Dyes and their Blend in SupercriticalPrincipal VV College of Engg and Carbon Dioxide, Fluid PhaseTechnology, Thirunelveli, T.N for his Equilibria, Pp 25–32 (2004).invaluable guidance, tremendous support, 9. Ngo, T. T., Liotta, L., Eckert, C. A.,constant encouragement, fruitful Kazarian, S. G., Supercritical Fluiddiscussions and for the freedom for having Impregnation of Different Azo-Dyesprovided throughout this project work. into Polymer: In situ UV/Vis Spectroscopic Study, J. SupercriticalReferences Fluids, Pp 215–221 (2003). 10. Park, M., Bae, H., Dye Distribution 1. Role of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Supercritical Dyeing with Carbon Dioxide, J. Supercritical Fluids, Pp (SC-CO2) in Wet Processing Dr T 65–73 (2002). Ramachandran, S. S. Guruprasad IE 11. Brantley, N. H., Kazarian, S. G., Journal vol-86 August 2005 Eckert, C. A., In Situ FT-IR 2. Carbon Dioxide Assisted Textile Measurement of Carbon Dioxide Processing: an Update -Dr N Sekar Sorption into Poly(ethylene Colourage, February 1999, Pp 31-32. terephtalate) at Elevated Pressures, J. App. Polymer. Sci. Pp 764–769 3. Akgerman, A., Guzel, B., Natural (2000). Fibers Mordant Dyeing from 12. Schnitzler, J. V., Eggers, R., Mass Supercritical Fluids, in Proc. 5th Transfer in Polymers in a Meeting on Supercritical Fluids, 23– Supercritical CO2 Atmosphere, J. 25 March, Nice, France, Pp. 343– Supercritical Fluids, Pp 81– 92 347, 1998. (1999). 4. Schmidt, A., Bach, E., Schollmeyer, 13. Sicardi, S., Manna, L., Banchero, M., E., Dyeing of Natural Fibres in Diffusion of Disperse Dyes in PET Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, in Films During Impregnation with a Proc. 6th Conference on Supercritical Fluid, J. Supercritical Supercritical Fluids and Their Fluids,187–194 (2000). Applications, 9–12 September, 14. Ferri, A., Banchero, M., Manna, L., Maiori, Italy, Pp 557–561, 2001. Sicardi, S., An Experimental 5. Bach, E., Cleve, E., Schollmeyer, E., Technique for Measuring High Experience with the Uhde CO2- Solubilities of Dyes in Supercritical Dyeing Plant on Technical Scale, Carbon Dioxide, J. Supercritical Melliand Int, Pp 192–194 (1998). Fluids, Pp 41–49 (2004). 6. Gordillo, M. D., Pereyra, C., 15. Ferri, A., Banchero, M., Manna, L., Martinez de la Ossa, E. J., Sicardi, S., Dye Uptake and Partition Measurement and Correlation of Ratio of Disperse Dyes Between a Solubility of Disperse Blue 14 in PET Yarn and Supercritical Carbon Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, J. Dioxide, J. Supercritical Fluids, Pp Supercritical Fluids, Pp 31–38 107–114 (2006). (2003). 16. The Dyeing of Polyolefin Fibers in 7. Sawada, K., Takagi, T., Ueda, M., Solubilization of Ionic Dyes in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide –E. 10
  • 11. Bach. -Journal Text Inst, vol-89, no have published 21 articles to the various 4, parts I, 1998, Pp647-656. national level journals. I have presented 17. Advances in Carbon Dioxide based nine technical papers in national level symposiums and I’m zestful to attend Sizing and Desizing- L F Bowman, seminar and conference. N H Reade and R T Hallen-Text Research Journal, vol-68, no 16, 1998, P732. 18. An Investigation into the use of Supercritical fluid technology for analytical, process and environmental applications in textiles- M. J. Drews National Textile Center Annual Report Aug. Aravin prince periyasamy 1995. 19. Sicardi, S., Manna, L., Banchero, M., Basso, B., Hydrodynamics of Supercritical CO2 through a Spool of Polyester Yarn, in Proc. 5th Meeting on Supercritical Fluids, 23–25 March, Nice, France, Pp 193–198, 1998. 20. Bach, E., Cleve, E., Schollmeyer, E., Treatment of Textile Fiber in Dense Gases – an Overview, in Proc. 5th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, 8–12 April, Atlanta, USAAuthor Profile:I’m Aravin Prince Periyasamy. I havestarted my carrier with Diploma in TextileProcessing (Sandwich) in SSM Institute ofTextile Technology, Komarapalayam.After completing my diploma, I workedfor MS Dyeing, Tirupur, as a productionsupervisor. Latter I had Bachelor ofTechnology in Textile Technology fromRVS College of Engineering&Technology, Dindugul. Then I joinedTexport syndicate (I) Ltd., Bangalore, as aProduction Planning Executive. Latter Icomplete Master of Technology in TextileTechnology from Kumaraguru College ofTechnology, Coimbatore. Presently I’mworking as a Lecturer in the Department ofApparel Technology in S.S.M. Institute ofTextile Technology, Komarapalayam. I 11

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