Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates

  1. 1. Carbohydrates By Henry Wormser, Ph.D.Professor of Medicinal Chemistry PSC 3110 Fall 2010
  2. 2. Reading in Garrett & Grisham textbookChapter 7 pages 205- 240 – (quite complete discourseon carbohydrate structure and function with someemphasis on cell surfaces)several figures presented in these notes are taken fromThe G & G chapterIn Lehninger’s book read chapter 7
  3. 3. Web videos URLs Presented by Eric Allain – Assistant professor at Alalachian university http://vimeo.com/2993351 Presented by Prof. S. Dasgupta, Dept of Chemistry, IIT Kharagpur Institute of Technology at Kharagpur, India http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iuW3nk5EADghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aeC7M9PDjQw&feature=channel
  4. 4. Carbohydrates
  5. 5. General characteristics• the term carbohydrate is derived from the french: hydrate de carbone• compounds composed of C, H, and O• (CH2O)n when n = 5 then C5H10O5• not all carbohydrates have this empirical formula: deoxysugars, aminosugars• carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds found in nature (cellulose: 100 billion tons annually)
  6. 6. General characteristics• Most carbohydrates are found naturally in bound form rather than as simple sugars • Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, inulin, gums) • Glycoproteins and proteoglycans (hormones, blood group substances, antibodies) • Glycolipids (cerebrosides, gangliosides) • Glycosides • Mucopolysaccharides (hyaluronic acid) • Nucleic acids
  7. 7. Functions• sources of energy• intermediates in the biosynthesis of other basic biochemical entities (fats and proteins)• associated with other entities such as glycosides, vitamins and antibiotics)• form structural tissues in plants and in microorganisms (cellulose, lignin, murein)• participate in biological transport, cell-cell recognition, activation of growth factors, modulation of the immune system
  8. 8. Classification of carbohydrates• Monosaccharides (monoses or glycoses) • Trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses• Oligosaccharides • Di, tri, tetra, penta, up to 9 or 10 • Most important are the disaccharides• Polysaccharides or glycans • Homopolysaccharides • Heteropolysaccharides • Complex carbohydrates
  9. 9. Monosaccharides• also known as simple sugars• classified by 1. the number of carbons and 2. whether aldoses or ketoses• most (99%) are straight chain compounds• D-glyceraldehyde is the simplest of the aldoses (aldotriose)• all other sugars have the ending ose (glucose, galactose, ribose, lactose, etc…)
  10. 10. Aldose sugars H H H H H C O C O C O C O C O(H C OH)n H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH CH2OH CH2OH H C OH H C OH H C OH Aldose Aldotriose CH2OH H C OH H C OH n=1 Aldotetrose CH2OH n=2 H C OH Aldopentose CH2OH n=3 Aldohexose n=4
  11. 11. Ketose sugars CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH C O C O CH2OH C O C O(H C OH)n H C OH C O H C OH CH2OH CH2OH H C OH H C OH CH2OH CH2OH H OH Ketose Ketotriose Ketotetrose n=1 Ketopentose H C OH n=0 n=2 CH2OH Ketohexose n=3
  12. 12. Structure of a simple aldose and a simple ketose
  13. 13. Enantiomers and epimers H H H H C O C O C O C O HO C H HO C HH C OH OH C H HO C H HO C HH C OH OH C H H C OH HO C H CH2OH CH2OH H C OH H C OH these two aldotetroses are enantiomers. They are stereoisomers that are mirror CH2OH CH2OH images of each other these two aldohexoses are C-4 epimers. they differ only in the position of the hydroxyl group on one asymmetric carbon (carbon 4)
  14. 14. Properties• Differences in structures of sugars are responsible for variations in properties• Physical • Crystalline form; solubility; rotatory power• Chemical • Reactions (oxidations, reductions, condensations)• Physiological • Nutritive value (human, bacterial); sweetness; absorption
  15. 15. Structural representation of sugars• Fisher projection: straight chain representation• Haworth projection: simple ring in perspective• Conformational representation: chair and boat configurations
  16. 16. Rules for drawing Haworth projections• draw either a six or 5-membered ring including oxygen as one atom O O• most aldohexoses are six-membered• aldotetroses, aldopentoses, ketohexoses are 5-membered
  17. 17. Rules for drawing Haworth projections• next number the ring clockwise starting next to the oxygen 5 O O 4 1 4 1 3 2 3 2• if the substituent is to the right in the Fisher projection, it will be drawn down in the Haworth projection (Down-Right Rule)
  18. 18. Rules for drawing Haworth projections• for D-sugars the highest numbered carbon (furthest from the carbonyl) is drawn up. For L-sugars, it is drawn down• for D-sugars, the OH group at the anomeric position is drawn down for α and up for β. For L-sugars α is up and β is down
  19. 19. Optical isomerism• A property exhibited by any compound whose mirror images are non- superimposable• Asymmetric compounds rotate plane polarized light
  20. 20. POLARIMETRY Measurement of optical activity in chiral orasymmetric molecules using plane polarized lightMolecules may be chiral because of certain atoms orbecause of chiral axes or chiral planesMeasurement uses an instrument called apolarimeter (Lippich type) Rotation is either (+) dextrorotatory or (-)levorotatory
  21. 21. New polarimeters – usually connected to computer and printer
  22. 22. polarimetryMagnitude of rotation depends upon: 1. the nature of the compound 2. the length of the tube (cell or sample container) usually expressed in decimeters (dm) 3. the wavelength of the light source employed; usually either sodium D line at 589.3 nm or mercury vapor lamp at 546.1 nm 4. temperature of sample 5. concentration of analyte in grams per 100 ml
  23. 23. α observed x 100 [α ] D T = lxcD = Na D lineT = temperature oCα obs : observed rotation in degree (specify solvent)l = length of tube in decimeterc = concentration in grams/100ml[α] = specific rotation
  24. 24. Specific rotation of various carbohydrates at 20oC• D-glucose +52.7• D-fructose -92.4• D-galactose +80.2• L-arabinose +104.5• D-mannose +14.2• D-arabinose -105.0• D-xylose +18.8• Lactose +55.4• Sucrose +66.5• Maltose+ +130.4• Invert sugar -19.8• Dextrin +195
  25. 25. Reactions of monosaccharides• Carbonyl reactions: • Osazone formation • Cyanohydrin reaction • Reduction • Oxidation • Action of base • Action of acid • Ring chain tautomerism• Alcohol reactions • Glycoside formation • Ether formation • Ester formation
  26. 26. Formation of osazones• once used for the identification of sugars• consists of reacting the monosaccharide with phenylhydrazine• a crystalline compound with a sharp melting point will be obtained• D-fructose and D-mannose give the same osazone as D-glucose• seldom used for identification; we now use HPLC or mass spectrometry
  27. 27. Cyanohydrin formation• reaction of an aldose with HCN• used to increase the chain length of monosaccharides• results in a cyanohydrin which is then hydrolyzed to an acid and reduced to the aldehyde• known as the Fischer-Kiliani synthesis• can prepare all monosaccharides from D- glyceraldehyde
  28. 28. D-glucose can cyclize in twoways forming either furanose orpyranose structures
  29. 29. D-ribose and other five-carbonsaccharides can form eitherfuranose or pyranose structures
  30. 30. Chair and boat conformations of a pyranose sugar 2 possible chair conformations of β-D-glucose
  31. 31. Oxidation reactions• Aldoses may be oxidized to 3 types of acids – Aldonic acids: aldehyde group is converted to a carboxyl group ( glucose – gluconic acid) – Uronic acids: aldehyde is left intact and primary alcohol at the other end is oxidized to COOH • Glucose --- glucuronic acid • Galactose --- galacturonic acid – Saccharic acids (glycaric acids) – oxidation at both ends of monosaccharide) • Glucose ---- saccharic acid • Galactose --- mucic acid • Mannose --- mannaric acid
  32. 32. Glucose oxidase• glucose oxidase converts glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide• when the reaction is performed in the presence of peroxidase and o-dianisidine a yellow color is formed• this forms the basis for the measurement of urinary and blood glucose • Testape, Clinistix, Diastix (urinary glucose) • Dextrostix (venous glucose)
  33. 33. Reduction• either done catalytically (hydrogen and a catalyst) or enzymatically• the resultant product is a polyol or sugar alcohol (alditol)• glucose form sorbitol (glucitol)• mannose forms mannitol• fructose forms a mixture of mannitol and sorbitol• glyceraldehyde gives glycerol
  34. 34. Sructures of some sugar alcohols
  35. 35. Sugar alcohols are very useful intermediates• Mannitol is used as an osmotic diuretic• Glycerol is used as a humectant and can be nitrated to nitroglycerin• Sorbitol can be dehydrated to tetrahydropyrans and tetrahydrofuran compounds (sorbitans)• Sorbitans are converted to detergents known as spans and tweens (used in emulsification procedures)• Sorbitol can also be dehydrated to 1,4,3,6-dianhydro-D- sorbitol (isosorbide) which is nitrated to ISDN and ISMN (both used in treatment of angina)
  36. 36. Formation of spans and tweens OH CH2 O SORBITOL CH OH THF compound OH OH 1,4-SORBITAN O O CH2 (O-C2H4) O C R CH2 O C R O CH (O-C2H4)nOH O CH OH HO (C2H4-O)x (O-C2H4)x OH OH OH TWEENS (form O/W emulsions) SPANS (form W/O emulsions)
  37. 37. Action of strong acids on monosaccharides• monosaccharides are normally stable to dilute acids, but are dehydrated by strong acids• D-ribose when heated with concentrated HCl yields furfural (commercial route for the production of THF (tetrahydrofuran)• D-glucose under the same conditions yields 5- hydroxymethyl furfural – Basis for the Molisch test – sensitive test for the detection of carbohydrates
  38. 38. Molisch test for carbohydrates
  39. 39. Action of base on sugars• Sugars are weak acids and can form salts at high pH• A 1,2-enediol salt is formed as the result• This allows the interconversion of D-mannose, D- fructose and D-glucose• The reaction is known as the Lobry de Bruyn-Alberta von Eckenstein reaction
  40. 40. Action of base on sugars• enediols obtained by the action of base are quite susceptible to oxidation when heated in the presence of an oxidizing agent• copper sulfate is frequently used as the oxidizing agent and a red preciptate of Cu2O is obtained• sugars which give this reaction are known as reducing sugars• Fehling’s solution : KOH or NaOH and CuSO4• Benedict’s solution: Na2CO3 and CuSO4• Clinitest tablets are used to detect urinary glucose in diabetics
  41. 41. Glucose measurement methods• Most methods are enzymatic methods – 3 enzyme systems are currently used to measure glucose: • Glucose oxidase • Glucose dehydrogenase • Hexokinase – not as commonly used as the previous 2• These reactions produce either a product that can be measured photometrically or an electrical current that is proportional to the initial glucose concentration (coulometric and amperometric methods)
  42. 42. Glucose dehydrogenase methods mutarotase α-D-glucose β-D-glucose glucose dehydrogenase β-D-glucose + NAD D-gluconolactone + NADH diaphorase ΜΤΤ +NADH MTTH (blue color) +NAD glucose dehydrogenaseglucose + pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) Gluconolactone + PQQHPQQH2 + 2[Fe(CN)6]-3 PQQ + 2[Fe(CN)6]-4 + 2H+ 2[Fe(CN)6]-4 2[Fe(CN)6]-3 + 2e-
  43. 43. Glucose oxidase (GOD) methods: colorimetric method glucose oxidase β -D-glucose + O2 D-gluconolactone + H2O2 D-gluconolactone + H2O gluconic acidH2O2 + chromogenic oxygen acceptor (ortho-dianisidine, 4 aminophenazone, ortho-tolidine) peroxidase colored chromogen + H2O
  44. 44. Glucose oxidase methods: electronic sensing method glucose oxidaseβ -D-glucose + 2[Fe(CN)6 ]-3 + H 2O D-gluconic acid + 2[Fe(CN)6]-4 + 2H+ 2[Fe(CN)6]-4 2[Fe(CN)6]-3 + 2e- glucose oxidaseβ -D-glucose + O2 D-gluconolactone + H2O2 H2O2 2H+ + O2 + 2e-
  45. 45. A blood test for glucose levels Dye Colored Dye H O2 H2O2 OH C O C O H OH H OH HO H HO H Glucose Oxidase H OH H OH H OH H OH CH2OH CH2OH D-Glucose D-Gluconic Acid (An Aldonic Acid)
  46. 46. Example of test strips• Glucose oxidase systems (GOD) • Chemstrip bG, Accu-Chek Advantage, One Touch, One Touch Ultra• Glucose dehydrogenase system (GDH) • FreeStyle, Precision Xtra, Ascentia, Microfill, Accu-Chek Aviva, Accu-Chek Compact, Accu- Chek Go, Accu-Chek Advantage (Comfort Curve)
  47. 47. Special monosaccharides: deoxy sugars• These are monosaccharides which lack one or more hydroxyl groups on the molecule• one quite ubiquitous deoxy sugar is 2’- deoxy ribose which is the sugar found in DNA• 6-deoxy-L-mannose (L-rhamnose) is used as a fermentative reagent in bacteriology
  48. 48. examples of deoxysugars
  49. 49. Several sugar esters importantin metabolism
  50. 50. Special monosaccharides: amino sugars Constituents of mucopolysaccharides
  51. 51. Condensation reactions: acetal and ketal formation
  52. 52. The anomeric forms ofmethyl-D-glucoside
  53. 53. Examples of glycosides
  54. 54. Oligosaccharides• Most common are the disaccharides • Sucrose, lactose, and maltose • Maltose hydrolyzes to 2 molecules of D-glucose • Lactose hydrolyzes to a molecule of glucose and a molecule of galactose • Sucrose hydrolyzes to a moledule of glucose and a molecule of fructose
  55. 55. Sucrose∀ α-D-glucopyranosido-β-D-fructofuranoside∀ β-D-fructofuranosido-α-D-glucopyranoside• also known as tablet sugar• commercially obtained from sugar cane or sugar beet• hydrolysis yield glucose and fructose (invert sugar) ( sucrose: +66.5o ; glucose +52.5o; fructose –92o)• used pharmaceutically to make syrups, troches
  56. 56. Sugar cane Sugar beet
  57. 57. Sucralfate (Carafate)
  58. 58. Lactose∀ β-D-galactose joined to α−D-glucose via β (1,4) linkage• milk contains the alpha and beta-anomers in a 2:3 ratio∀ β-lactose is sweeter and more soluble than ordinary α- lactose• used in infant formulations, medium for penicillin production and as a diluent in pharmaceuticals
  59. 59. Maltose• 2-glucose molecules joined via α(1,4) linkage• known as malt sugar• produced by the partial hydrolysis of starch (either salivary amylase or pancreatic amylase)• used as a nutrient (malt extract; Hordeum vulgare); as a sweetener and as a fermentative reagent
  60. 60. Lactulose• galactose-β-(1,4)-fructose• a semi-synthetic disaccharide (not naturally occurring)• not absorbed in the GI tract• used either as a laxative (Chronulac) or in the management of portal systemic encephalopathy (Cephulac)• metabolized in distal ileum and colon by bacteria to lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid (remove ammonia)
  61. 61. Less common glucose disaccharides Laminaribiose (beta 1,3)Isomaltose (alpha 1,6) Cellobiose (beta 1,4)Gentiobiose (beta 1,6)
  62. 62. CellobioseCellobiose consists of 2 molecules of glucose linked by a beta-1,4 glycosidic bondIt is usually obtained by the partial hydrolysis of cellulose
  63. 63. Trehalose CH2OH H OH H O HH H OH H OH H HOH2C HO O O OH H OH H TREHALOSETrehalose is a disaccharide that occurs naturally in insects, plants, fungi, and bacteria. The major dietary source is mushrooms. Trehalose is used in bakery goods, beverages,confectionery, fruit jam, breakfast cereals, rice, and noodles as a texturizer, stabilizer, humectant, or formulation aid with a low sweetening intensity
  64. 64. Sucralose (Splenda)About 600 times more sweet than sucrose
  65. 65. Oligosaccharides• Trisaccharide: raffinose (glucose, galactose and fructose)• Tetrasaccharide: stachyose (2 galactoses, glucose and fructose)• Pentasaccharide: verbascose (3 galactoses, glucose and fructose)• Hexasaccharide: ajugose (4 galactoses, glucose and fructose)
  66. 66. Honey also contains glucose and fructose along withsome volatile oils
  67. 67. Structures of some oligosaccharides starch
  68. 68. Structures of some oligosaccharides
  69. 69. Structures of some oligosaccharidesAn enzymatic product (Beano) can be used to preventthe flatulence
  70. 70. Oligosaccharides occur widely as components ofantibiotics derived from various sources
  71. 71. Polysaccharides or glycans• homoglycans (starch, cellulose, glycogen, inulin)• heteroglycans (gums, mucopolysaccharides)• characteristics: • polymers (MW from 200,000) • White and amorphous products (glassy) • not sweet • not reducing; do not give the typical aldose or ketose reactions) • form colloidal solutions or suspensions
  72. 72. Starch• most common storage polysaccharide in plants• composed of 10 – 30% α−amylose and 70-90% amylopectin depending on the source• the chains are of varying length, having molecular weights from several thousands to half a million
  73. 73. Starch• Main sources of starch are rice, corn, wheat, potatoes and cassava• A storage polysaccharide• Starch is used as an excipient, a binder in medications to aid the formation of tablets.• Industrially it has many applications such as in adhesives, paper making, biofuel, textiles
  74. 74. Amylose and amylopectin are the 2 forms of starch. Amylopectinis a highly branched structure, with branches occurring every 12to 30 residues
  75. 75. suspensions of amylosein water adopt a helical conformationiodine (I2) can insert inthe middle of the amylosehelix to give a blue colorthat is characteristic anddiagnostic for starch
  76. 76. (in starch) (in cellulose)
  77. 77. Cellulose• Polymer of β-D-glucose attached by β(1,4) linkages• Only digested and utilized by ruminants (cows, deers, giraffes, camels)• A structural polysaccharide• Yields glucose upon complete hydrolysis• Partial hydrolysis yields cellobiose• Most abundant of all carbohydrates • Cotton flax: 97-99% cellulose • Wood: ~ 50% cellulose• Gives no color with iodine• Held together with lignin in woody plant tissues
  78. 78. Lignin
  79. 79. Structure of celluloseChains are arranged in a parallel pattern
  80. 80. Linear structures of cellulose and chitin(2 most abundant polysaccharides)
  81. 81. Products obtained from cellulose• Microcrystalline cellulose : used as binder- disintegrant in tablets• Methylcellulose: suspending agent and bulk laxative• Oxidized cellulose: hemostat• Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose: laxative• Cellulose acetate: rayon; photographic film; plastics• Cellulose acetate phthalate: enteric coating• Nitrocellulose: explosives; collodion (pyroxylin)
  82. 82. Glycogen• also known as animal starch• stored in muscle and liver (mostly)• present in cells as granules (high MW)• contains both α(1,4) links and α(1,6) branches at every 8 to 12 glucose unit (more frequent than in starch)• complete hydrolysis yields glucose• glycogen and iodine gives a red-violet color• hydrolyzed by both α and β-amylases and by glycogen phosphorylase
  83. 83. Inulin∀ β-(1,2) linked fructofuranoses• linear only; no branching Jerusalem artichokes• lower molecular weight than starch• colors yellow with iodine• hydrolysis yields fructose• sources include onions, garlic, dandelions and jerusalem artichokes• used as diagnostic agent for the evaluation of glomerular filtration rate (renal function test)
  84. 84. Chitin• chitin is the second most abundant carbohydrate polymer• Like cellulose, chitin is a structural polymer• present in the cell wall of fungi and in the exoskeletons of crustaceans, insects and spiders• chitin is used commercially in coatings (extends the shelf life of fruits and meats)• A chitin derivative binds to iron atoms in meat and slows the rancidity process
  85. 85. Chitin• Chitin is the second most abundant carbohydrate polymer• Present in the cell wall of fungi and in the exoskeletons of crustaceans, insects and spiders• Chitin is used commercially in coatings (extends the shelf life of fruits and meats)
  86. 86. Dextrans• products of the reaction of glucose and the enzyme transglucosidase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides• contains α (1,4), α (1,6) and α (1,3) linkages• MW: 40,000; 70,000; 75,000• used as plasma extenders (treatment of shock)• also used as molecular sieves to separate proteins and other large molecules (gel filtration chromatography)• components of dental plaques
  87. 87. Dextrins• produced by the partial hydrolysis of starch along with maltose and glucose• dextrins are often referred to as either amylodextrins, erythrodextrins or achrodextrins• used as mucilages (glues)• also used in infant formulas (prevent the curdling of milk in baby’s stomach)
  88. 88. Glycoproteins and proteoglycans• Glycoproteins are proteins conjugated to saccharides lacking a serial repeating unit • In glycoprotein the protein>>>carbohydrate • Example include enzymes, immunoglobulins or antibodies, certain hormones• Proteoglycans are proteins conjugated to polysaccharides with serial repeating units • Here carbohydrate>>> protein • Proteoglycans modulate cell processes and make cartilage flexible and resilient
  89. 89. Glycosaminoglycans• they are the polysaccharide chains of proteoglycans• they are linked to the protein core via a serine or threonine (O-linked)• the chains are linear (unbranched)• the glycosaminoglycan chains are long (over 100 monosaccharides)• they are composed of repeating disaccharides
  90. 90. GlycosaminoglycansInvolved in a variety of extracellular functions; chondroitinis found in tendons, cartilage and other connective tissues
  91. 91. GlycosaminoglycansA characteristic of glycosaminoglycans is the presenceof acidic functionalities (carboxylate and/or sulfates)
  92. 92. Hyaluronic acid derivatives• several products are used in the management of osteoarthritis symptoms – Hyalagan and Synvisc• others are used as ophthalmic surgical adjuncts in cataract extractions, intraocular lens implantation, corneal transplant and retinal attachment surgery (Healon, Amvisc, AMO Vitrax)
  93. 93. Glycosaminoglycans
  94. 94. Pentosan polysulfate (Elmiron)Pentosan polysulfate sodium is a semi-synthetically produced heparin-like macromolecularcarbohydrate derivative which chemically and structurally resembles glycosaminoglycans. Itis used orally to treat interstitial cystitis. Only about 3% of the administered dose is absorbed.
  95. 95. Pentosan polysulfate• This medication was developed for the treatment of a human disease called intestitial cystitis that features recurring pelvic pain and painful urination. This condition is believed to stem from defects in the biochemical lining of the urinary bladder• The lining of the bladder is made of a substance called glycosaminoglycan, the same water absorbent material that makes up the bulk of cartilage. Pentosan polysulfate sodium is a semi- synthetic carbohydrate derivative that has a similar structure to glycosaminoglycan. The thinking is that pentosan polysulfate sodium is able to replenish the bladder lining (though the true mechanism of action remains unknown).
  96. 96. Pectins• pectins are heteropolysaccharides found in the pulp of fruits (citrus, apples)• on hydrolysis pectins yield galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, methanol and acetic acid• pectins are composed of galactans and arabans• used as gelling agents (to make jellies)
  97. 97. Gums• widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry• used as: suspending agents, gelling agents, thickening agents, emulsifiers, foam stabilizers, crystallization inhibitors, adhesives, binding agents and demulcents• agar, tragacanth, karaya, carrageenan, guar gum, gum arabic (acacia), furcellaran, sodium alginate, locust bean gum
  98. 98. Gum karaya• Also known as sterculia gum• Hydrolysis yields galactose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid• High molecular weight (9,500.000)• Originates from the exudate of a tree native to India• Uses in pharmacy: bulk laxative and denture adhesive• Uses in food: confer stability through binding and emulsifying
  99. 99. Agar or agar-agar• Derived from seaweeds• A mixture of agarose and agaropectin (mostly galactose subunits – MW 120,000)• Used as a laxative, vegetarian gelatin substitute, thickener for soups, jellies, ice cream• In microbiology – as a growth media
  100. 100. Gum arabic• Also known as gum acacia, chaar gund or meska• Harvested from acacia trees in Sudan, Somalia and Senegal• Used pharmaceutically as a binder, emulsifying agent, suspending or viscosity enhancer• Also used in soft drinks, gummy candies, marshmallows• Other uses: water color painting, shoe polish, pyrotechnics, adhesive
  101. 101. Tragacanth• Natural gum of the dried sap of several species of Middle eastern legumes (Astragalus species)• Iran is the largest producer of this gum• Used in pharmaceuticals and foods as an emulsifier, thickener, stabilizer and texturant additive
  102. 102. Gum tragacanth
  103. 103. Carrageenan• Isolated from red seaweeds• 3 commercial classes: kappa, iota, and lambda• High molecular weight polysaccharide made up of repeating galalactose units and 3, 6-anhydrogalactose both sulfated and non-sulfated• Used as thickening and stabilizing agent in both the food and pharmaceutical industries
  104. 104. Sodium alginate• Extracted from the cell walls of brown algae• Used in the food industry to increase viscosity and as an emulsifier• Used in the preparation of dental impressions• In biochemistry labs for immobilizing enzymes• In textile industry for reactive dye printing
  105. 105. Bacterial cell wall• provide strength and rigidity for the organism• consists of a polypeptide-polysaccharide known as petidoglycan or murein• determines the Gram staining characteristic of the bacteria
  106. 106. Structure ofpeptidoglycan
  107. 107. Cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria
  108. 108. Gram-negative bacteria
  109. 109. Cross-section of the cellwall of a gram-negativeorganism such as E.coli
  110. 110. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) coats theouter membrane of Gram-negativebacteria.the lipid portion of the LPS is embeddedin the outer membrane and is linked toa complex polysaccharide
  111. 111. Teichoic acids are covalently linked to the peptidoglycan of gram-positivebacteria. These polymers of glycerol phosphate (a and b) or ribitol phosphate (c) arelinked by phosphodiester bonds
  112. 112. Mycobacterial cell wall
  113. 113. Glycosylated proteins• Usually done as a post-translational process (enzymatic process)• Not to be confused with glycation (non- enzymatic process)• Glycosylation is important for protein folding and for stability• Process is site-specific• Proteins can contain either O-linked oligosaccharides or N-linked oligosaccharides
  114. 114. Serine or threonine O-linked saccharides appears to occur in the Golgi
  115. 115. Aspargine N-linked glycoproteinsInvolves dolichol, a polyprenoid carrier molecule in the ER lumen of the cell
  116. 116. These glycoproteins are found inThe blood of Arctic and Antarcticfish enabling these to live at sub-zero water temperatures
  117. 117. Some of the oligosaccharides found in N-linked glycoproteins
  118. 118. Some of the oligosaccharides found in N-linked glycoproteins
  119. 119. Glycation• Also called non-enzymatic glycosylation• May be exogenous (due to cooking) – Browning of food or caramelization (Maillard reaction)• Or endogenous glycation – Schiff base reactions – Amadori reactions • Hb1c in diabetes
  120. 120. Proteoglycans are a family of glycoproteinswhose carbohydrate moieties are predominantlyglycosaminoglycansstructures are quite diverse as are sizesexamples: versican, serglycin, decorin, syndecanFunctions: - modulate cell growth processes - provide flexibility and resiliency to cartilage
  121. 121. A portion of the structure of heparinHeparin is a carbohydrate with anticoagulant properties. It is used in bloodbanks to prevent clotting and in the prevention of blood clots in patientsrecovering from serious injury or surgeryNumerous derivatives of heparin have been made (LMWH: enoxaparin(Lovenox), dalteparin (Fragmin), tinzaparin (Innohep), fondaparinux
  122. 122. Hyaluronate:material used tocement the cells into a tissue
  123. 123. Lectins• Proteins that bind carbohydrates with high specificity and with moderate to high affinity • Found in all organisms (plants, animals, bacteria and viruses • Function in cell-cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion processes • Plant lectins: concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin, ricin • Animal lectins: galectin-1, selectins • Bacterial lectins: enterotoxin, cholera toxin • Viral lectins: influenza virus hemagglutinin, polyoma virus protein-1
  124. 124. Influenza virus• Is able to attach to host cells through interactions with oligosaccharides• Lectin on virus is HA (hemagglutinin) – protein essential for entry and infection• Once it has replicated in the host cell, the new virus must bud out to infect other cells• A viral sialidase (neuraminidase) trims the terminal sialic acid residue from the host cell’s oligosaccharide• This action releases the viral particle from its interation with the cell and prevent aggregation with other virus particles
  125. 125. Influenza virus N-acetylneuraminic acid (a sialic acid) Neuraminidase enzymeOseltamivir (Tamiflu) Zanamivir (Relenza)
  126. 126. Influenza virus• Antiviral drugs: oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza)• Sugar analogs• Inhibit the viral sialidase by competing with the host cell’s oligosaccharides for binding• They prevent the release of viruses from the infected cell and also cause virus particles to aggregate both of which block another cycle of infection• These drugs must be used as soon as symptoms are detected (12- 24 hours)
  127. 127. Selectins• Selectins are adhesion proteins found on rolling leukocytes and on the endothelial cells of the vascular walls• 3 types are known • L-selectin found on the walls of leukocytes • E- and P-selectins found on the endothelial cells• Involved in the inflammatory response due to bacteria and viruses
  128. 128. GLYCOLIPIDS• Cerebrosides • One sugar molecule – Galactocerebroside – in neuronal membranes – Glucocerebrosides – elsewhere in the body• Sulfatides or sulfogalactocerebrosides • A sulfuric acid ester of galactocerebroside• Globosides: ceramide oligosaccharides • Lactosylceramide – 2 sugars ( eg. lactose)• Gangliosides • Have a more complex oligosaccharide attached • Biological functions: cell-cell recognition; receptors for hormones
  129. 129. glycolipidsHO R O NH R O SUGAR polar head is a sugar beta linkageThere are different types of glycolipids: cerebrosides, gangliosides,lactosylceramides
  130. 130. GLYCOLIPIDS• Cerebrosides • One sugar molecule – Galactocerebroside – in neuronal membranes – Glucocerebrosides – elsewhere in the body• Sulfatides or sulfogalactocerebrosides • A sulfuric acid ester of galactocerebroside• Globosides: ceramide oligosaccharides • Lactosylceramide – 2 sugars ( eg. lactose)• Gangliosides • Have a more complex oligosaccharide attached • Biological functions: cell-cell recognition; receptors for hormones
  131. 131. Gangliosides• complex glycosphingolipids that consist of a ceramide backbone with 3 or more sugars esterified,one of these being a sialic acid such as N-acetylneuraminic acid• common gangliosides: GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GT1a, GT1b, Gq1b
  132. 132. Ganglioside nomenclature• letter G refers to the name ganglioside• the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate mono-, di-, tri, and quatra(tetra)-sialic- containing gangliosides• the numerical subscripts 1, 2, and 3 designate the carbohydrate sequence attached to ceramide
  133. 133. Ganglioside nomenclature• Numerical subscripts: • 1. Gal-GalNAc-Gal-Glc-ceramide • 2. GalNAc-Gal-Glc-ceramide • 3. Gal-Glc-ceramide
  134. 134. N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine D-galactose D-glucose CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OHOH OH H O O O O O OH O OH H HH O H H H H H O H OH H NH H OH H OH H H C O HO C C CH2 D-Galactose CH3 H NH C O H O C O H3C C NH O COO- C R CHOH H CHOH CH2OH H H OH H N-acetylneuraminidate (sialic acid)A ganglioside (GM1)
  135. 135. Lipid storage diseases• also known as sphingolipidoses• genetically acquired• due to the deficiency or absence of a catabolic enzyme• examples: • Tay Sachs disease • Gaucher’s disease • Niemann-Pick disease • Fabry’s disease

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