Solid waste management

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Solid waste management

  1. 1. BY IBRAHIM SALEEM P SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
  2. 2. “As useless, unwanted and discarded materials coming from production and consumption”
  3. 3.  Residential wastes  Commercial wastes  Municipal wastes  Industrial wastes  Agricultural wastes  Hazardous wastes
  4. 4. It is defined as the discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer, transport, processing and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in accord with best principles of public health.
  5. 5.  To identify types of solid wastes and their sources  To examine the physical and chemical composition.  To consider the elements involved in management.  To minimize the adverse environmental impacts caused by the indiscriminate disposal of solid wastes.
  6. 6.  Encompasses activities in which materials are identified as no longer being of value and are either thrown away or gathered together for disposal. Example: wrapping of candy bar
  7. 7.  Waste handling and separation involves the activities associated with management of wastes until they are placed in storage containers for collection.
  8. 8.  Includes not only gathering of solid wastes and recyclable materials, but also the transport of these materials, after collection.
  9. 9.  Transfer and transport of wastes from the smaller collection vehicle to the larger transport equipment.
  10. 10.  Processing and recovery of wastes is taken to long distances to a processing site and to prepare materials for recovery of conversion products and energy.
  11. 11.  The final functional element in the solid waste management system is disposal. Today the disposal of wastes by land filling or land spreading is the ultimate fate of all solid wastes.
  12. 12. Factors influences:  Geographic location  Season of the year  Population characteristics  Legislation  People’s attitude
  13. 13. COMPONENTS Garbage Rubbish Ashes, Cooking wastes Paper, glass, plastics, metal etc Houses, hotels, shops, markets etc Street refuse Dead animals Abandoned vehicles Sweepings, dirt, leaves etc Domestic animals unwanted vehicles, spares etc Roads, garages, side walk, vacant areas etc Biomedical wastes Medicines, disposables etc Hospitals, clinics, research and development institutes.
  14. 14. Waste generation involves those activities in which materials are identified as no longer being of value and therefore, are thrown away as useless.
  15. 15. It refers to the activities associated with handling, storage and processing of solid wastes at or near the point of generation until they are placed in containers for storage before collection.
  16. 16.  Facilitates the collection process.  Minimizes the collection process.  Ensure maximum collection of solid wastes generated.  Discourage throwing of wastes indiscriminately in the streets.
  17. 17. Household wastes should be stored in sturdy container of :  Sufficient capacity.  Easy to empty and clean  Has a well fitted lid. Galvanized steel and plastic bins can satisfy these criteria.
  18. 18. Problems:  The provision of too few containers of insufficient capacity.  Inappropriate locating of containers.  Containers are usually open, giving access to rats, flies and animals, which is undesirable for both hygienic and aesthetic reasons.
  19. 19. It is difficult and complex occurrences in variety of places High cost of fuel & labor 60-80% of cost only for collection
  20. 20.  In this system householders carry their wastes to solid waste bins situated at specific location, solid waste collection trucks visits these location at regular intervals and collect and transport the accumulated wastes to treatment or disposal sites.
  21. 21. It is a collection vehicle travels over a selected route at a specific time of the day, usually two or three days a week. The house holders bring their wastes and hand them over to the workers.
  22. 22. House holders leave the wastes in containers or disposal bags on the footpath on pre-selected days according to a collection schedule. Succeeds only if well organized regular service is provided
  23. 23.  The house holders store wastes in a bin, basket or bag within their house premises. Workers collect bin, basket or bag, empty it into the collection vehicle and return container to premises.
  24. 24.  To improve the efficiency of (swm) system.  To recover useable material.  To recover conversion products and energy.
  25. 25.  Mechanical volume reduction (compaction).  Chemical volume reduction (incineration).  Component separation (manual &mechanical).  Mechanical size reduction (shredding).  Moisture content reduction (drying & dewatering).
  26. 26.  By material separation  By material conversion
  27. 27.  Physical treatment  Chemical treatment Neutralization Chemical oxidation reduction
  28. 28.  Dumping  Burrying  Burning  composting
  29. 29.  Availability of land  Distance & cost  Soil condition & topography  Climate condition  Geological condition  Noise, odour, dust &vector control
  30. 30.  Discharge to waste water treatment plants  On site treatement
  31. 31.  Methane & carbon dioxide by organic matter  Active and passive collection of gas for heat & electricity  Incineration Controlled burning at high temp(i.e 850p C) in presence of air
  32. 32.  Composting is the process of bacterial conversion of organic solid and semi solid wastes into compost which can be handled, stored and transported without any adverse environmental effect, and can be used to as organic manure for improvement of soil quality and fertility
  33. 33.  Windrow composting control parameter: Moisture Temperature Ph Oxygen Carbon-Nitrogen ratio
  34. 34. Recycling is a process to change of waste materials into new products
  35. 35. Medical waste Household waste
  36. 36.  Due to advancement in technology  Changes in fashion  Style  Status
  37. 37.  Inventory management  Production-process modification  Volume reduction  Recovery and reuse
  38. 38. Government Industries citizen

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