The concept of curriculum

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Prof. C. Obi on Curriculum Development Course assignment...

Prof. C. Obi on Curriculum Development Course assignment...

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  • 1. THE CONCEPT OF CURRICULUM AND PLANNING THE CURRICULUM By: INYERE, Biodun Favour
  • 2. On the MDGs, Goal 2 (Achieve universal primary education ~ Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling) is one target to be met with 2010 report stating that nearly nine out of ten children are now enrolled in school and rapid improvement in youth literacy. This can be attributed to the curriculum. FBI ~ ABILOVE 2
  • 3. What is CV? ~Curriculum Vitae? The curriculum {every course of (trans- ) formative experience, which includes both undirected and out of school} of (a) life, not just those threads of experience that are planned and happen as a part of program within schools. FBI ~ ABILOVE 3
  • 4. What is curriculum? According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary (n.d.), curriculum is defined as the following:  the courses offered by an educational institution  a set of courses constituting an area of specialization  Latin: Running course  Scotland 1603: Carriage way, road  United States 1906: Course of study  1940: Plan for learning (study) FBI ~ ABILOVE 4
  • 5. Curriculum is all planned learning for which the school is responsible. Curriculum is all the experiences learners have under the guidance of the school. ~John Delnay. FBI ~ ABILOVE 5
  • 6. It is in a curriculum that is accumulated knowledge, skills and attitudes about the past and present are combined with predictive assumptions about the future to produce an ordered outline of things to be taught and learnt in schooling. (Connell, W. F.) FBI ~ ABILOVE 6
  • 7. In the early years of 20th century, the traditional concepts held of the “curriculum is that it is a body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn”. It was synonymous to the “course of study” and “syllabus”. FBI ~ ABILOVE 7
  • 8. “ A Curriculum is a written document which may contain many ingredients, but basically it is a plan for the education of pupils during their enrollment in given school”. George A. Beauchamp Curriculum meaning trajectory for horse race [at] Emperor epoch of Galius FBI ~ ABILOVE 8
  • 9. Marsh and Willis on the other hand view curriculum as all the “experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students. Curriculum refers to the training assigned to a student FBI ~ ABILOVE 9
  • 10. Caswell and Campbell viewed curriculum as “all experiences children have under the guidance of teachers”. This definition is shared by Smith, Stanley and Shores when they defined “curriculum as a sequence of potential experiences set up in the schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting”. FBI ~ ABILOVE 10
  • 11. Curriculum is a design PLAN for learning that requires the purposeful and proactive organization, sequencing, and management of the interactions among the teacher, the students, and the content knowledge, we want students to acquire. FBI ~ ABILOVE 11
  • 12. Anything and everything that teaches a lesson, planned or otherwise. Humans are born learning, thus the learned curriculum actually encompasses a combination of all. Many educators are unaware of the strong lessons imparted to youth by everyday contacts. FBI ~ ABILOVE 12
  • 13. Curriculum is a dynamic intellectual and social enterprise. The dynamic nature of human societies justifies regular innovations. Curriculum can be viewed as the organised knowledge presented to learners in a school.  Grace C. Offorma FBI ~ ABILOVE 13
  • 14. the process of gaining experience, systematically. FBI ~ ABILOVE 14
  • 15. Curriculum is that which is taught at school. Curriculum is a set of subjects. Curriculum is content. Curriculum is a sequence of courses. Curriculum is a set of performance objectives. Curriculum is a program of studies. Curriculum is a set of materials. Curriculum is a course of study. FBI ~ ABILOVE 15
  • 16. FBI ~ ABILOVE 16
  • 17.  One of the best known curriculum models is The Tyler Model introduced in 1949 by Ralph Tyler in his book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction in which he asked 4 questions: 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organised? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? FBI ~ ABILOVE 17
  • 18.  Another approach to curriculum development was proposed by Hilda Taba in her book Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice published in 1962.  She argued that there was a definite order in creating a curriculum. She believed that teachers, who teach the curriculum, should participate in developing it which led to the model being called the grass-roots approach.  She noted 7 major steps to her grass-roots model in which teachers would have major input. She was of the opinion that the Tyler model was more of an administrative model. FBI ~ ABILOVE 18
  • 19. Galen Saylor and William Alexander (1974) viewed curriculum development as consisting of four steps. According to them, curriculum is “a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities to achieve broad educational goals and related specific objectives for an identifiable population served by a single school centre”. FBI ~ ABILOVE 19
  • 20. Some of the components of a comprehensive curriculum unit • Content  Grouping and Pacing • Assessment  Products • Introduction/Closure  Resources • Teaching Strategies  Extension Activities • Learning Activities  Differentiation FBI ~ Abilove 20
  • 21. Teachers Centered V/S Learner-Centered Curriculum Teacher-Centered Learner-Centered Focus is on instructor Focus is on both students and instructor Instructor talks; students listen Instructor monitors and corrects every student utterance Instructor chooses topics Instructor models; students interact with instructor and one another Students work in pairs, in groups, or alone depending on the purpose of the activity Students talk without constant instructor monitoring Students have some choice of topics Instructor answers student’s questions about language Classroom is quiet Students answer each other’s questions, using instructor as an information resource Classroom is often noisy and busy Instructor evaluates student learning Students evaluate their own learning; instructor also evaluates Students work alone FBI ~ Abilove 21
  • 22. There are many definitions of curriculum. Because of this, the concept of curriculum is sometimes characterized as fragmentary, elusive and confusing. The definitions are influenced by modes of thoughts (Models), pedagogies, political, cultural, as well as other experiences. FBI ~ ABILOVE 22
  • 23. The concept of curriculum is as dynamic as the changes that occur in society:  In its narrow sense, curriculum is viewed merely as a listing of subject to be taught in school. In a broader sense, it refers to the total learning experiences of individuals not only in schools but in society as well. FBI ~ ABILOVE 23
  • 24. To accommodate difference of view, Hamid Hasan (1988) telling that curriculum concept can be evaluated in four dimension, that is 1. Curriculum as an idea; yielded pass or through research and theory's, specially in the field of education and curriculum 2. Curriculum as plan written, as materialization of curriculum as an idea; what in it load about target, materials, activity, appliances, and time FBI ~ ABILOVE 24
  • 25. 3. Curriculum as an activity, representing execution of curriculum as a plan written; in the form of study practice 4. Curriculum as a result of representing consequence of curriculum as an activity, in the form of got of curriculum target namely reaching of change of certain ability or behavior from all educative participant. FBI ~ ABILOVE 25
  • 26. Curriculum: Curriculum is a focus of study, consisting of various courses all designed to reach a particular proficiency or qualification. Syllabus: A syllabus is simply an outline and timeline of a particular course. It will typically give a brief overview of the course objectives, course expectations, list reading assignments, homework deadlines, and exam dates. FBI ~ ABILOVE 26
  • 27. Course of Study: A course is a set of inventory items grouped together for ease of assignment and tracking. Curriculum: A curriculum can consist of more than one course. Curriculum refers to the training assigned to a student. FBI ~ ABILOVE 27
  • 28. Curriculum: Curriculum is a focus of study, consisting of various courses all designed to reach a particular proficiency or qualification. Teaching: An academic process by which students are motivated to learn in ways that make a sustained, substantial, and positive influence on how they think, act, and feel. FBI ~ ABILOVE 28
  • 29. Instruction: Instructions are a basic aspect of the learning process. They are all formulated to guide students in their gradual learning process in their respective fields. Curriculum: Curriculum is literally defined in education as a set of courses regarding different classes or subjects offered in different educational institutions such as a school. FBI ~ ABILOVE 29
  • 30. The design of a curriculum is likened to the design of a house in that a house is designed according to the purpose it will serve. ~Grace C. Offorma. FBI ~ ABILOVE 30
  • 31.  Subject  Broadfields  which Tanner and Tanner termed “Correlate or Fusion Pattern”  Activity  Core ~Grace C. Offorma. FBI ~ ABILOVE 31
  • 32. Curriculum is a set plan and arrangement concerning target, content, and Lesson materials and also the way of which is used as guidance of management of activity of study to reach specific-purpose. FBI ~ ABILOVE 32
  • 33.  The preparation of learning outcomes and learning experiences is the culmination of a technically developed curriculum project. FBI ~ ABILOVE 33
  • 34.  Learning outcomes and learning experiences display how the curriculum fits the community and how teachers and school staff are expected to deliver curriculum content to students FBI ~ ABILOVE 34
  • 35.  It enables an educator to evaluate description of learning outcomes and learning experiences in curriculum documents. FBI ~ ABILOVE 35
  • 36. 1. Philosophical 7. Technologica l 2. Historical 7 Dimensions of Curriculum 6. Global 3. Political 5. Cultural FBI ~ ABILOVE 4. Ethical / Moral 36
  • 37. FBI ~ ABILOVE 37
  • 38. REFERENCES:  Asgari Azade          Curriculum & Syllabus Design http://www.teachandlearn.ca/blog/2007/08/16/creating-learning-experiences Federal Government of Nigeria Nigeria Millennium development Goals Report 2010 www.mdgs.gov.ng Marsh, C.J. Perspectives: Key concepts for understanding curriculum London: Falmer Press Mishra Sanjaya Curriculum, ICT and Online Learning http://www.slideshare.net/missan Offorma G. C. Curriculum Implementation and Instruction UNI-World Educational Publishers (Nig) Ltd 1994 Saylor J. G et al Planning Curriculum for Schools New York: Holt, Reinehart and Winston Taba Hilda Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanowich, Inc 1962. Tanner D & Tanner L. N. Curriculum Development Theory New York: Mac Millan Co. Inc Tyler Ralph Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Yudhie Indra REALITY CURRICULUM IN EDUCATION http://www.slideshare.net FBI ~ ABILOVE 38