Pathophysiology of tonic clonic seizure

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Pathophysiology of tonic clonic seizure

Pathophysiology of tonic clonic seizure

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  • 1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGYPRECIPITATING FACTORS: PREDISPOSING FACTORS: Etiology: • Sensory stimuli: loud noises • Family History Altered integrity of or bright lights neuron in the • electrolyte imbalance epileptogenic focus Hyperexcitablity state of neurons in the epileptogenic focus Partial depolarization (high voltage electrical discharge) Partial stimulation of neurotransmitter molecules Imbalanced release in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters Lowered seizure threshold Activated by precipitating factors Abnormal spontaneous spread electrical discharges
  • 2. Hyperexcitability of neurons in the brainstem causing disruption in the functions of the medulla, pons and midbrain Tonic Phase Spreads to both hemispheres Disruption in Alteration medullary in the activity thus activity of alteration in the pons. Alteration in the activity function of in the midbrain (connectsrespiratory and brain to spinal nerves)cardiovascular Musculature system stiffening( extr emities pulled Loss of consciousness toward body) and swallowing reflex Clonic phase: Cessation ofcardiovascular and • Muscles will contract Inhibitory impulse startsrespiratory activity and relax rapidly from the thalamus andcausing apnea and interrupts the tonic phase cyanosis. • Violent, jerking into discontinuous bursts movements of electrical activity • Upward rolling of the eyeballs • Bowel and urine incontinence in some Post-ictal phase: Due to physical and nervous exhaustion, the patient may have/ will be: • Semiconscious • Poor coordination • Mild impairment of fine motor movements • Deep sleep