Minerals

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Minerals

  1. 1. MINERALS
  2. 2. Minerals Inorganic element needed by the body for the following functions:  Build tissues  Regulate body fluids  Assist in body functions  Help form body structures Remains as ash when food is burned
  3. 3. Classification of Minerals • Major minerals - required in amounts greater than 100mg a day - sometimes called “macrominerals” • Trace minerals - required in the diet in amounts lesser than 100mg a day - sometimes called “microminerals”
  4. 4. • Ions – electrically charged atoms resulting from chemical reaction anions –negatively charged cations – positively charged • Mineral salts dissolve in water -> break into separate ions -> electrolytes
  5. 5. MAJOR MINERALS NAME FOOD SOURCES FUNCTIONS DEFICIENCY/ TOXICITY Calcium (Ca2+) Milk, cheese, sardines, salmon, some dark green leafy vegetables Development of bones and teeth Transmission of nerve impulses Blood clotting Normal heart action Normal muscle activity Osteoporosis Osteomalacia Rickets Tetany Retarded growth Poor tooth and bone formation
  6. 6. Osteoporosis - means “porous bones” - characterized by low bone density or mass (reduced amount of bone tissue) and fragile bones
  7. 7. Rickets - softening of bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity Osteomalacia - bones lose calcium and become softer and may deform
  8. 8. Tetany - involuntary contraction of muscles
  9. 9. NAME FOOD SOURCES FUNCTIONS DEFICIENCY/ TOXICITY Phosphorus (P) Milk, cheese, lean meat, poultry, fish, whole-grain cereals, legumes, nuts Development of bones and teeth Maintains normal pH of the blood Constituent of all body cells CHO, CHON and fat metabolism Poor tooth and bone formation Weakness Anorexia General malaise
  10. 10. NAME FOOD SOURCES FUNCTIONS DEFICIENCY/ TOXICITY Potassium (K+ ) Oranges, bananas, dried fruits, vegetables, legumes, milk, cereals, meat Contraction of muscles Maintenance of fluid balance Transmission of nerve impulses Regular heart rhythm Cell metabolism Deficiency: hypokalemia muscle weakness confusion abnormal heartbeat Toxicity: hyperkalemia potentially life-threatening irregular heartbeats
  11. 11. NAME FOOD SOURCES FUNCTIONS DEFICIENCY/ TOXICITY Sodium (Na+ ) Table salt, beef, eggs, poultry, milk, cheese, Soy sauce, moderate amounts in breads and vegetables, large amounts in processed foods Maintenance of fluid balance Transmission of nerve impulses Acid-base balance Muscle contraction Deficiency: nausea exhaustion muscle cramps Toxicity: hypertension edema
  12. 12. edema
  13. 13. NAME FOOD SOURCES FUNCTIONS DEFICIENCY/ TOXICITY Chloride (Cl- ) Table salt, eggs, seafood, milk Gastric acidity Regulates acid-base balance in the body Maintains fluid and electrolyte balance Formation of hydrochloric acid Imbalance in gastric acidity Imbalance in blood pH Nausea Exhaustion
  14. 14. NAME FOOD SOURCES FUNCTIONS DEFICIENCY/ TOXICITY Magnesium (Mg2+ ) Green, leafy vegetables Whole grains, avocados, nuts, milk, legumes, bananas, nuts, seafood, chocolate, cocoa Nerve transmission Synthesis of ATP Activation of metabolic enzymes Muscle activity Constituent of bones, muscles, and RBCs Normally unknown Mental, emotional and muscle disorders
  15. 15. Trace Minerals NAME FOOD SOURCES FUNCTIONS DEFICIENCY/ TOXICITY Iron (Fe+ ) Muscle meat Poultry Shellfish Liver Legumes Dried fruits Whole grain or enriches breads and cereals Dark green and leafy vegetables Molasses Transports oxygen and CO2 Hemoglobin formation Component of cellular enzymes essential for energy production Deficiency: iron deficiency anemia
  16. 16. Symptoms: • Weakness/ Fatigue • Dizziness • Loss of weight • Pallor • Coldness of hands and feet
  17. 17. Cretinism GoiterMyxedema NAME FOOD SOURCES FUNCTIONS DEFICIENCY/ TOXICITY Iodine (I- ) Iodized salt seafood Regulation of basal metabolic rate Goiter Cretinism Myxedema
  18. 18. NAME FOOD SOURCES FUNCTIONS DEFICIENCY/ TOXICITY Zinc (Zn+ ) Seafood, esp. oysters Liver Eggs Milk Wheat bran legumes Formation of collagen Wound healing Taste acuity Essential for growth Immune reactions Dwarfism Anemia Loss of appetite Skin changes Impaired wound healing Decreased taste acuity
  19. 19. dwarfism
  20. 20. Skin lesions
  21. 21. NAME FOOD SOURCES FUNCTIONS DEFICIENCY/ TOXICITY Fluoride (F- ) Fluoridated water Seafood Increases resistance to tooth decay Component of bones and teeth Deficiency: Tooth decay Possibly osteoporosis Toxicity: Fluorosis - discoloration of teeth or mottling
  22. 22. Tooth decay Fluorosis

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