• Safety is so far an unexplored frontier in Pakistan. True, the word “Safety” does produce familiar resonance in our ears, yet we seldom fathom the implications in its totalityAt best barring few progressive industrial houses in our country, only lip service is considered enough.• Safety, as a matter of fact after air, water & food, is the fourth requirement of all living beings. As such, safety should be considered as multifaceted commodity and not abstract thought.
• This realisation had prompted the west in developing the gospel of Safety as an applied science .Most universities in western world, some as far as1935, introduced comprehensive curriculum for degree courses. But in our country other than Pakistan Air Force, there is no organised academic activity on the subject.• The subject is being attended by the segment of industry involved in exports, purely under compliance compulsions imposed by the international buyers
PANELISTS IN THE SEQUENCE OF DELIEVERY OF PRESENTATION• KHALID FAROOQ - Introduction of Subject/Panelists• ASMAT ZAHRA - Introduction of Subject Organization & Strategic Policy• AYESHA WAQAR - Occupational Safety, Health & Environmental Objectives & Health Programs• HUSSNAIN KAZMI - Environmental Objectives & Environmental Programs• FAROOQ MALIK - Safety Objectives, Safety Programs, Analysis & Recommendations
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETYIt refers to the mechanism put in place by anorganization to protect people from risk ofinjuries / deaths in their working environment. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTHIt refers to the degree of physical, mental andsocial well being of workers in all occupations.
ENVIRONMENTOur physical surroundings and conditionsincluding Air, Water, Land, NaturalResources, Flora & Fauna and theirinteraction
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND• Killing of more than 14,000 workers in USA alone , caused emotional & economic impacts, which forced US Congress to pass Occupational Safety & Health Act of 1970.This act was designed to offer, as far as possible, every working man & woman a safe & healthy work environment.• To include as many employers & employees as possible all except federal & state government employees, self employed & domestic servants were exempted.
CREATION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH ADMINSTRATION• The Occupational Safety & Health Administration was created as primary administrative agency for the Occupational Safety & Health Act of 1970.• The Act also created two other agencies-: o National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health. o Occupational Safety & Health Review Commission.
LOCAL LAWS & REGULATIONS ONOCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH• Chapter 3 of Factory Act 1934• Hazardous Occupational Rules 1978..• At every province level, the rule have been enacted with in the mandate of Factories Act 1934.• Other Acts & Ordinances covering Occupational Safety & Health. – Mines Act 1923 – Social Security Ordinance 1923 – Shop and Establishment Ordinance 1969 – Dock labor Act 1934
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS &CERTIFICATIONS ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH• US Occupational Safety Health Act 1970 (OSHA)• British Safety Intrusions (BSI ) Occupational Health Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS 18001 & 18002)• Environment Health Safety (EHS 14001)• Social Accountability (SA 8000)• Quality Management Services (ISO 9001: 2000)
CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS.• Poor worker training.• Inability to do the job.• Lack of understanding of job.• Use of improper tools/ equipment.• Poor quality of materials
CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS (Cont)• Poor maintenance of equipment.• Poor working conditions.• Excessive/ tight Scheduling/ work standards.• Lack of adherence to Safety rules
STRATEGIC OCCUPATIONALSAFETY, HEALTH & ENVIRONMENT POLICY OF STYLE TEXTILES To provide safe, healthy and hazard free working environment to the employees, enabling them to perform to their optimum, in order to achieve the organizational desired business objectives.
Interviewee # 1• Name : Sajid Rehman• Designation : G.M Fabric Division• Experience : 10 Years ,out of which 5 years in Style Textiles.Question. Can you specify your job title & responsibilities ?Answer. I am General Manager Fabric division & am responsible for complete manufacturing of fabric, starting from knitting upto the development of finished fabric.Question. Your department is the one which requires high standards of occupational safety and health, are you satisfied with the existing standards.Answer. My department is quite safe and human friendly which is evident from the fact that no major accident has taken place in last five years. However high noise level is one problem being faced by my department, and we are taking maximum passive safety measures to conserve the hearing of the employees in our department.Question. How do you dispose off your dyeing waste?Answer. We have a highly efficient state of the art effluent treatment plant and are not adding to any pollution neither with in the premises nor to the outside society.Question. Are you satisfied with the existing first aid facilities and emergency medical evacuation procedure?Answer. The standard of first aid in the organization is fairly satisfactory, however medical evacuation procedure require some improvement in the form of addition of a ambulance and increase in number of qualified male/female nurses.
Interviewee # 2Name : Talal MahmmmadDesignation : ESH & Compliance OfficerExperience : 2 YearsQuestion. What exactly is your job title ?Answer. My job title is Environment, Safety, Health & Compliance Officer.Question. Do you think that compliance & Occupational Safety & Health are two different subjects.Answer. No infact occupational safety & health & environment issues fall with in the purview of compliance.Question. Are you satisfied with the existing standards of occupational safety, Health & environment in your organization?Answer. Well we are pretty good follower of the occupational safety health & environmental standards. That is why we qualify all the compliance audits of different international brand. As regards satisfaction, we invariably follow the practices under influence compliance. However since the involvement of top management through safety awareness committee in the subject the attitudes are changing however this is just a beginning.Question. What is this ESH Walk?Answer. I have developed a checklist which helps me in checking availability / serviceability of all the tangible and intangible things to improve the Health Safety & Environment issues, same is being checked through ESH walk on daily basis.Question. What is your channel of reporting?Answer. I am directly answerable to my GM HR & Admin and he in turns is answerable to the Directors .
Undervalues of The Objectives• Inactive• Reactive• Proactive• Predictive• Holistic
Objectives Developed in the light of Strategic Occupational Safety & Health Policy• Health Objectives• Safety Objectives• Environmental Objectives
Health Objectives• To reduce the chances of spreading of occupational diseases/ illnesses amongst the employees• To maintain an acceptable noise level in work place• To minimize the spreading of respiratory track related diseases amongst the employees
Health Programs• Screening of all employees for hepatitis ‘c’ and administration of dose-1 & 2 in phases (completion by April 2005 )• Complete Medical check up of all the employees including the testing of Blood Group & maintenance of medical cards in HR division (an annual practice)• Hiring the services of a Medical consultant on part basis till the completion of a dedicated medical inspection room
Health Programs (Contd…)• To conduct an in house training on the subject of first aid & CPR to ensure qualification of min 2% employees• To get selected employees qualified as trainer of trainers in the field of first aid & CPR, based on their performance in the basic training• Up grading existing emergency medical evacuation procedure by adding an ambulance & by enrolling 3 qualified male nurses &1 female nurse (completion by march 2005)
Health programs (Contd…)• Availability of serviceable first aid kits & valid medicines round the clock at all the first aid boxes• Well spread shift wise availability of all the qualified personnel on the subject of first aid & CPR• Regular training sessions on the subject of occupational health for all the employees at least once a quarter over & above the training imparted at time of induction• Rehabilitation Program for the employees suspected for hepatitis “C”
Interviewee # 3• Name : khalid Ali• Designation : Supervisor Garment Division• Experience : 15 YearsQuestion: Which specific department of Garment Division your are working in?Answer. I am working in Stitching Department.Question. What all health related hazards are there in your department?Answer. The biggest hazard related to health in my department is spread of respiratory track related diseases.Question. What measures are you taking to minimize the effect of these diseases?Answer. As you have seen that main cause of these diseases is the fluff flying in the environment, nothing much could be done to eliminate this. As a result we are left with the option of putting on the requisite mask to prevent the inhalation by the workersQuestion. Are your worker strictly following the use of masks?Answer. To tell you the truth the practice is not being followed religiously, we have to force them to use this.Question. What could be the reason?Answer. Since the effects of respiratory track diseases does not emerge immediately rather they are long term therefore the workers do not take the precautions religiously. There is a general belief that taking “Ghur” towards the end of the day utilizes the effects of fluff in the respiratory track therefore majority of the workers rely upon that as its suits their convenience
Environmental Objectives• To provide a pollution free work environment to the employees• To maintain a desired level of lighting, temperature & humidity in work place• To plan the disposal of hazardous waste material through an effluent process with its minimum effects to work place environment
Environmental Programs• Reduction of pollution in workplace through awareness training, nonuse of un authorized chemicals & required ventilation• Introduction with characteristics of relevant PPE, its correct use& maintaining its serviceability• Conduct of training by qualified instructors on the subject of waste management &disposal of hazardous material & its implementation
Interviewee # 4• Name Fida Hussain• Designation : Worker Knitting Department• Experience 10 yearsQuestion. What are the major environment related problems in your department?Answer. In my department there are two major problems one is flying of fluff in the environment and 2nd is the high noise level of the machines.Question. What are the recommended measures in your opinion to fight these two above mentioned hazards?Answer. Principally we should be using masks for protection from fluff and ear plugs / muffs for restoration of our hearing.Question. How religiously do you use these safety / protection devices?Answer. In fact the religiously use is restricted to the compliance visits only, as a routine the practice is not being followed.Question. What is the reason for not observing this on routine basis?Answer. One reason is that while putting on the mask you can not talk to each other easily and same way with ear plugs on it is difficult to listen to others.Question. Do you know the effects of not using these devices?Answer. Yes, I know that not putting on the mask can cause respiratory diseases and not putting on the ear plugs can damage the hearing.
Interviewee # 5• Name : Gulraiz Sharif• Designation : Worker Dyeing Department• Experience : 12 YearsQuestion. What are potential hazards which can lead to the accidents in your department?Answer. There are three major areas, i-e high temperature, high noise and handling of hazardous chemical material which can cause accidents.Question. In case of any chemical material related injury, what should be done first by your department?Answer. In case of any such like accident we immediately take the effectee for a shower under supervision a person who is qualified in first aid. After this the effectee is evacuated to the nearest hospital.Question. How do you protect yourself from the hazard of high noise?Answer. We use the ear plugs and muffs while operating in high noise area.Question. Have you ever been subjected to audiometry?Answer. I have heard this word during lecture on noise conservation, however to the best of my knowledge no one has ever been subjected to this test.Question. Do you think that the PPE provided to your department is sufficient to protect you from the occupational hazards?Answer. The first issue of the PPE is fairly alright, however its replenishment process on regular basis needs improvement.
WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL SAFETY?It is a working attitude, which onceinculcated produces a culture of safetyconsciousness, which in-turns not onlyimproves the quality but also adds to theproductivity. WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR CORPORATE SAFETY?Not the manager corporate safety but thechief executive himself.
Socio-Cultural Factors Affecting Safety Attitudes• Status Symbol• Illiteracy• Lack of General Awareness• False Ego• Social Taboos• Casual Attitude• Lack of Information Sharing• Individual Convenience
Safety Objectives• To provide a work environment with least chances of accidents to prevent occupational deaths/injuries• To identify the potential safety hazards and eliminate them before they grow to cause an accident• To introduce a holistic accident prevention plan evolved through an in depth hazard assessment process and its continual improvement
Dimensions of Occupational Safety Occupational Safety Accident Health Risk Combating WorkerPrevention Prevention Accident Rehabilitation
Safety Programs• Establishment of Safety Awareness Committee & holding its regular meetings• Attendance of training by selected managers on the subject of “Noise control & Hearing conservation” & “ Industrial Waste management” from CIWE• Conduct of in house training for the employees working in high noise area & dyeing department
Safety Programs (Contd ….)• Establishment of fire fighting committee & conduct of regular mock exercises• Making of an accident prevention plan and its execution through a holistic/ proactive strategy• Introduction of a database for reporting/ recording of all safety oriented activities• Restarting of an aggressive program on the importance ,use & right placing of safety slogans & neon signs
Safety Programs…. (Contd..)• Conduct of training for all to develop awareness on the characteristics, importance & correct use of personal protective equipment (PPE) & its strict use by all• Introduction of incentives / awards for employees contributing towards safety awareness & compliance
Cost of Safety• Loss of reputation• Medical Payments• Insurance Premium• Compensation Payments• Overtime for Replacements
Cost of Safety……..Contd.• Production Delays• Product Damage• Training of Replacements• Building & Equipment damage• Accident Investigation Costs
Cost Of Safety Vs Cost For SafetyOrganization is spending at an average Rs 2.0 m /year under the head of Cost for Safety in a holistic /proactive manner and is saving numerous millionsagainst the Cost of Safety, which is a reactivespending .Same is well substantiated by the factthat no accident leading to fatal injuries or evenhospitalization involving surgeries has taken place inlast 3 yearsThere have been two fatatilities in year 2000, one of alift operator & one of contractors masonry labor boththe accidents were thoroughly investigated &chances of recurrence have been reduced throughnecessary amendment in the SOPs
Recommendations• Establishment of a corporate occupational safety, health & environment database.• At least 2% of the income be spent to provide occupational safety ,health & environmental protection to the employees.• Meetings of safety awareness committee be held on regular basis, ensuring maximum participative attendance. Proceedings be recorded & decision taken be implemented in letter & spirit.
Recommendations…(Contd..)• Provide rights to information for the safe use of machinery & chemicals (in appropriate language) down to the lowest level.• Conduct of environment safety & health walk by ESH officer & supervisor on daily basis, with recording of observation made & their resolution on priority.• Creation of safety circles to solve the health, safety and environmental oriented problems and recognizing the work through requisite acknowledgement in cash and kind.• More stress towards Training & Education on Occupational Safety, Health & Environmental issues to all & its implementation through role models.
Recommendations… (Contd..)• Monitory incentives be introduced for the employees observing health & safety instructions, special incentive for those influencing others.• Issue of 100% personal protective equipment to all in accordance with the job requirement & its regular replenishment• Vantage sites at entrances / exits & walls of shop floors be served with slogans addressing occupational safety, health & environmental issues preferably in local language.
Recommendations…(Contd…)Power generation unit be relocated at anappropriate distance from the dormitory.Maintenance of noise level in accordance withthe average human requirement. Conduct ofannual eudiometry for all employees operatingin high noise area.Categorization of warning signs in accordancewith their severity and gravity and assigningthe requisite colors.
Recommendations ..(Contd.)• A medical inspection room be established in the factory premises without further delay, so that emergency cases can attended to, before evacuating them to the hospital.• Special medical examination be organized twice a year for the employees of garment division & dyeing department and execution of necessary job rotation on the medical recommendations.